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Marketing management-by-philip-kotler-719-slides-1234238345990514-2
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  • 1. www.bookfiesta4u.com1-1PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyCreative Assistance byCreative Assistance byD. Carter and S. KogerD. Carter and S. Koger
  • 2. Chapter 1Chapter 1Defining Marketing for theDefining Marketing for the2121stst CenturyCenturybybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-2PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 3. The future is not aheadThe future is not aheadof us. It has alreadyof us. It has alreadyhappened.happened.Kotler onMarketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-3happened.happened.Unfortunately, it isUnfortunately, it isunequally distributedunequally distributedamong companies,among companies,industries and nations.industries and nations.
  • 4. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter we will address the followingIn this chapter we will address the followingquestions:questions:What is the new economy like?What is the new economy like?What are the tasks of marketing?What are the tasks of marketing?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-4What are the tasks of marketing?What are the tasks of marketing?What are the major concepts and tools ofWhat are the major concepts and tools ofmarketing?marketing?What orientations do companies exhibit in theWhat orientations do companies exhibit in themarketplace?marketplace?How are companies and marketers responding toHow are companies and marketers responding tothe new challenges?the new challenges?
  • 5. The New EconomySubstantial increase in buying powerSubstantial increase in buying powerA greater variety of goods and servicesA greater variety of goods and servicesA greater amount of information aboutA greater amount of information aboutpractically anythingpractically anythingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-5practically anythingpractically anythingA greater ease in interacting and placingA greater ease in interacting and placingand receiving ordersand receiving ordersAn ability to compare notes on productsAn ability to compare notes on productsand servicesand services
  • 6. The New EconomyWebsites can provide companies withWebsites can provide companies withpowerful new information and salespowerful new information and saleschannels.channels.Companies can collect fuller and richerCompanies can collect fuller and richerinformation about markets, customers,information about markets, customers,www.bookfiesta4u.com1-6information about markets, customers,information about markets, customers,prospects and competitors.prospects and competitors.Companies can facilitate and speed upCompanies can facilitate and speed upcommunications among employees.communications among employees.Companies can have 2Companies can have 2--waywaycommunication with customers andcommunication with customers andprospectsprospects
  • 7. The New EconomyCompanies can send ads, coupons,Companies can send ads, coupons,samples, information to targetedsamples, information to targetedcustomers.customers.Companies can customize offerings andCompanies can customize offerings andservices to individual customers.services to individual customers.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-7services to individual customers.services to individual customers.The Internet can be used as aThe Internet can be used as acommunication channel for purchasing,communication channel for purchasing,training, and recruiting.training, and recruiting.Companies can improve logistics andCompanies can improve logistics andoperations for cost savings whileoperations for cost savings whileimproving accuracy and service quality.improving accuracy and service quality.
  • 8. The three major challenges faced byThe three major challenges faced bybusinesses today are globalization,businesses today are globalization,advances in technology, and deregulation.advances in technology, and deregulation.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-8advances in technology, and deregulation.advances in technology, and deregulation.Which of these affords the greatestWhich of these affords the greatestopportunity foropportunity for establishedestablished businesses?businesses?Which affords the greatestWhich affords the greatestopportunities foropportunities for newnewbusinesses? Why?businesses? Why?
  • 9. Marketing TaskTen rules of radical marketingTen rules of radical marketingThe CEO must own the marketing function.The CEO must own the marketing function.Make sure the marketing department startsMake sure the marketing department startssmall and flat and stays small and flat.small and flat and stays small and flat.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-9Get face to face with the people who matterGet face to face with the people who mattermostmost –– the customers.the customers.Use market research cautiously.Use market research cautiously.Hire only passionate missionaries.Hire only passionate missionaries.
  • 10. Marketing TaskLove and respect your customers.Love and respect your customers.Create a community of consumers.Create a community of consumers.Rethink the marketing mix.Rethink the marketing mix.Celebrate common sense.Celebrate common sense.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-10Be true to the brand.Be true to the brand.Three stages of marketing practiceThree stages of marketing practiceEntrepreneurial MarketingEntrepreneurial MarketingFormulated MarketingFormulated MarketingIntrepreneurial MarketingIntrepreneurial Marketing
  • 11. The Scope of MarketingMarketing: typically seen as theMarketing: typically seen as thetask of creating, promoting, andtask of creating, promoting, anddelivering goods and services todelivering goods and services toconsumers and businesses.consumers and businesses.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-11consumers and businesses.consumers and businesses.
  • 12. Table 1.1DemandStates andMarketingTasks1. Negative1. NegativedemanddemandA major part of the market dislikes theA major part of the market dislikes theproduct and may even pay a price toproduct and may even pay a price toavoid itavoid it——vaccinations, dental work,vaccinations, dental work,vasectomies, and gallbladdervasectomies, and gallbladderoperations, for instance. Employers haveoperations, for instance. Employers havea negative demand for exa negative demand for ex--convicts andconvicts andalcoholics as employees. The marketingalcoholics as employees. The marketingtask is to analyze why the markettask is to analyze why the marketdislikes the product and whether adislikes the product and whether amarketing program consisting ofmarketing program consisting ofproduct redesign, lower prices, andproduct redesign, lower prices, andmore positive promotion can changemore positive promotion can changewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-12more positive promotion can changemore positive promotion can changebeliefs and attitudes.beliefs and attitudes.2. No demand2. No demand Target consumers may be unaware of orTarget consumers may be unaware of oruninterested in the product. Farmersuninterested in the product. Farmersmay not be interested in a new farmingmay not be interested in a new farmingmethod, and college students may notmethod, and college students may notbe interested in foreignbe interested in foreign--languagelanguagecourses. The marketing task is to findcourses. The marketing task is to findways to connect the benefits of theways to connect the benefits of theproduct with people’s natural needs andproduct with people’s natural needs andinterests.interests.See text for complete table
  • 13. Can you name a category ofCan you name a category ofproducts for which your negativeproducts for which your negativefeelings have softened?feelings have softened?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-13feelings have softened?feelings have softened?What precipitatedWhat precipitatedthis change?this change?
  • 14. The Scope of MarketingPlacesPlacesPropertiesPropertiesOrganizationsOrganizationsGoodsGoodsServicesServicesExperiencesExperienceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-14OrganizationsOrganizationsInformationInformationIdeasIdeasExperiencesExperiencesEventsEventsPersonsPersons
  • 15. The DecisionsMarketers MakeConsumer MarketsConsumer MarketsBusiness MarketsBusiness MarketsGlobal MarketsGlobal Marketswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-15Global MarketsGlobal MarketsNonprofit andNonprofit andGovernmental MarketsGovernmental Markets
  • 16. Marketing Conceptsand ToolsDefining MarketingDefining MarketingMarketingMarketingMarketing managementMarketing managementwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-16Marketing managementMarketing managementCore Marketing ConceptsCore Marketing ConceptsTarget Markets andTarget Markets andSegmentationSegmentation
  • 17. Figure 1-1: A Simple Marketing Systemwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-17
  • 18. Marketing Conceptsand ToolsMarketplace,Marketplace,Marketspace,Marketspace,andandwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-18andandMetamarketMetamarket
  • 19. Marketing Conceptsand ToolsMarketers and ProspectsMarketers and ProspectsNeeds, Wants, and DemandsNeeds, Wants, and DemandsProduct, Offering, and BrandProduct, Offering, and BrandValue and SatisfactionValue and Satisfactionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-19Value and SatisfactionValue and SatisfactionCustomer value triadCustomer value triadValueValueValue = Benefits / Costs =Value = Benefits / Costs =(Functional benefits + Emotional benefits) /(Functional benefits + Emotional benefits) /(Monetary costs + Time costs + Energy costs +(Monetary costs + Time costs + Energy costs +Psychic costs)Psychic costs)
  • 20. Marketing Conceptsand ToolsExchange and TransactionsExchange and TransactionsExchangeExchangeTransactionTransactionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-20TransactionTransactionBarterBarterTransferTransferBehavioral responseBehavioral response
  • 21. Marketing Conceptsand ToolsRelationships and NetworksRelationships and NetworksRelationship marketingRelationship marketingMarketing networkMarketing networkwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-21Marketing networkMarketing networkMarketing ChannelsMarketing ChannelsSupply ChainSupply ChainCompetitionCompetition
  • 22. Marketing Conceptsand ToolsBrand competitionBrand competitionIndustry competitionIndustry competitionForm competitionForm competitionGeneric competitionGeneric competitionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-22Generic competitionGeneric competitionMarketing environmentMarketing environmentTask environmentTask environmentBroad environmentBroad environmentMarketing ProgramMarketing ProgramMarketing programMarketing programMarketing mixMarketing mix
  • 23. Company OrientationsToward the MarketplaceProduction ConceptProduction ConceptProduct conceptProduct conceptwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-23Selling ConceptSelling ConceptMarketing ConceptMarketing Concept
  • 24. Company OrientationsToward the MarketplaceTarget MarketTarget MarketCustomer NeedsCustomer Needswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-24Stated needsStated needsReal needsReal needsUnstated needsUnstated needsDelight needsDelight needsSecret needsSecret needs
  • 25. Company OrientationsToward the MarketplaceIntegrated MarketingIntegrated MarketingExternal marketingExternal marketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-25Internal marketingInternal marketing
  • 26. Company OrientationsToward the MarketplaceProfitabilityProfitabilitySales declineSales declineSlow growthSlow growthwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-26Slow growthSlow growthChanging buying patternsChanging buying patternsIncreasing competitionIncreasing competitionIncreasing marketingIncreasing marketingexpendituresexpenditures
  • 27. Company OrientationsToward the MarketplaceSocietal Marketing ConceptSocietal Marketing ConceptCauseCause--related marketingrelated marketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-27
  • 28. Can you identify the trends that haveCan you identify the trends that havemade the marketing concept, themade the marketing concept, thecustomer concept, and the societalcustomer concept, and the societalwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-28customer concept, and the societalcustomer concept, and the societalmarketing concept more attractivemarketing concept more attractivemodels for contemporarymodels for contemporarymarketing managers?marketing managers?
  • 29. How Business andMarketing are ChangingCustomersCustomersBrand manufacturersBrand manufacturerswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-29StoreStore--based retailersbased retailers
  • 30. How Business andMarketing are ChangingCompany responses and adjustmentsCompany responses and adjustmentsReengineeringReengineeringOutsourcingOutsourcingPartnerPartner--supplierssuppliersMarketMarket--centeredcenteredwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-30OutsourcingOutsourcingEE--commercecommerceBenchmarkingBenchmarkingAlliancesAlliancesMarketMarket--centeredcenteredGlobal and localGlobal and localDecentralizedDecentralized
  • 31. How Business andMarketing are ChangingMarketer ResponsesMarketer Responsesand Adjustmentsand AdjustmentsCustomer relationshipCustomer relationshipmarketingmarketingIntegrated marketingIntegrated marketingcommunicationscommunicationswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-31marketingmarketingCustomer lifetime valueCustomer lifetime valueCustomer shareCustomer shareTarget marketingTarget marketingCustomizationCustomizationCustomer databaseCustomer databasecommunicationscommunicationsChannels as partnersChannels as partnersEvery employee aEvery employee amarketermarketerModelModel--based decisionbased decisionmakingmaking
  • 32. Chapter 2Chapter 2Adapting Marketing To TheAdapting Marketing To TheNew EconomyNew Economybybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-32PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 33. The Internet willThe Internet willcreate new winnerscreate new winnersand bury theand bury theKotler onMarketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-33and bury theand bury thelaggards.laggards.
  • 34. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter, we will address theIn this chapter, we will address thefollowing questions:following questions:What are the major forces driving the NewWhat are the major forces driving the NewEconomy?Economy?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-34Economy?Economy?How are business and marketing practicesHow are business and marketing practiceschanging as a result of the New Economy?changing as a result of the New Economy?How are marketers using the Internet,How are marketers using the Internet,customer databases, and customercustomer databases, and customerrelationship management in the Newrelationship management in the NewEconomy?Economy?
  • 35. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyMajor Drivers of the New EconomyMajor Drivers of the New EconomyDigitization and ConnectivityDigitization and ConnectivityDisintermediation andDisintermediation andwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-35Disintermediation andDisintermediation andReintermediationReintermediationCustomization andCustomization andCustomerizationCustomerization
  • 36. Procter & Gamble’s Reflect.com site allows customersProcter & Gamble’s Reflect.com site allows customersto design their own beauty productsto design their own beauty productswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-36
  • 37. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyIndustry ConvergenceIndustry ConvergenceHow Business Practices are ChangingHow Business Practices are ChangingOrganize by product units to organize byOrganize by product units to organize bycustomer segmentscustomer segmentswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-37customer segmentscustomer segmentsShift focus from profitable transactions toShift focus from profitable transactions tocustomer lifetime valuecustomer lifetime valueShift focus from financial scorecard to alsoShift focus from financial scorecard to alsofocusing on the marketing scorecardfocusing on the marketing scorecardShift focus from shareholders to stakeholdersShift focus from shareholders to stakeholders
  • 38. Table 2-1: Old Economy vs. New EconomyOld EconomyOld Economy New EconomyNew EconomyOrganize by product unitsOrganize by product unitsFocus on profitable transactionsFocus on profitable transactionsLook primarily at financialLook primarily at financialscorecardscorecardFocus on shareholdersFocus on shareholdersOrganize by customer segmentsOrganize by customer segmentsFocus on customer lifetime valueFocus on customer lifetime valueLook also at marketing scorecardLook also at marketing scorecardFocus on stakeholdersFocus on stakeholdersEveryone does the marketingEveryone does the marketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-38Marketing does the marketingMarketing does the marketingBuild brands through advertisingBuild brands through advertisingFocus on customer acquisitionFocus on customer acquisitionNo customer satisfactionNo customer satisfactionmeasurementmeasurementOverpromise, underdeliverOverpromise, underdeliverEveryone does the marketingEveryone does the marketingBuild brands through behaviorBuild brands through behaviorFocus on customer retention andFocus on customer retention andgrowthgrowthMeasure customer satisfaction andMeasure customer satisfaction andretention rateretention rateUnderpromise, overdeliverUnderpromise, overdeliver
  • 39. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyEveryone does the marketingEveryone does the marketingBuild brands through performance,Build brands through performance,not just advertisingnot just advertisingCustomer retention ratherCustomer retention ratherwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-39Customer retention ratherCustomer retention ratherthan customer acquisitionthan customer acquisitionFrom none to inFrom none to in--depth customerdepth customersatisfaction measurementsatisfaction measurementFrom overFrom over--promise, underpromise, under--deliver todeliver tounderunder--promise, overpromise, over--deliverdeliverThe New HybridThe New Hybrid
  • 40. How Marketing PracticesHow Marketing Practicesare Changing: Eare Changing: E--BusinessBusinessEE--businessbusinessAdapting Marketing to theNew Economywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-40EE--businessbusinessEE--commercecommerceEE--purchasingpurchasingEE--marketingmarketingInternet Domains: B2CInternet Domains: B2C(Business to Customer)(Business to Customer)
  • 41. Customers can shop online at Calyx and Corolla orCustomers can shop online at Calyx and Corolla orask for a catalog and shop by phoneask for a catalog and shop by phonewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-41
  • 42. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyInternet Domains: B2BInternet Domains: B2B(Business to Business)(Business to Business)www.bookfiesta4u.com1-42
  • 43. Figure 2-1:The Supplier-CustomerRelationship:Traditional andNew Economywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-43New EconomyStructures
  • 44. www.transora.com: global online marketplace forwww.transora.com: global online marketplace forthe consumer packaged goods industrythe consumer packaged goods industrywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-44
  • 45. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyInternet Domains: C2CInternet Domains: C2C(Consumer to Consumer)(Consumer to Consumer)Internet Domains: C2BInternet Domains: C2Bwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-45Internet Domains: C2BInternet Domains: C2B(Customer to Business)(Customer to Business)Pure Click vs. Brick andPure Click vs. Brick andClick CompaniesClick CompaniesPurePure--click companiesclick companies
  • 46. CarPoint, leading metamediary for car buying, is a pureCarPoint, leading metamediary for car buying, is a pureclick company: It exists only on the Web.click company: It exists only on the Web.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-46
  • 47. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyBrick and Click companiesBrick and Click companieswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-47
  • 48. Which is more important forWhich is more important fordeveloping an edeveloping an e--presence: the agilitypresence: the agilityof a pure click company, or the wellof a pure click company, or the wellwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-48of a pure click company, or the wellof a pure click company, or the welldefined and readily identifiabledefined and readily identifiableresources of a traditionalresources of a traditionalbrick and mortarbrick and mortarcompany?company?
  • 49. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyHow Marketing Practices are Changing:How Marketing Practices are Changing:Setting Up Web SitesSetting Up Web SitesDesigning an Attractive WebsiteDesigning an Attractive WebsiteSeven elements of effective sitesSeven elements of effective siteswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-49Seven elements of effective sitesSeven elements of effective sitesContextContextContentContentCommunityCommunityCustomizationCustomizationCommunicationCommunicationConnectionConnectionCommerceCommerce
  • 50. Would you be willing to give up one orWould you be willing to give up one ormore of the seven elements of an effectivemore of the seven elements of an effectiveweb site in order to speed the deploymentweb site in order to speed the deploymentwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-50of a new company eof a new company e--commerce site?commerce site?What would the expected tradeWhat would the expected trade--offs beoffs bebetween an effective sitebetween an effective siteand an early weband an early webpresence?presence?
  • 51. Attracting and Keeping VisitorsAttracting and Keeping VisitorsHow can we get more prospects to know and visit our site?How can we get more prospects to know and visit our site?How can we use marketing to spread wordHow can we use marketing to spread word--ofof--mouth?mouth?How can we convert visitors into repeaters?How can we convert visitors into repeaters?How do we make our site more experiential and real?How do we make our site more experiential and real?How can we build a strong relationship with our customers?How can we build a strong relationship with our customers?How can we build a customer community?How can we build a customer community?How can we capture and exploit customer data for upHow can we capture and exploit customer data for up--sellingsellingTable 2Table 2--2:2:SettingSettingUp aUp aDotDot--comcomPresencePresencewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-51How can we capture and exploit customer data for upHow can we capture and exploit customer data for up--sellingsellingand crossand cross--selling?selling?How much should we spend on building and marketing ourHow much should we spend on building and marketing oursite?site?Advertising on the InternetAdvertising on the InternetWhat are the various ways that we can advertise on theWhat are the various ways that we can advertise on theInternet?Internet?How do we choose the right sites for placing our ads orHow do we choose the right sites for placing our ads orsponsorship?sponsorship?See text for complete table
  • 52. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyContext factorsContext factorsContent factorsContent factorswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-52Content factorsContent factorsGetting feedbackGetting feedback
  • 53. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyPlacing Ads and Promotions OnlinePlacing Ads and Promotions OnlineBanner adsBanner adsSponsorshipsSponsorshipsMicrositeMicrositewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-53MicrositeMicrositeInterstitialsInterstitialsBrowser adsBrowser adsAlliances and affiliateAlliances and affiliateprogramsprogramsPushPush
  • 54. Infogate.com “pushes” targeted content and ads to thoseInfogate.com “pushes” targeted content and ads to thosewho are interested in a product or product categorywho are interested in a product or product categorywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-54
  • 55. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyBuilding a Revenue and Profit ModelBuilding a Revenue and Profit ModelAdvertising incomeAdvertising incomeSponsorship incomeSponsorship incomeMembership andMembership andsubscriptionssubscriptionswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-55Membership andMembership andsubscriptionssubscriptionsProfile incomeProfile incomeProduct and serviceProduct and servicesalessalesTransaction commissionTransaction commissionand feesand feesMarket research/informationMarket research/informationReferral incomeReferral income
  • 56. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyHow Marketing Practices are Changing:How Marketing Practices are Changing:Customer Relationship MarketingCustomer Relationship MarketingReduce rate of customer defectionReduce rate of customer defectionIncrease longevity ofIncrease longevity ofwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-56Increase longevity ofIncrease longevity ofcustomer relationshipcustomer relationshipEnhance growth potentialEnhance growth potentialthrough crossthrough cross--selling and upselling and up--sellingsellingMake low profit customers more profitableMake low profit customers more profitableor terminate themor terminate them
  • 57. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyFocus disproportionate effortFocus disproportionate efforton high value customerson high value customerswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-57
  • 58. Table 2-3: Mass Marketing vs.One-to-One MarketingMass MarketingMass Marketing OneOne--toto--One MarketingOne MarketingAverage customerAverage customerCustomer anonymityCustomer anonymityStandard productStandard productMass productionMass productionMass distributionMass distributionIndividual customerIndividual customerCustomer profileCustomer profileCustomized marketCustomized marketofferingofferingCustomized productionCustomized productionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-58Mass distributionMass distributionMass advertisingMass advertisingMass promotionMass promotionOneOne--way messageway messageEconomies of scaleEconomies of scaleShare of marketShare of marketAll customersAll customersCustomer attractionCustomer attractionIndividualized distributionIndividualized distributionIndividualized messageIndividualized messageIndividualized incentivesIndividualized incentivesTwoTwo--way messagesway messagesEconomies of scopeEconomies of scopeShare of customerShare of customerProfitable customersProfitable customersCustomer retentionCustomer retention
  • 59. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyFour steps for OneFour steps for One--toto--One MarketingOne MarketingDon’t go after everyone,Don’t go after everyone,identify prospects.identify prospects.Define customers by their needsDefine customers by their needswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-59Define customers by their needsDefine customers by their needsand their value to the company.and their value to the company.Individual interaction with customersIndividual interaction with customersbuilds stronger relationships.builds stronger relationships.Customize messages, services, andCustomize messages, services, andproducts for each customer.products for each customer.
  • 60. Adapting Marketing to theNew EconomyCustomer Databases andCustomer Databases andDatabase MarketingDatabase MarketingCustomer mailing listCustomer mailing listwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-60Customer mailing listCustomer mailing listBusiness databaseBusiness database
  • 61. Data Warehouses and Data MiningData Warehouses and Data MiningUsing the databaseUsing the databaseTo identify prospectsTo identify prospectsTo determine target marketTo determine target marketAdapting Marketing to theNew Economywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-61To determine target marketTo determine target marketTo deepen customer loyaltyTo deepen customer loyaltyTo reactivate customerTo reactivate customerpurchasespurchasesTo avoid serious customerTo avoid serious customermistakesmistakesThe Downside of DatabaseThe Downside of DatabaseMarketingMarketing
  • 62. Chapter 3Chapter 3Building CustomerBuilding CustomerSatisfaction, Value, andSatisfaction, Value, andRetentionRetentionbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-62bybyPowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 63. It is no longerIt is no longerenough to satisfyenough to satisfycustomers. You mustcustomers. You mustKotler onMarketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-63customers. You mustcustomers. You mustdelight them.delight them.
  • 64. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter, we will address theIn this chapter, we will address thefollowing questions:following questions:What are customer value and satisfaction,What are customer value and satisfaction,and how can companies deliver them?and how can companies deliver them?What makes a highWhat makes a high--performance business?performance business?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-64What makes a highWhat makes a high--performance business?performance business?How can companies both attractHow can companies both attractand retain customers?and retain customers?How can companies improve both customerHow can companies improve both customerand company profitability?and company profitability?How can companies deliver total quality?How can companies deliver total quality?
  • 65. Defining Customer Valueand SatisfactionCustomer Perceived Value (CPV)Customer Perceived Value (CPV)Total customer valueTotal customer valuewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-65Total customer costTotal customer cost
  • 66. Figure 3-1:Determinantsof CustomerDeliveredValuewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-66Value
  • 67. Total Customer SatisfactionTotal Customer SatisfactionSatisfactionSatisfactionCustomer ExpectationsCustomer ExpectationsDefining Customer Valueand Satisfactionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-67Customer ExpectationsCustomer ExpectationsDelivering High Customer ValueDelivering High Customer ValueValue propositionValue propositionValueValue--delivery systemdelivery systemMeasuring SatisfactionMeasuring Satisfaction
  • 68. Table 3-1: Tools for Tracking and MeasuringCustomer SatisfactionComplaintComplaintandandsuggestionsuggestionsystems:systems:A customerA customer--centered organization makes it easy forcentered organization makes it easy forcustomers to register suggestions and complaints.customers to register suggestions and complaints.Some customerSome customer--centered companiescentered companies--P&G, GeneralP&G, GeneralElectric, WhirlpoolElectric, Whirlpool——establish hot lines with tollestablish hot lines with toll--freefreenumbers. Companies are also using Web sites andnumbers. Companies are also using Web sites andee--mail for quick, twomail for quick, two--way communication.way communication.Studies show that although customers are dissatisfiedStudies show that although customers are dissatisfiedwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-68CustomerCustomersatisfactionsatisfactionsurveys:surveys:Studies show that although customers are dissatisfiedStudies show that although customers are dissatisfiedwith one out of every four purchases, less than 5with one out of every four purchases, less than 5percent will complain. Most customers will buy less orpercent will complain. Most customers will buy less orswitch suppliers. Responsive companies measureswitch suppliers. Responsive companies measurecustomer satisfaction directly by conducting periodiccustomer satisfaction directly by conducting periodicsurveys. While collecting customer satisfaction data, itsurveys. While collecting customer satisfaction data, itis also useful to ask additional questions to measureis also useful to ask additional questions to measurerepurchase intention and to measure the likelihood orrepurchase intention and to measure the likelihood orwillingness to recommend the company and brand towillingness to recommend the company and brand toothers.others.See text for complete table
  • 69. Would you feel more brand loyalty for aWould you feel more brand loyalty for acompany that tried to immediately resolvecompany that tried to immediately resolvea complaint via Ea complaint via E--mail, or a company thatmail, or a company thatwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-69a complaint via Ea complaint via E--mail, or a company thatmail, or a company thathad a customer service representative callhad a customer service representative callwithin two business days towithin two business days toresolve the problem overresolve the problem overthe phone?the phone?
  • 70. Premier Dell.com is a special businessPremier Dell.com is a special business--oriented part of theoriented part of theDell Web site that allows customers to interact with Dell andDell Web site that allows customers to interact with Dell andcustomize all phases of doing business with Dell.customize all phases of doing business with Dell.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-70
  • 71. The Nature of HighPerformance BusinessHighHigh--performance businessperformance businesswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-71
  • 72. Figure 3-2: The High Performance Businesswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-72
  • 73. The Nature of HighPerformance BusinessStakeholdersStakeholdersProcessesProcessesResourcesResourceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-73Core competencyCore competencyDistinctive capabilitiesDistinctive capabilitiesOrganization and Organizational CultureOrganization and Organizational CultureOrganizationOrganizationCorporate cultureCorporate cultureScenario analysisScenario analysis
  • 74. Can you name a company that hasCan you name a company that haschanged the public’s perception ofchanged the public’s perception oftheir corporate culture? Has thistheir corporate culture? Has thiswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-74their corporate culture? Has thistheir corporate culture? Has thiseffectively rehabilitated thateffectively rehabilitated thatcompany’s image?company’s image?
  • 75. Delivering Customer Valueand SatisfactionValue ChainValue ChainValue chainValue chainwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-75
  • 76. Figure 3-3: The Generic Value Chainwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-76
  • 77. Delivering Customer Valueand SatisfactionBenchmarksBenchmarksCore Business ProcessesCore Business ProcessesThe market sensing processThe market sensing processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-77The market sensing processThe market sensing processThe new offering realization processThe new offering realization processThe customer acquisition processThe customer acquisition processThe customer relationshipThe customer relationshipmanagement processmanagement processThe fulfillment management processThe fulfillment management process
  • 78. The Value Delivery NetworkThe Value Delivery Network(Supply Chain)(Supply Chain)Delivering Customer Valueand Satisfactionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-78
  • 79. Figure 3-4:LeviStrauss’sValue-Deliverywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-79DeliveryNetwork
  • 80. Attracting and RetainingCustomersPartner relationshipPartner relationshipmanagement (PRM)management (PRM)Customer relationshipCustomer relationshipwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-80Customer relationshipCustomer relationshipmanagement (CRM)management (CRM)
  • 81. Saturn has gained a customer loyalty rateSaturn has gained a customer loyalty rateof more than 60% by fundamentallyof more than 60% by fundamentallychanging the buyerchanging the buyer--seller relationship.seller relationship.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-81changing the buyerchanging the buyer--seller relationship.seller relationship.Can you think of another company thatCan you think of another company thathas made a change of similarhas made a change of similarmagnitude? Have theymagnitude? Have theyhad similar results?had similar results?
  • 82. Attracting and RetainingCustomersAttracting CustomersAttracting CustomersComputing the Cost ofComputing the Cost ofLost CustomersLost Customerswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-82Lost CustomersLost CustomersCustomer churnCustomer churnLifetime valueLifetime value
  • 83. On the Lands’ End Web site, customers can click aOn the Lands’ End Web site, customers can click abutton to talk with a customer service representativebutton to talk with a customer service representativewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-83
  • 84. Attracting and RetainingCustomersThe Need for Customer RetentionThe Need for Customer RetentionMeasuring CustomerMeasuring CustomerLifetime Value (CLV)Lifetime Value (CLV)Customer Relationship ManagementCustomer Relationship Managementwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-84Customer Relationship ManagementCustomer Relationship Management(CRM): The Key(CRM): The KeyCustomer equityCustomer equityThree drivers of customer equityThree drivers of customer equityValue equityValue equityBrand equityBrand equityRelationship equityRelationship equity
  • 85. Figure 3-5:TheCustomer-DevelopmentProcesswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-85
  • 86. Attracting and RetainingCustomersFive levels of investment inFive levels of investment incustomer relationship buildingcustomer relationship buildingBasic marketingBasic marketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-86Basic marketingBasic marketingReactive marketingReactive marketingAccountable marketingAccountable marketingProactive marketingProactive marketingPartnership marketingPartnership marketing
  • 87. Figure 3-6: Levels of Relationship Marketingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-87
  • 88. Attracting and RetainingCustomersForming Strong Customer Bonds:Forming Strong Customer Bonds:The BasicsThe BasicsCrossCross--departmental participationdepartmental participationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-88CrossCross--departmental participationdepartmental participationIntegrate the Voice of the CustomerIntegrate the Voice of the Customerinto all business decisionsinto all business decisionsCreate superior offering for theCreate superior offering for thetarget markettarget market
  • 89. Organize and make accessible aOrganize and make accessible adatabase of customer informationdatabase of customer informationMake it easy for customers toMake it easy for customers toAttracting and RetainingCustomerswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-89Make it easy for customers toMake it easy for customers toreach the appropriate personnelreach the appropriate personnelReward outstanding employeesReward outstanding employeesAdding Financial BenefitsAdding Financial BenefitsFrequency programs (FPs)Frequency programs (FPs)
  • 90. The H.O.G. Web site presents the benefits of joining.The H.O.G. Web site presents the benefits of joining.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-90
  • 91. Attracting and RetainingCustomersAdding Social BenefitsAdding Social Benefitswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-91
  • 92. Table 3-2:Social ActionsAffectingBuyer-SellerRelationshipsGood ThingsGood Things Bad ThingsBad ThingsInitiate positive phone callsInitiate positive phone callsMake recommendationsMake recommendationsCandor in languageCandor in languageUse phoneUse phoneShow appreciationShow appreciationMake service suggestionsMake service suggestionsUse “we” problemUse “we” problem--solvingsolvinglanguagelanguageMake only callbacksMake only callbacksMake justificationsMake justificationsAccommodative languageAccommodative languageUse correspondenceUse correspondenceWait for misunderstandingsWait for misunderstandingsWait for service requestsWait for service requestsUse “oweUse “owe--us” legal languageus” legal languageOnly respond to problemsOnly respond to problemswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-92languagelanguageGet to problemsGet to problemsUse jargon or shorthandUse jargon or shorthandPersonality problems airedPersonality problems airedTalk of “our future together”Talk of “our future together”Routinize responsesRoutinize responsesAccept responsibilityAccept responsibilityPlan the futurePlan the futureOnly respond to problemsOnly respond to problemsUse longUse long--windedwindedcommunicationscommunicationsPersonality problems hiddenPersonality problems hiddenTalk about making good onTalk about making good onthe pastthe pastFire drill and emergencyFire drill and emergencyresponsivenessresponsivenessShift blameShift blameRehash the pastRehash the past
  • 93. Attracting and RetainingCustomersAdding Structural TiesAdding Structural TiesCreate longCreate long--term contractsterm contractsCharge lower price to highCharge lower price to highwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-93Charge lower price to highCharge lower price to highvolume customersvolume customersTurn product intoTurn product intolonglong--term serviceterm service
  • 94. Customer Profitability,Company Profitability, andTotal Quality ManagementMeasuring ProfitabilityMeasuring Profitabilitywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-94Profitable customerProfitable customer
  • 95. Figure 3-7: Customer-Product Profitability Analysiswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-95
  • 96. Figure 3-8: Allocating marketing investmentaccording to customer valuewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-96
  • 97. Customer Profitability,Company Profitability, andTotal Quality ManagementIncreasing Company ProfitabilityIncreasing Company ProfitabilityCompetitive advantageCompetitive advantagewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-97Competitive advantageCompetitive advantageImplementing TQMImplementing TQMTotal Quality ManagementTotal Quality ManagementQualityQuality
  • 98. Chapter 4Chapter 4Winning Markets ThroughWinning Markets ThroughMarketMarket--Oriented StrategicOriented StrategicPlanningPlanningbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-98bybyPowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 99. Kotler onMarketingIt is more importantIt is more importantto do what isto do what isstrategically rightstrategically rightwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-99strategically rightstrategically rightthan what isthan what isimmediatelyimmediatelyprofitable.profitable.
  • 100. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter, we examine theIn this chapter, we examine thefollowing questions:following questions:How is strategic planning carried out atHow is strategic planning carried out atthe corporate and division levels?the corporate and division levels?How is planning carried out at theHow is planning carried out at thewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-100How is planning carried out at theHow is planning carried out at thebusiness unit level?business unit level?What are the major steps in theWhat are the major steps in themarketing process?marketing process?How is planning carried out at theHow is planning carried out at theproduct level?product level?What does a marketing plan include?What does a marketing plan include?
  • 101. Strategic Planning: Three Key Areasand Four Organization LevelsStrategic marketing planStrategic marketing planTacticalTactical marketing planmarketing planMarketing planMarketing planwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-101
  • 102. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningAll corporate headquarters undertakeAll corporate headquarters undertakefour planning activitiesfour planning activitiesDefining the Corporate MissionDefining the Corporate Missionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-102Defining the Corporate MissionDefining the Corporate MissionEstablishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs)Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs)Assigning resources to each SBUAssigning resources to each SBUPlanning new businesses, downsizing, orPlanning new businesses, downsizing, orterminating older businessesterminating older businesses
  • 103. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningDefining the Corporate MissionDefining the Corporate MissionMission statements define which competitiveMission statements define which competitivescopes the company will operate inscopes the company will operate inwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-103Industry scopeIndustry scopeProducts and applications scopeProducts and applications scopeCompetence scopeCompetence scopeMarketMarket--segment scopesegment scopeVertical scopeVertical scopeGeographical scopeGeographical scope
  • 104. Can you name a company that hasCan you name a company that hasrecently changed its product scoperecently changed its product scopeor market segment scope in a veryor market segment scope in a verywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-104or market segment scope in a veryor market segment scope in a verypublic way? Was this an expansionpublic way? Was this an expansionor contraction of scope?or contraction of scope?
  • 105. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningEstablishing Strategic Business UnitsEstablishing Strategic Business Units(SBUs)(SBUs)www.bookfiesta4u.com1-105
  • 106. Table 4.1: Product-Oriented versus Market-OrientedDefinitions of a BusinessCompanyCompany Product DefinitionProduct Definition Market DefinitionMarket DefinitionMissouriMissouri--PacificPacificRailroadRailroadWe run a railroadWe run a railroad We are a peopleWe are a people--andand--goods movergoods moverXeroxXerox We make copyingWe make copyingequipmentequipmentWe help improve officeWe help improve officeproductivityproductivityStandard OilStandard Oil We sell gasolineWe sell gasoline We supply energyWe supply energywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-106Columbia PicturesColumbia Pictures We make moviesWe make movies We market entertainmentWe market entertainmentEncyclopaediaEncyclopaedia We sell encyclopediasWe sell encyclopedias We distribute InformationWe distribute InformationCarrierCarrier We make airWe make airconditioners andconditioners andfurnacesfurnacesWe provide climateWe provide climatecontrol in the homecontrol in the home
  • 107. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningThree characteristics of SBUsThree characteristics of SBUsSingle business or collection of relatedSingle business or collection of relatedbusinesses that can be planned for separatelybusinesses that can be planned for separatelywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-107businesses that can be planned for separatelybusinesses that can be planned for separatelyHas its own set of competitorsHas its own set of competitorsHas a manager who is responsible forHas a manager who is responsible forstrategic planning and profitstrategic planning and profit
  • 108. The GrowthThe Growth--Share MatrixShare MatrixRelative market shareRelative market shareFour CellsFour CellsQuestion MarksQuestion MarksStarsStarsCash CowsCash Cowswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-108Cash CowsCash CowsDogsDogsSBU StrategiesSBU StrategiesSBU LifecycleSBU Lifecycle
  • 109. Can you give an example of a “Star”Can you give an example of a “Star”that skipped “Cash Cow”, and wentthat skipped “Cash Cow”, and wentstraight to “Dog” status?straight to “Dog” status?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-109straight to “Dog” status?straight to “Dog” status?
  • 110. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningThe General Electric ModelThe General Electric Modelwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-110
  • 111. Table 4-2: Factors underlying Market Attractiveness and CompetitivePosition in GE Multifactor Portfolio Model: Hydraulic-Pumps MarketMarketMarketAttractivenessAttractivenessOverall market sizeOverall market sizeAnnual market growth rateAnnual market growth rateHistorical profit marginHistorical profit marginCompetitive intensityCompetitive intensityTechnological requirementsTechnological requirementsInflationary vulnerabilityInflationary vulnerabilityEnergy requirementsEnergy requirementsEnvironmental impactEnvironmental impactWeightWeight0.200.200.200.200.150.150.150.150.150.150.050.050.050.050.050.05Rating =Rating =(1(1--5)5)4455442244332233ValueValue0.800.801.1.0.600.600.300.300.600.600.150.150.100.100.150.15www.bookfiesta4u.com1-111Environmental impactEnvironmental impactSocialSocial--politicalpolitical--legallegal0.050.05Must beMust beacceptableacceptable1.01.033 0.150.153.703.70BusinessBusinessStrengthStrengthMarket shareMarket shareShare growthShare growthProduct qualityProduct qualityBrand reputationBrand reputationDistribution networkDistribution network0.100.100.150.150.100.100.100.100.050.0544224455440.400.400.300.300.400.400.500.500.200.20See text for complete table
  • 112. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningCritique of Portfolio ModelsCritique of Portfolio ModelsPlanning New Businesses,Planning New Businesses,www.bookfiesta4u.com1-112Downsizing Older BusinessesDownsizing Older Businesses
  • 113. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningIntensive GrowthIntensive Growthwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-113
  • 114. Starbucks’ home page: Customers can request aStarbucks’ home page: Customers can request acatalog of Starbucks products, subscribe to acatalog of Starbucks products, subscribe to anewsletter, and shop onlinenewsletter, and shop onlinewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-114
  • 115. Corporate and DivisionStrategic PlanningIntegrative GrowthIntegrative GrowthDiversification GrowthDiversification Growthwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-115Downsizing Older BusinessesDownsizing Older Businesses
  • 116. Give an example of a marketGive an example of a marketsegment where integrative growthsegment where integrative growthwould be preferable to growthwould be preferable to growthwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-116would be preferable to growthwould be preferable to growththrough diversification. Explainthrough diversification. Explainwhy one approach is betterwhy one approach is betterthan the other.than the other.
  • 117. Business UnitStrategic PlanningBusiness MissionBusiness MissionSWOT AnalysisSWOT AnalysisExternal Environment AnalysisExternal Environment Analysiswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-117External Environment AnalysisExternal Environment Analysis(Opportunity and Threat Analysis)(Opportunity and Threat Analysis)Marketing OpportunityMarketing OpportunityBuying opportunity more convenient orBuying opportunity more convenient orefficientefficientMeet the need for more information and adviceMeet the need for more information and adviceCustomize an offering that was previously onlyCustomize an offering that was previously onlyavailable in standard formavailable in standard form
  • 118. Give some examples of companiesGive some examples of companiesthat have grown to dominate theirthat have grown to dominate theirmarket segment by using technologymarket segment by using technologywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-118market segment by using technologymarket segment by using technologyto make buying opportunities moreto make buying opportunities moreconvenient and efficient.convenient and efficient.
  • 119. Business UnitStrategic PlanningMarketing Opportunity Analysis (MOA)Marketing Opportunity Analysis (MOA)Can the benefits be articulated to a targetCan the benefits be articulated to a targetmarket?market?Can the target market be reached with costCan the target market be reached with cost--www.bookfiesta4u.com1-119Can the target market be reached with costCan the target market be reached with cost--effective media and trade channels?effective media and trade channels?Does the company have the critical capabilitiesDoes the company have the critical capabilitiesto deliver the customer benefits?to deliver the customer benefits?Can the company deliver these benefits betterCan the company deliver these benefits betterthan any actual or potential competitors?than any actual or potential competitors?Will the rate of return meet the requiredWill the rate of return meet the requiredthreshold of investment?threshold of investment?
  • 120. Figure 4-7: Opportunity and Threat Matriceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-120
  • 121. Business UnitStrategic PlanningInternal Environmental AnalysisInternal Environmental Analysis(Strength/Weakness Analysis)(Strength/Weakness Analysis)Goal FormationGoal Formationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-121Goal FormationGoal FormationStrategicStrategicFormulationFormulationStrategyStrategy
  • 122. Business UnitStrategic PlanningPorter’s Generic StrategiesPorter’s Generic StrategiesOverall cost leadershipOverall cost leadershipwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-122DifferentiationDifferentiationFocusFocus
  • 123. Travelocity’s Web site helps the consumer plan theTravelocity’s Web site helps the consumer plan thewhole vacationwhole vacation –– flights, lodging, and car rental.comflights, lodging, and car rental.comwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-123
  • 124. Operational Effectiveness and StrategyOperational Effectiveness and StrategyStrategic groupStrategic groupBusiness UnitStrategic Planningwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-124Strategic alliancesStrategic alliances
  • 125. Business UnitStrategic PlanningMarketing AlliancesMarketing AlliancesProduct or service alliancesProduct or service alliancesPromotional alliancesPromotional alliancesLogistical alliancesLogistical allianceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-125Logistical alliancesLogistical alliancesPricing collaborationsPricing collaborationsPartner RelationshipPartner RelationshipManagement, PRMManagement, PRMProgram Formulation andProgram Formulation andImplementationImplementation
  • 126. Business UnitStrategic PlanningFeedback and ControlFeedback and Controlwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-126
  • 127. The Marketing ProcessSteps in the Planning ProcessSteps in the Planning ProcessThe marketing processThe marketing processAnalyzing Market OpportunitiesAnalyzing Market OpportunitiesDeveloping Marketing StrategiesDeveloping Marketing Strategieswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-127Planning Marketing ProgramsPlanning Marketing ProgramsManaging the Marketing EffortManaging the Marketing EffortAnnualAnnual--plan controlplan controlProfitability controlProfitability controlStrategic controlStrategic control
  • 128. Figure 4-10:FactorsInfluencingCompanyMarketingStrategywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-128Strategy
  • 129. Product Planning: The Nature andContents of a Marketing PlanContents of the Marketing PlanContents of the Marketing PlanExecutive SummaryExecutive SummaryCurrent Marketing SituationCurrent Marketing SituationOpportunity and issue analysisOpportunity and issue analysiswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-129Opportunity and issue analysisOpportunity and issue analysisObjectivesObjectivesMarketing strategyMarketing strategyAction programsAction programsFinancial projectionsFinancial projectionsImplementation controlsImplementation controls
  • 130. Sample Marketing Plan: Sonic PersonalSample Marketing Plan: Sonic PersonalDigital AssistantDigital AssistantCurrent Marketing SituationCurrent Marketing SituationProduct Planning: The Nature andContents of a Marketing Planwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-130Current Marketing SituationCurrent Marketing SituationOpportunity and Issue AnalysisOpportunity and Issue AnalysisObjectivesObjectivesAction ProgramsAction ProgramsFinancial ProjectionsFinancial Projections
  • 131. Implementation ControlsImplementation ControlsMarketing StrategyMarketing StrategyPositioningPositioningProduct Planning: The Nature andContents of a Marketing Planwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-131PositioningPositioningProduct ManagementProduct ManagementPricingPricingDistributionDistributionMarketing CommunicationsMarketing CommunicationsMarketing ResearchMarketing Research
  • 132. Chapter 5Chapter 5Gathering Information andGathering Information andMeasuring Market DemandMeasuring Market Demandbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-132PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 133. Kotler onMarketingMarketing isMarketing isbecoming a battlebecoming a battlewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-133becoming a battlebecoming a battlebased more onbased more oninformation thaninformation thanon sales power.on sales power.
  • 134. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter, we focus on the followingIn this chapter, we focus on the followingquestions:questions:What are the components of a modernWhat are the components of a modernmarketing information system?marketing information system?What constitutes good marketing research?What constitutes good marketing research?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-134What constitutes good marketing research?What constitutes good marketing research?How can marketing decision support systemsHow can marketing decision support systemshelp marketing managers make betterhelp marketing managers make betterdecisions?decisions?How can demand be more accuratelyHow can demand be more accuratelymeasured and forecasted?measured and forecasted?
  • 135. Marketing Information System (MIS)Marketing Information System (MIS)10 useful questions for determining the10 useful questions for determining theinformation needs of marketinginformation needs of marketingThe Components of a ModernMarketing Information Systemwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-135information needs of marketinginformation needs of marketingmanagers.managers.What decisions do you regularly make?What decisions do you regularly make?What information do you need to make theseWhat information do you need to make thesedecisions?decisions?What information do you regularly get?What information do you regularly get?What special studies do you periodically request?What special studies do you periodically request?
  • 136. The Components of a ModernMarketing Information SystemWhat information would you want that you are notWhat information would you want that you are notgetting now?getting now?What information would you want daily? Weekly?What information would you want daily? Weekly?Monthly? Yearly?Monthly? Yearly?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-136Monthly? Yearly?Monthly? Yearly?What magazines and trade reports would you like toWhat magazines and trade reports would you like tosee on a regular basis?see on a regular basis?What topics would you like to be kept informed of?What topics would you like to be kept informed of?What data analysis programs would you want?What data analysis programs would you want?What are the four most helpful improvements thatWhat are the four most helpful improvements thatcould be made in the present marketing informationcould be made in the present marketing informationsystem?system?
  • 137. Internal Record SystemsThe OrderThe Order--toto--Payment CyclePayment CycleSales Information SystemsSales Information Systemswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-137Sales Information SystemsSales Information SystemsDatabases, Data WarehousesDatabases, Data WarehousesAnd DataAnd Data--MiningMining
  • 138. Can you name a company that usesCan you name a company that usestargeted mailings to promote newtargeted mailings to promote newproducts, or regional offerings?products, or regional offerings?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-138products, or regional offerings?products, or regional offerings?
  • 139. The MarketingIntelligence SystemA Marketing Intelligence SystemA Marketing Intelligence Systemis a set of procedures and sourcesis a set of procedures and sourcesused by managers to obtainused by managers to obtainwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-139used by managers to obtainused by managers to obtaineveryday information abouteveryday information aboutdevelopments in the marketingdevelopments in the marketingenvironment.environment.
  • 140. What are some of the potentialWhat are some of the potentialhazards a company might face byhazards a company might face byrelying too heavily on distributors,relying too heavily on distributors,www.bookfiesta4u.com1-140relying too heavily on distributors,relying too heavily on distributors,retailers, or otherretailers, or otherintermediaries forintermediaries formarket intelligence?market intelligence?
  • 141. The Marriott Vacation Club International Web siteThe Marriott Vacation Club International Web sitegives interested customers the opportunity to sellgives interested customers the opportunity to sellthemselves on the Marriott offeringsthemselves on the Marriott offeringswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-141
  • 142. CEOExpress.com is a portal to informationCEOExpress.com is a portal to information––a usera userclicks on a listing and is then connected to that siteclicks on a listing and is then connected to that sitewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-142
  • 143. Table 5-1: Secondary-Data SourcesSecondarySecondary--Data SourcesData SourcesA.A. Internal SourcesInternal SourcesCompany profitCompany profit--loss statements, balanceloss statements, balancesheets, sales figures, salessheets, sales figures, sales--call reports,call reports,invoices, inventory records, and priorinvoices, inventory records, and priorresearch reports.research reports.B.B. Government PublicationsGovernment Publications•• Statistical Abstract of the United StatesStatistical Abstract of the United Stateswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-143•• Statistical Abstract of the United StatesStatistical Abstract of the United States•• County and City Data BookCounty and City Data Book•• Industrial OutlookIndustrial Outlook•• Marketing Information GuideMarketing Information GuideC.C. Periodicals and BooksPeriodicals and Books•• Business Periodicals IndexBusiness Periodicals Index•• Standard and Poor’s IndustryStandard and Poor’s IndustrySee text for complete table
  • 144. Marketing Research SystemMarketing ResearchMarketing ResearchSuppliers of Marketing ResearchSuppliers of Marketing ResearchEngaging students or professors toEngaging students or professors todesign and carry out projectsdesign and carry out projectsUsing the InternetUsing the Internetwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-144Using the InternetUsing the InternetChecking out rivalsChecking out rivalsSyndicatedSyndicated--service research firmsservice research firmsCustom marketing research firmsCustom marketing research firmsSpecialtySpecialty--line marketing researchline marketing researchfirmsfirms
  • 145. Figure 5-1:The MarketingResearchProcesswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-145
  • 146. Marketing Research SystemThe Marketing Research ProcessThe Marketing Research ProcessStep 1: Define the Problem, theStep 1: Define the Problem, theDecision Alternatives, and theDecision Alternatives, and theResearch ObjectivesResearch Objectiveswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-146Research ObjectivesResearch ObjectivesStep 2: Develop theStep 2: Develop theResearch PlanResearch PlanData SourcesData SourcesResearch ApproachesResearch ApproachesObservational researchObservational researchFocus group researchFocus group research
  • 147. Marketing Research SystemSurvey researchBehavioral dataExperimental researchResearch InstrumentsResearch Instrumentswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-147Research InstrumentsResearch InstrumentsQuestionnairesQuestionnairesPsychological toolsPsychological toolsMechanical devicesMechanical devicesQuantitative measuresQuantitative measures
  • 148. Table 5-2: Types of QuestionsChildren onlyChildren onlyNo oneNo oneWith whom are you traveling on this flight?With whom are you traveling on this flight?A question with three or more answers.A question with three or more answers.MultipleMultipleChoiceChoiceIn arranging this trip, did you personally phone American?In arranging this trip, did you personally phone American?Yes NoYes NoA question with two possible answers.A question with two possible answers.DichotomousDichotomousExampleExampleDescriptionDescriptionNameNameA. ClosedA. Closed--end Questionsend Questionswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-148See text for complete table1_____ 2 _____ 3_____ 4_____ 5_____1_____ 2 _____ 3_____ 4_____ 5_____Small airlines generally give better service than large ones.Small airlines generally give better service than large ones.Strongly Disagree Neither agree Agree StronglyStrongly Disagree Neither agree Agree Stronglydisagree nor disagree agreedisagree nor disagree agreeA statement with which the respondentA statement with which the respondentshows the amount of agreement/shows the amount of agreement/disagreement.disagreement.Likert scaleLikert scaleAn organized tour groupAn organized tour groupSpouse andSpouse andchildrenchildrenBusiness associates/friends/relativesBusiness associates/friends/relativesSpouseSpouse
  • 149. Marketing Research SystemSampling PlanSampling unitSample sizewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-149Sampling procedure
  • 150. www.wansink.com is a consumer psychologyWeb site set up by Dr. Brian Wansink of theUniversity of Illinoiswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-150
  • 151. A.A.Probability SampleProbability SampleSimple random sampleSimple random sample Every member of the population has anEvery member of the population has anequal chance of selectionequal chance of selectionStratified randomStratified randomsamplesampleThe population is divided into mutuallyThe population is divided into mutuallyexclusive groups (such as age groups),exclusive groups (such as age groups),and random samples are drawn fromand random samples are drawn fromTable 5-3: Probability and Nonprobability Sampleswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-151and random samples are drawn fromand random samples are drawn fromeach groupeach groupCluster (area) sampleCluster (area) sample The population is divided into mutuallyThe population is divided into mutuallyexclusive groups (such as city blocks),exclusive groups (such as city blocks),and the researcher draws a sample ofand the researcher draws a sample ofthe groups to interviewthe groups to interviewContinued on next slide . . .
  • 152. B.B.NonprobabilityNonprobabilitySampleSampleConvenience sampleConvenience sample The researcher selects the mostThe researcher selects the mostaccessible population membersaccessible population membersJudgment sampleJudgment sample The researcher selects populationThe researcher selects populationmembers who are good prospects formembers who are good prospects forTable 5-3: Probability and Nonprobability Samples(Continued)www.bookfiesta4u.com1-152members who are good prospects formembers who are good prospects foraccurate informationaccurate informationQuota sampleQuota sample The researcher finds and interviews aThe researcher finds and interviews aprescribed number of people in each ofprescribed number of people in each ofseveral categoriesseveral categories
  • 153. Marketing Research SystemContact MethodsMail questionnairePersonal interviewingArranged interviewsIntercept interviewswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-153Intercept interviewsOnline methodsClick-streamCookiesAutomatedtelephone surveys
  • 154. Marketing Research SystemStep 3: Collect theInformationStep 4: Analyze theInformationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-154InformationStep 5: Present theFindingsStep 6: Make theDecision
  • 155. Table 5-4: The Seven Characteristics of GoodMarketing Research1. Scientific1. ScientificmethodmethodEffective marketing research uses the principlesEffective marketing research uses the principlesof the scientific method: careful observation,of the scientific method: careful observation,formulation of hypotheses, prediction, and testing.formulation of hypotheses, prediction, and testing.2. Research2. ResearchcreativitycreativityAt its best, marketing research developsAt its best, marketing research developsinnovative ways to solve a problem: a clothinginnovative ways to solve a problem: a clothingcompany catering to teenagers gave severalcompany catering to teenagers gave severalwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-155company catering to teenagers gave severalcompany catering to teenagers gave severalyoung men video cameras, then used the videosyoung men video cameras, then used the videosfor focus groups held in restaurants and otherfor focus groups held in restaurants and otherplaces teens frequent.places teens frequent.3. Multiple3. MultiplemethodsmethodsMarketing researchers shy away from overrelianceMarketing researchers shy away from overrelianceon any one method. They also recognize the valueon any one method. They also recognize the valueof using two or three methods to increaseof using two or three methods to increaseconfidence in the results.confidence in the results.See text for complete table
  • 156. Marketing Research SystemOvercoming Barriers to the Use ofOvercoming Barriers to the Use ofMarketing ResearchMarketing ResearchA narrow conception of the researchA narrow conception of the researchwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-156Uneven caliber of researchersUneven caliber of researchersPoor framing of the problemPoor framing of the problemLate and occasionally erroneous findingsLate and occasionally erroneous findingsPersonality and presentational differencesPersonality and presentational differences
  • 157. Marketing Decision SupportSystemMarketing Decision SupportMarketing Decision SupportSystem (MDSS)System (MDSS)Marketing and salessoftware programswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-157software programsBRANDAIDCALLPLANDETAILERGEOLINEMEDIACPROMOTERADCADCONVERSTORY
  • 158. Table 5-5: Quantitative Tools Used in Marketing DecisionSupport SystemsStatistical ToolsStatistical Tools1. Multiple1. Multipleregression:regression:A statistical technique for estimating a “best fitting”A statistical technique for estimating a “best fitting”equation showing how the value of a dependent variableequation showing how the value of a dependent variablevaries with changing values in a number of independentvaries with changing values in a number of independentvariables.variables. ExampleExample: A company can estimate how unit: A company can estimate how unitsales are influenced by changes in the level of companysales are influenced by changes in the level of companyadvertising expenditures, sales force size, and price.advertising expenditures, sales force size, and price.2. Discriminant2. Discriminantanalysis:analysis:A statistical technique for classifying an object orA statistical technique for classifying an object orpersons into two or more categories.persons into two or more categories. ExampleExample: A large: A largewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-158analysis:analysis: persons into two or more categories.persons into two or more categories. ExampleExample: A large: A largeretail chain store can determine the variables thatretail chain store can determine the variables thatdiscriminate between successful and unsuccessful storediscriminate between successful and unsuccessful storelocations.locations.3. Factor3. Factoranalysis:analysis:A statistical technique used to determine the fewA statistical technique used to determine the fewunderlying dimensions of a larger set of intercorrelatedunderlying dimensions of a larger set of intercorrelatedvariables.variables. ExampleExample: A broadcast network can reduce a: A broadcast network can reduce alarge set of TV programs down to a small set of basiclarge set of TV programs down to a small set of basicprogram types.program types.See text for complete table
  • 159. Forecasting andDemand MeasurementThe Measures of Market DemandThe Measures of Market DemandFigure 5-3: Ninetywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-159Figure 5-3: NinetyTypes of DemandMeasurement(6X5X3)
  • 160. Which Market toMeasure?MarketPotential marketAvailable marketForecasting andDemand Measurementwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-160Available marketTarget market(severed market)Penetrated marketA Vocabulary for Demand MeasurementMarket DemandMarket shareMarket penetration indexShare penetration index
  • 161. Figure 5-4: Market Demand FunctionsForecasting andDemand Measurementwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-161
  • 162. Can you name a market segmentCan you name a market segmentwith a low penetration index? Awith a low penetration index? Ahigh penetration index? Can youhigh penetration index? Can youwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-162high penetration index? Can youhigh penetration index? Can youthink of a market where the highthink of a market where the highpenetration index might be apenetration index might be amisleading indicator?misleading indicator?
  • 163. Forecasting and DemandMeasurementMarket ForecastMarket ForecastMarket PotentialMarket PotentialProduct penetrationProduct penetrationpercentagepercentagewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-163percentagepercentageCompany DemandCompany DemandCompany SalesCompany SalesForecastForecastSales quotaSales quotaSales budgetSales budgetCompany Sales PotentialCompany Sales Potential
  • 164. Estimating Current demandEstimating Current demandTotal Market PotentialTotal Market PotentialArea Market PotentialArea Market PotentialForecasting and DemandMeasurementwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-164Area Market PotentialArea Market PotentialMarketMarket--Buildup MethodBuildup Method
  • 165. Table 5-6: Market-Buildup Method Using SIC CodesSICSIC(a)(a)AnnualAnnualSales inSales inMillionsMillionsof $of $(b)(b)Number ofNumber ofEstablishmentsEstablishments(c)(c)PotentialPotentialNumberNumberof Lathe Salesof Lathe SalesPer $1 MillionPer $1 MillionCustomer SalesCustomer SalesMarketMarketPotentialPotential(a x b x c)(a x b x c)www.bookfiesta4u.com1-165SICSIC of $of $ EstablishmentsEstablishments Customer SalesCustomer Sales (a x b x c)(a x b x c)2511251111 66 1010 606055 22 1010 10010025212521 11 33 55 151555 11 55 25253030 200200
  • 166. Forecasting and DemandMeasurementMultiple-Factor IndexMethodwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-166Brand developmentBrand developmentindex (BDI)index (BDI)
  • 167. Table 5-7: Calculating the BrandDevelopment Index (BDI)(a)(a)Percent ofPercent ofU.S. BrandU.S. Brand(b)(b)Percent ofPercent ofU.S. CategoryU.S. Category BDIBDITerritoryTerritory SalesSales SalesSales (a(a ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷ b) x 100b) x 100SeattleSeattle 3.093.09 2.712.71 114114www.bookfiesta4u.com1-167PortlandPortland 6.746.74 10.4110.41 6565BostonBoston 3.493.49 3.853.85 9191ToledoToledo .97.97 .81.81 120120ChicagoChicago 1.131.13 .81.81 140140BaltimoreBaltimore 3.123.12 3.003.00 104104
  • 168. Forecasting and DemandMeasurementIndustry Sales and Market SharesEstimating Future DemandSurvey of Buyers’ Intentionswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-168Survey of Buyers’ IntentionsForecastingPurchase probability scale
  • 169. Forecasting and DemandMeasurementComposite of Sales Force OpinionsExpert OpinionGroup discussion methodPooling of individual estimateswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-169Pooling of individual estimatesPast-Sales AnalysisTime-series analysisExponential smoothingStatistical demand analysisEconometric analysisMarket-Test Method
  • 170. Chapter 6Chapter 6Scanning the MarketingScanning the MarketingEnvironmentEnvironmentbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-170PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 171. Kotler onMarketingToday youToday youhave to runhave to runfaster to stayfaster to staywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-171faster to stayfaster to stayin place.in place.
  • 172. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter, we focus on twoIn this chapter, we focus on twoquestions:questions:What are the key methods for tracking andWhat are the key methods for tracking andwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-172What are the key methods for tracking andWhat are the key methods for tracking andidentifying opportunities in theidentifying opportunities in themacroenvironment?macroenvironment?What are the key demographic, economic,What are the key demographic, economic,natural, technological, political, and culturalnatural, technological, political, and culturaldevelopments?developments?
  • 173. Analyzing Needs and Trends inthe MacroenvironmentTrendTrendFadFadMegatrendsMegatrendswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-173MegatrendsMegatrends
  • 174. Given the definitions for fads,Given the definitions for fads,trends, and megatrends presented intrends, and megatrends presented inthe text, how would you definethe text, how would you define youryourwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-174the text, how would you definethe text, how would you define youryouronline activities? Can you identifyonline activities? Can you identifyan online trend that is likelyan online trend that is likelyto grow into a megatrend?to grow into a megatrend?
  • 175. The substantial speedup of internationalThe substantial speedup of internationaltransportation, communication, and financialtransportation, communication, and financialtransactions, leading to the rapid growth of world tradetransactions, leading to the rapid growth of world tradeand investment, especially tripolar trade (Northand investment, especially tripolar trade (NorthAmerica, Western Europe, Far East)America, Western Europe, Far East)Identifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-175America, Western Europe, Far East)America, Western Europe, Far East)The movement of manufacturing capacity and skills toThe movement of manufacturing capacity and skills tolower cost countries.lower cost countries.The rising economic power of several Asian countriesThe rising economic power of several Asian countriesin world markets.in world markets.The rise of trade blocks such as the European UnionThe rise of trade blocks such as the European Unionand NAFTA signatories.and NAFTA signatories.
  • 176. The severe debt problems of a number of countries,The severe debt problems of a number of countries,along with the increasing fragility of the internationalalong with the increasing fragility of the internationalfinancial system.financial system.The increasing use of barter and countertrade toThe increasing use of barter and countertrade tosupport international transactions.support international transactions.Identifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-176support international transactions.support international transactions.The move toward market economies in formerlyThe move toward market economies in formerlysocialist countries along with rapid privatization ofsocialist countries along with rapid privatization ofpublicly owned companies.publicly owned companies.The rapid dissemination of global lifestyles.The rapid dissemination of global lifestyles.The gradual opening of major new markets, namelyThe gradual opening of major new markets, namelyChina, India, eastern Europe, the Arab countries, andChina, India, eastern Europe, the Arab countries, andLatin America.Latin America.
  • 177. The increasing tendency of multinationals to transcendThe increasing tendency of multinationals to transcendtheir locational and national characteristics andtheir locational and national characteristics andbecome transnational firms.become transnational firms.The increasing number of crossThe increasing number of cross--border corporateborder corporatestrategic alliancesstrategic alliances––for example, MCI and Britishfor example, MCI and BritishIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-177strategic alliancesstrategic alliances––for example, MCI and Britishfor example, MCI and BritishTelecom, and Texas Instruments and Hitachi.Telecom, and Texas Instruments and Hitachi.The increasing ethnic and religious conflicts in certainThe increasing ethnic and religious conflicts in certaincountries and regions.countries and regions.The growth of global brands in autos, food, clothing,The growth of global brands in autos, food, clothing,electronics.electronics.
  • 178. Demographic EnvironmentDemographic EnvironmentWorldwide PopulationWorldwide PopulationGrowthGrowthIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-178GrowthGrowthPopulation Age MixPopulation Age MixEthnic and OtherEthnic and OtherMarketsMarkets
  • 179. Can you identify one or moreCan you identify one or morenations whose populations hold thenations whose populations hold thepromise of huge potential marketspromise of huge potential marketsfor consumer goods? How havefor consumer goods? How havewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-179for consumer goods? How havefor consumer goods? How havepressures from potential marketerspressures from potential marketersto these untapped consumerto these untapped consumergroups driven the politicalgroups driven the politicaldiscussion on a nationaldiscussion on a nationaland international level?and international level?
  • 180. Educational GroupsEducational GroupsHousehold PatternsHousehold PatternsGeographical Shifts inGeographical Shifts inIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-180Geographical Shifts inGeographical Shifts inPopulationPopulationFrom a Mass MarketFrom a Mass Marketto Micromarketsto Micromarkets
  • 181. Economic EnvironmentEconomic EnvironmentIncome DistributionIncome DistributionIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-181Savings, Debt, andSavings, Debt, andCredit AvailabilityCredit Availability
  • 182. Natural EnvironmentNatural EnvironmentShortage of Raw MaterialsShortage of Raw MaterialsIncreased Energy CostIncreased Energy CostIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-182Increased Energy CostIncreased Energy CostAntiAnti--Pollution PressuresPollution PressuresChanging Role of GovernmentsChanging Role of Governments
  • 183. Technological EnvironmentTechnological EnvironmentAccelerating Pace of ChangeAccelerating Pace of ChangeIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-183Unlimited OpportunitiesUnlimited Opportunitiesfor Innovationfor Innovation
  • 184. Varying R&D BudgetsVarying R&D BudgetsIncreased Regulation ofIncreased Regulation ofTechnological ChangeTechnological ChangeIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-184PoliticalPolitical--Legal EnvironmentLegal EnvironmentLegislation RegulatingLegislation RegulatingBusinessBusinessGrowth of SpecialGrowth of Special--InterestInterestGroupsGroupsConsumerist movementConsumerist movement
  • 185. SocialSocial--CulturalCulturalEnvironmentEnvironmentViews of themselvesViews of themselvesIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-185Views of themselvesViews of themselvesViews of othersViews of othersViews of organizationsViews of organizationsViews of societyViews of societyViews of natureViews of natureViews of universeViews of universe
  • 186. High Persistence of CoreHigh Persistence of CoreCultural ValuesCultural ValuesExistence of subculturesExistence of subculturesIdentifying and Responding to theMajor Macroenvironment Forceswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-186Existence of subculturesExistence of subculturesSubculturesSubculturesShifts of Secondary CulturalShifts of Secondary CulturalValues Through TimeValues Through Time
  • 187. Chapter 7Chapter 7Analyzing ConsumerAnalyzing ConsumerMarkets and Buyer BehaviorMarkets and Buyer Behaviorbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-187PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 188. Kotler onMarketingThe mostThe mostimportantimportantthing is tothing is towww.bookfiesta4u.com1-188forecast whereforecast wherecustomers arecustomers aremoving, andmoving, andbe in front ofbe in front ofthem.them.
  • 189. In this chapter, we focus on two questions:In this chapter, we focus on two questions:How do the buyers’ characteristicsHow do the buyers’ characteristics –– cultural,cultural,social, personal, and psychologicalsocial, personal, and psychological –– influenceinfluenceChapter Objectiveswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-189social, personal, and psychologicalsocial, personal, and psychological –– influenceinfluencebuying behavior?buying behavior?How does the buyer make purchasingHow does the buyer make purchasingdecisions?decisions?
  • 190. Consumer BehaviorConsumer BehaviorCultural FactorsCultural FactorsCultureCultureSubculturesSubculturesDiversity marketingDiversity marketingInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-190Diversity marketingDiversity marketingSocial classSocial class
  • 191. Social FactorsSocial FactorsReference GroupsReference GroupsReference groupsReference groupsMembership groupsMembership groupsInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-191Membership groupsMembership groupsPrimary groupsPrimary groupsSecondary groupsSecondary groupsAspirational groupsAspirational groupsDissociative groupsDissociative groupsOpinion leaderOpinion leader
  • 192. Table 7.1: Characteristics of Major U.S. Social Classes1.1. Upper UppersUpper Uppers(less than 1%)(less than 1%)The social elite who live on inherited wealth. TheyThe social elite who live on inherited wealth. Theygive large sums to charity, run the debutante balls,give large sums to charity, run the debutante balls,maintain more than one home, and send theirmaintain more than one home, and send theirchildren to the finest schools. They are a market forchildren to the finest schools. They are a market forjewelry, antiques, homes, and vacations. They oftenjewelry, antiques, homes, and vacations. They oftenbuy and dress conservatively. Although small as abuy and dress conservatively. Although small as agroup, they serve as a reference group to the extentgroup, they serve as a reference group to the extentthat their consumption decisions are imitated by thethat their consumption decisions are imitated by theother social classes.other social classes.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-192See text for complete tableother social classes.other social classes.2.2. Lower UppersLower Uppers(about 2%)(about 2%)Persons, usually from the middle class, who havePersons, usually from the middle class, who haveearned high income or wealth through exceptionalearned high income or wealth through exceptionalability in the professions or business. They tend toability in the professions or business. They tend tobe active in social and civic affairs and to buy thebe active in social and civic affairs and to buy thesymbols of status for themselves and their children.symbols of status for themselves and their children.They include the nouveau riche, whose pattern ofThey include the nouveau riche, whose pattern ofconspicuous consumption is designed to impressconspicuous consumption is designed to impressthose below them.those below them.
  • 193. Secondary groupsSecondary groupsAspirational groupsAspirational groupsDissociative groupsDissociative groupsOpinion leaderOpinion leaderInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-193Opinion leaderOpinion leader
  • 194. FamilyFamilyFamily of orientationFamily of orientationFamily of procreationFamily of procreationRoles and StatusesRoles and StatusesInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-194Roles and StatusesRoles and StatusesRoleRoleStatusStatus
  • 195. With the “graying” of the American populace,With the “graying” of the American populace,marketers have begun to shift images andmarketers have begun to shift images andcultural references in advertising from thingscultural references in advertising from thingsthat are relevant to the twentythat are relevant to the twenty--somethings tosomethings towww.bookfiesta4u.com1-195that are relevant to the twentythat are relevant to the twenty--somethings tosomethings toimages of active seniors, and soundtracksimages of active seniors, and soundtracksfrom the sixties and seventies. Can youfrom the sixties and seventies. Can youidentify any particularidentify any particularad campaigns that fitad campaigns that fitthis pattern?this pattern?
  • 196. Personal FactorsPersonal FactorsAge and Stage in the Life CycleAge and Stage in the Life CycleFamily life cycleFamily life cycleInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-196Family life cycleFamily life cycleOccupation and EconomicOccupation and EconomicCircumstancesCircumstances
  • 197. In recent years, many organizations haveIn recent years, many organizations have“provided” televisions with limited programming“provided” televisions with limited programmingaccess for use in Kaccess for use in K--12 classrooms. Do these12 classrooms. Do theseentities have a moral obligation to avoid overtentities have a moral obligation to avoid overtwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-197entities have a moral obligation to avoid overtentities have a moral obligation to avoid overtmarketing to their captive audiences, or is this amarketing to their captive audiences, or is this avalid tool for introducing offerings to futurevalid tool for introducing offerings to futureconsumers? What should theconsumers? What should theresponsibilities of the educatorsresponsibilities of the educatorsbe in these situations?be in these situations?
  • 198. Table 7.2: Stages in the Family Life Cycle1. Bachelor stage:1. Bachelor stage:Young, single, not livingYoung, single, not livingat homeat homeFew financial burdens. Fashion opinionFew financial burdens. Fashion opinionleaders. Recreation oriented. Buy: basic homeleaders. Recreation oriented. Buy: basic homeequipment, furniture, cars, equipment for theequipment, furniture, cars, equipment for themating game; vacations.mating game; vacations.2. Newly married2. Newly marriedcouples:couples:Young, no childrenYoung, no childrenHighest purchase rate and highest averageHighest purchase rate and highest averagepurchase of durables: cars, appliances,purchase of durables: cars, appliances,furniture, vacations.furniture, vacations.3. Full nest I:3. Full nest I: Home purchasing at peak. Liquid assets low.Home purchasing at peak. Liquid assets low.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-198See text for complete table3. Full nest I:3. Full nest I:Youngest child underYoungest child undersixsixHome purchasing at peak. Liquid assets low.Home purchasing at peak. Liquid assets low.Interested in new products, advertisedInterested in new products, advertisedproducts. Buy: washers, dryers, TV, baby food,products. Buy: washers, dryers, TV, baby food,chest rubs and cough medicines, vitamins,chest rubs and cough medicines, vitamins,dolls, wagons, sleds, skates.dolls, wagons, sleds, skates.4. Full nest II:4. Full nest II:Youngest child six orYoungest child six oroveroverFinancial position better. Less influenced byFinancial position better. Less influenced byadvertising. Buy largeradvertising. Buy larger--size packages,size packages,multiplemultiple--unit deals. Buy: many foods, cleaningunit deals. Buy: many foods, cleaningmaterials, bicycles, music lessons, pianos.materials, bicycles, music lessons, pianos.
  • 199. Figure 7.2: The VALS segmentation system:An 8-part typologyGroups with HighGroups with HighResourcesResources1.1. ActualizersActualizers2.2. FulfilledsFulfilleds3.3. AchieversAchieverswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-1993.3. AchieversAchievers4.4. ExperiencersExperiencersGroups with LowerGroups with LowerResourcesResources1.1. BelieversBelievers2.2. StriversStrivers3.3. MakersMakers4.4. StrugglersStrugglers
  • 200. SRI Consulting Business Intelligence’s Web siteSRI Consulting Business Intelligence’s Web sitewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-200
  • 201. Personality and SelfPersonality and Self--ConceptConceptPersonalityPersonalityBrand personalityBrand personalitySinceritySincerityExcitementExcitementInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-201ExcitementExcitementCompetenceCompetenceSophisticationSophisticationRuggednessRuggednessSelfSelf--conceptconceptPerson’s actual selfPerson’s actual self--conceptconceptIdeal selfIdeal self--conceptconceptOthers’ selfOthers’ self--conceptconcept
  • 202. Psychological FactorsPsychological FactorsMotivationMotivationMotiveMotiveFreud’s TheoryFreud’s TheoryInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-202Freud’s TheoryFreud’s TheoryLadderingLadderingProjective techniquesProjective techniques
  • 203. Ernest Dichter’s research found:Ernest Dichter’s research found:Consumers resist prunes because prunes areConsumers resist prunes because prunes arewrinkled looking and remind people of old age.wrinkled looking and remind people of old age.Men smoke cigars as an adult version of thumbMen smoke cigars as an adult version of thumbsucking.sucking.Influencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-203sucking.sucking.Women prefer vegetable shortening to animalWomen prefer vegetable shortening to animalfats because the latter arouse a sense of guiltfats because the latter arouse a sense of guiltover killing animals.over killing animals.Women don’t trust cake mixes unless theyWomen don’t trust cake mixes unless theyrequire adding an egg, because this helps themrequire adding an egg, because this helps themfeel they are giving “birth.”feel they are giving “birth.”
  • 204. Maslow’s TheoryMaslow’s TheoryInfluencing Buyer BehaviorFigure 7.3:www.bookfiesta4u.com1-204Figure 7.3:Maslow’sHierarchy ofNeeds
  • 205. Herzberg’s TheoryHerzberg’s TheoryDissatisfiersDissatisfiersSatisfiersSatisfiersInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-205
  • 206. PerceptionPerceptionSelective attentionSelective attentionPeople are more likely to notice stimuli thanPeople are more likely to notice stimuli thanrelate to a current needrelate to a current needPeople are more likely to notice stimuli thanPeople are more likely to notice stimuli thanInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-206People are more likely to notice stimuli thanPeople are more likely to notice stimuli thanthey anticipatethey anticipatePeople are more likely to notice stimuliPeople are more likely to notice stimuliwhose deviations are large in relation to thewhose deviations are large in relation to thenormal size of the stimulinormal size of the stimuliSelective distortionSelective distortionSelective retentionSelective retention
  • 207. LearningLearningDriveDriveCuesCuesDiscriminationDiscriminationInfluencing Buyer Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-207DiscriminationDiscriminationBeliefs and AttitudesBeliefs and AttitudesBeliefBeliefSpreading activationSpreading activationAttitudeAttitude
  • 208. The purchase of a product from a Company AThe purchase of a product from a Company Aturns out to be a positive experience. You areturns out to be a positive experience. You arelooking for a loosely related product, which is alsolooking for a loosely related product, which is alsowww.bookfiesta4u.com1-208looking for a loosely related product, which is alsolooking for a loosely related product, which is alsooffered by Company A. Do you assume that youoffered by Company A. Do you assume that youwill again have a positive experience withwill again have a positive experience withCompany A’s offering, or do youCompany A’s offering, or do youlook for the “best of breed,”look for the “best of breed,”regardless of whichregardless of whichcompany offers it?company offers it?
  • 209. Buying RolesBuying RolesInitiatorInitiatorInfluencerInfluencerThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-209DeciderDeciderBuyerBuyerUserUserBuying behaviorBuying behavior
  • 210. Table 7.3: Four Types of Buying BehaviorHigh InvolvementHigh Involvement Low InvolvementLow InvolvementSignificant DifferencesSignificant Differencesbetween Brandsbetween BrandsComplex buyingComplex buyingbehaviorbehaviorVarietyVariety--seekingseekingbuying behaviorbuying behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-210Few Differences betweenFew Differences betweenBrandsBrandsDissonanceDissonance--reducingreducingbuying behaviorbuying behaviorHabitual buyingHabitual buyingbehaviorbehavior
  • 211. Complex Buying BehaviorComplex Buying BehaviorDissonanceDissonance--Reducing Buyer BehaviorReducing Buyer BehaviorHabitual Buying BehaviorHabitual Buying BehaviorThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-211Habitual Buying BehaviorHabitual Buying BehaviorVarietyVariety--Seeking Buying BehaviorSeeking Buying Behavior
  • 212. How marketers learn about the stages:How marketers learn about the stages:Introspective methodIntrospective methodRetrospective methodRetrospective methodProspective methodProspective methodStages in the BuyingDecision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-212Prescriptive methodPrescriptive methodUnderstanding by mapping the customer’sUnderstanding by mapping the customer’sConsumption systemConsumption systemCustomer activity cycleCustomer activity cycleCustomer scenarioCustomer scenarioMetamarketMetamarketMetamediariesMetamediaries
  • 213. The Edmunds.com home page shows the variety ofThe Edmunds.com home page shows the variety ofservices this Web company offers those shoppingservices this Web company offers those shoppingfor a car.for a car.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-213
  • 214. Problem recognitionProblem recognitionInformation searchInformation searchPersonal sourcesPersonal sourcesStages of the BuyingDecision ProcessFigure 7.4:www.bookfiesta4u.com1-214Personal sourcesPersonal sourcesCommercial sourcesCommercial sourcesPublic sourcesPublic sourcesExperiential sourcesExperiential sourcesFigure 7.4:Five-StageModel of theConsumerBuyingProcess
  • 215. Figure 7.5: Successive Sets Involved in CustomerDecision Makingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-215
  • 216. Evaluation of AlternativesEvaluation of AlternativesPotential Attributes of interestPotential Attributes of interestCamerasCamerasHotelsHotelsThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-216HotelsHotelsMouthwashMouthwashTiresTiresBrand beliefsBrand beliefsBrand imageBrand image
  • 217. Table 7.4: A Consumer’s Brand Beliefsabout ComputersComputerComputer AttributeAttributeMemoryMemoryCapacityCapacityGraphicsGraphicsCapabilityCapabilitySize andSize andWeightWeight PricePriceAA 1010 88 66 44www.bookfiesta4u.com1-217BB 88 99 88 33CC 66 88 1010 55DD 44 33 77 88
  • 218. Strategies designed to stimulate interest in aStrategies designed to stimulate interest in acomputercomputerRedesign the computerRedesign the computerAlter beliefs about the brandAlter beliefs about the brandThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-218Alter beliefs about the brandAlter beliefs about the brandAlter beliefs about competitors’ brandsAlter beliefs about competitors’ brandsAlter the importance weightsAlter the importance weightsCall attention to neglected attributesCall attention to neglected attributesShift the buyer’s ideasShift the buyer’s ideas
  • 219. Purchase DecisionPurchase DecisionFigure 7.6: Steps Between Evaluation ofAlternatives and a purchase decisionThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-219
  • 220. InformediariesInformediariesConsumer ReportsConsumer ReportsZagatsZagatsUnanticipated situational factorsUnanticipated situational factorsPerceived riskPerceived riskThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-220Perceived riskPerceived riskBrand decisionBrand decisionVendor decisionVendor decisionQuantity decisionQuantity decisionTiming decisionTiming decisionPaymentPayment--method decisionmethod decision
  • 221. Postpurchase BehaviorPostpurchase BehaviorPostpurchase SatisfactionPostpurchase SatisfactionDisappointedDisappointedSatisfiedSatisfiedThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-221SatisfiedSatisfiedDelightedDelightedPostpurchase ActionsPostpurchase ActionsPostpurchase Use and DisposalPostpurchase Use and Disposal
  • 222. Figure 7.7: How Customers Dispose of Productswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-222
  • 223. Other Models of the Buying DecisionOther Models of the Buying DecisionProcessProcessHealth ModelHealth ModelStages of Change ModelStages of Change ModelThe Buying Decision Processwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-223Stages of Change ModelStages of Change ModelPrecontemplationPrecontemplationContemplationContemplationPreparationPreparationActionActionMaintenanceMaintenanceCustomer Activity Cycle ModelCustomer Activity Cycle ModelPre, during and post phasesPre, during and post phases
  • 224. Figure 7.8:Activity cyclefor IBMcustomers inthe globalelectronicnetworkingcapabilitywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-224capabilitymarket space
  • 225. Figure 7.9:Value addsfor IBMcustomers inthe globalelectronicnetworkingcapabilitywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-225capabilitymarket space
  • 226. Chapter 8Chapter 8Analyzing Business MarketsAnalyzing Business Marketsand Business Buyingand Business BuyingBehaviorBehaviorbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-226bybyPowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 227. Kotler onMarketingMany businessesMany businessesare wiselyare wiselyturning theirturning theirwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-227turning theirturning theirsuppliers andsuppliers anddistributors intodistributors intovalued partners.valued partners.
  • 228. Chapter ObjectivesIn this chapter, we focus on six questions:In this chapter, we focus on six questions:What is the business market, and how does itWhat is the business market, and how does itdiffer from the consumer market?differ from the consumer market?What buying situations do organizational buyersWhat buying situations do organizational buyersface?face?www.bookfiesta4u.com1-228face?face?Who participates in the business buying process?Who participates in the business buying process?What are the major influences on organizationalWhat are the major influences on organizationalbuyers?buyers?How do business buyers make their decisions?How do business buyers make their decisions?How do institutions and government agencies doHow do institutions and government agencies dotheir buying?their buying?
  • 229. What is OrganizationalBuying?Organizational buyingOrganizational buyingThe business market versus the consumerThe business market versus the consumermarketmarketwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-229marketmarketBusiness marketBusiness marketFewer buyersFewer buyersLarger buyersLarger buyersClose supplierClose supplier--customer relationshipcustomer relationshipGeographically concentrated buyersGeographically concentrated buyers
  • 230. What is OrganizationalBuying?Derived demandDerived demandInelastic demandInelastic demandwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-230Fluctuating demandFluctuating demandProfessional purchasingProfessional purchasing
  • 231. Blue Shield of California’s mylifepathBlue Shield of California’s mylifepathwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-231
  • 232. What is OrganizationalBuying?Several buying influencesSeveral buying influencesMultiple sales callsMultiple sales callsDirected purchasingDirected purchasingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-232Directed purchasingDirected purchasingReciprocityReciprocityLeasingLeasing
  • 233. If you were tasked with marketing aIf you were tasked with marketing aproduct or service to an organization,product or service to an organization,would you attempt to initially contact thewould you attempt to initially contact thewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-233would you attempt to initially contact thewould you attempt to initially contact thepurchasing departmentpurchasing department, or, or potentialpotentialusersusers of your company’s offerings? Why?of your company’s offerings? Why?Would the product youWould the product youwere selling make awere selling make adifference? Why?difference? Why?
  • 234. What is OrganizationalBuying?Buying SituationsBuying SituationsStraight rebuyStraight rebuyModified rebuyModified rebuywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-234New TaskNew TaskSystems Buying and SellingSystems Buying and SellingSystems buyingSystems buyingTurnkey solutionTurnkey solutionSystems sellingSystems selling
  • 235. What are some of the benefits to anWhat are some of the benefits to anorganization that can be derivedorganization that can be derivedfrom afrom a single source solutionsingle source solution, or a, or asystems buyingsystems buying arrangement with aarrangement with awww.bookfiesta4u.com1-235systems buyingsystems buying arrangement with aarrangement with aprime contractor? What are some ofprime contractor? What are some ofthe potential pitfalls? Whatthe potential pitfalls? Whatcan the company do tocan the company do toprotect itself fromprotect itself fromthese hazards?these hazards?
  • 236. Participants in the BusinessBuying ProcessThe Buying CenterThe Buying CenterInitiatorsInitiatorsUsersUsersInfluencersInfluencerswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-236InfluencersInfluencersDecidersDecidersApproversApproversBuyersBuyersGatekeepersGatekeepersKey buying influencersKey buying influencersMultilevel inMultilevel in--depth sellingdepth selling
  • 237. Figure 8-1: Major Influences onIndustrial Buying Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-237
  • 238. Major Influences on BuyingDecisionsEnvironmental FactorsEnvironmental FactorsOrganizational FactorsOrganizational FactorsPurchasingPurchasing--Department UpgradingDepartment Upgradingwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-238PurchasingPurchasing--Department UpgradingDepartment UpgradingCrossCross--Functional RolesFunctional RolesCentralized PurchasingCentralized PurchasingDecentralized Purchasing of SmallDecentralized Purchasing of Small--TicketTicketItemsItemsInternet PurchasingInternet Purchasing
  • 239. The eThe e--hub Plastics.com home page offers buyers andhub Plastics.com home page offers buyers andsellers of plastics a marketplace plus news andsellers of plastics a marketplace plus news andinformationinformationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-239
  • 240. Covisint’s Web site offers both services andCovisint’s Web site offers both services andinformationinformationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-240
  • 241. Major Influences on BuyingDecisionsOther Organizational FactorsOther Organizational FactorsLongLong--Term ContractsTerm ContractsVendorVendor--managed inventorymanaged inventoryContinuous replenishment programsContinuous replenishment programswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-241Continuous replenishment programsContinuous replenishment programsPurchasingPurchasing--Performance Evaluation and Buyers’Performance Evaluation and Buyers’Professional DevelopmentProfessional DevelopmentImproved Supply Chain ManagementImproved Supply Chain ManagementLean ProductionLean ProductionJustJust--inin--timetime
  • 242. Major Influences on BuyingDecisionsInterpersonal and Individual FactorsInterpersonal and Individual FactorsCultural FactorsCultural FactorsFranceFrancewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-242FranceFranceGermanyGermanyJapanJapanKoreaKoreaLatin AmericaLatin America
  • 243. The Purchasing/Procurement ProcessIncentive to purchaseIncentive to purchaseThree Company Purchasing OrientationsThree Company Purchasing OrientationsBuying OrientationBuying OrientationCommoditizationCommoditizationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-243CommoditizationCommoditizationMultisourcingMultisourcingProcurement OrientationProcurement OrientationMaterials requirement planning (MRP)Materials requirement planning (MRP)Supply Chain Management OrientationSupply Chain Management Orientation
  • 244. The Purchasing/Procurement ProcessTypes of Purchasing ProcessesTypes of Purchasing ProcessesRoutine productsRoutine productsLeverage productsLeverage productswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-244Leverage productsLeverage productsStrategic productsStrategic productsBottleneck productsBottleneck products
  • 245. The Purchasing/Procurement ProcessStages in the Buying ProcessStages in the Buying ProcessProblem RecognitionProblem RecognitionGeneral Need Description andGeneral Need Description andProduct SpecificationProduct Specificationwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-245Product SpecificationProduct SpecificationProduct value analysisProduct value analysisSupplier SearchSupplier SearchVertical hubsVertical hubsFunctional hubsFunctional hubsDirect external links to major suppliersDirect external links to major suppliersBuying alliancesBuying alliancesCompany buying sitesCompany buying sitesRequest for proposals (RFPs)Request for proposals (RFPs)
  • 246. Table 8.1: Buygrid Framework: Major Stages (Buyphases) of theIndustrial Buying Process in Relation to Major Buying Situations(Buyclasses)BuyclassesBuyclassesNewNew ModifiedModified StraightStraightTaskTask RebuyRebuy RebuyRebuy1. Problem recognition1. Problem recognition YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNo2. General need description2. General need description YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNowww.bookfiesta4u.com1-2462. General need description2. General need description YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNo3. Product specification3. Product specification YesYes YesYes YesYesBuyphasesBuyphases 4. Supplier search4. Supplier search YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNo5. Proposal solicitation5. Proposal solicitation YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNo6. Supplier selection6. Supplier selection YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNo7. Order7. Order--routine specificationroutine specification YesYes MaybeMaybe NoNo8. Performance review8. Performance review YesYes YesYes YesYes
  • 247. The Purchasing/Procurement ProcessGeneral Need Description andGeneral Need Description andProduct SpecificationProduct SpecificationProduct value analysisProduct value analysisSupplier SearchSupplier Searchwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-247Supplier SearchSupplier SearchVertical hubsVertical hubsFunctional hubsFunctional hubsDirect extranet links toDirect extranet links tomajor suppliersmajor suppliersBuying alliancesBuying alliancesCompany buying sitesCompany buying sitesRequest for proposals (RFPs)Request for proposals (RFPs)
  • 248. The Purchasing/Procurement ProcessProposal SolicitationProposal SolicitationSupplier SelectionSupplier Selectionwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-248
  • 249. Table 8-2: An Example of Vendor AnalysisAttributesAttributes Rating ScaleRating ScaleImportanceImportanceWeightsWeightsPoorPoor(1)(1)FairFair(2)(2)GoodGood(3)(3)ExcellentExcellent(4)(4)PricePrice .30.30 xxSupplier reputationSupplier reputation .20.20 xxwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-249Supplier reputationSupplier reputation .20.20 xxProduct reliabilityProduct reliability .30.30 xxService reliabilityService reliability .10.10 xxSupplier FlexibilitySupplier Flexibility .10.10 xxTotal score: .30(4) + .20(3) + .30(4) + .10(2) + .10(3) = 3.5Total score: .30(4) + .20(3) + .30(4) + .10(2) + .10(3) = 3.5
  • 250. The Purchasing/Procurement ProcessCustomer value assessmentCustomer value assessmentRoutineRoutine--order productsorder productsProceduralProcedural--problem productsproblem productsPoliticalPolitical--problem productsproblem productswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-250PoliticalPolitical--problem productsproblem productsOrderOrder--Routine SpecificationRoutine SpecificationBlanket contractBlanket contractStockless purchase plansStockless purchase plansPerformance ReviewPerformance ReviewBuyflow mapBuyflow map
  • 251. Figure 8-2: Major Influences onIndustrial Buying Behaviorwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-251
  • 252. Institutional andGovernment MarketsInstitutional marketInstitutional marketwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-252
  • 253. Chapter 9Chapter 9Dealing with theDealing with theCompetitionCompetitionbybywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-253PowerPoint byPowerPoint byMilton M. PressleyMilton M. PressleyUniversity of New OrleansUniversity of New Orleans
  • 254. Kotler onMarketingPoor firms ignorePoor firms ignoretheir competitors;their competitors;average firms copyaverage firms copywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-254average firms copyaverage firms copytheir competitors;their competitors;winning firms leadwinning firms leadtheir competitors.their competitors.
  • 255. In this chapter, we focus on five thingsIn this chapter, we focus on five thingscompanies need to know about theircompanies need to know about theircompetition:competition:Who the primary competitors areWho the primary competitors areHow to ascertain their strategies, objectives,How to ascertain their strategies, objectives,strengths and weaknesses, and reactionstrengths and weaknesses, and reactionChapter Objectiveswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-255strengths and weaknesses, and reactionstrengths and weaknesses, and reactionpatternspatternsHow to design a competitive intelligence systemHow to design a competitive intelligence systemWhether to position as market leader,Whether to position as market leader,challenger, follower, or nicherchallenger, follower, or nicherHow to balance a customer versusHow to balance a customer versuscompetitor orientationcompetitor orientation
  • 256. Figure 9-1: Five Forces DeterminingSegment Structural AttractivenessCompetitive ForcesThreat of:Threat of:1.1. intense segmentintense segmentrivalryrivalry2.2. new entrantsnew entrantswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-2562.2. new entrantsnew entrants3.3. substitute productssubstitute productsbuyers’ growingbuyers’ growingbargaining powerbargaining powersuppliers’ growingsuppliers’ growingbargainingbargainingpowerpower
  • 257. Figure 9-2: Barriers and Profitabilitywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-257
  • 258. GetThere.com, launched as the Internet Travel NetworkGetThere.com, launched as the Internet Travel Networkin 1995, was the first company to book trips over thein 1995, was the first company to book trips over theWebWebwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-258
  • 259. Identifying CompetitorsIndustry Concept of CompetitionIndustry Concept of CompetitionIndustryIndustryNumber of Sellers andNumber of Sellers andDegree of DifferentiationDegree of DifferentiationPure monopolyPure monopolywww.bookfiesta4u.com1-259Pure monopolyPure monopolyOligopolyOligopolyPure oligopolyPure oligopolyDifferentiated oligopolyDifferentiated oligopolyMonopolistic competitionMonopolistic competitionPure competitionPure competition
  • 260. Identifying CompetitorsEntry, Mobility, Exit BarriersEntry, Mobility, Exit BarriersEntry barriersEntry barriersMobility barriersMobility barriersExit barriersExit barriersCost StructureCost Structurewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-260Cost StructureCost StructureDegree of Vertical IntegrationDegree of Vertical IntegrationVertical integrationVertical integrationDegree of GlobalizationDegree of GlobalizationMarket Concept of CompetitionMarket Concept of Competition
  • 261. ObjectivesObjectivesFigure 9-5: A Competitor’s Expansion PlansAnalyzing Competitorswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-261
  • 262. Analyzing CompetitorsStrengths and WeaknessesStrengths and WeaknessesDominantDominantStrongStrongwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-262StrongStrongFavorableFavorableTenableTenableWeakWeakNonviableNonviable
  • 263. Table 9-1: Customer’s Ratings of Competitors onKey Success FactorsCustomerCustomerAwarenessAwarenessProductProductQualityQualityProductProductAvailabilityAvailabilityTechnicalTechnicalAssistanceAssistanceSellingSellingStaffStaffCompetitor ACompetitor A EE EE PP PP GGCompetitor BCompetitor B GG GG EE GG EEwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-263Competitor BCompetitor B GG GG EE GG EECompetitor CCompetitor C FF PP GG FF FFNote: E = excellent, G = good, F = fair, P = poor.Note: E = excellent, G = good, F = fair, P = poor.
  • 264. Analyzing CompetitorsThree Variables to MonitorThree Variables to MonitorWhen Analyzing Competitors:When Analyzing Competitors:Share of marketShare of marketShare of mindShare of mindwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-264Share of mindShare of mindShare of heartShare of heart
  • 265. Table 9-2: Market Share, Mind Share, and Heart ShareMarket ShareMarket Share Mind ShareMind Share Heart ShareHeart Share20002000 20012001 20022002 20002000 20012001 20022002 20002000 20012001 20022002Competitor ACompetitor A 50%50% 47%47% 44%44% 60%60% 58%58% 54%54% 45%45% 42%42% 39%39%www.bookfiesta4u.com1-265Competitor ACompetitor A 50%50% 47%47% 44%44% 60%60% 58%58% 54%54% 45%45% 42%42% 39%39%Competitor BCompetitor B 3030 3434 3737 3030 3131 3535 4444 4747 5353Competitor CCompetitor C 2020 1919 1919 1010 1111 1111 1111 1111 88
  • 266. Reaction PatternsReaction Patterns1. If competitors are nearly identical and make their living the1. If competitors are nearly identical and make their living thesame way, then their competitive equilibrium is unstable.same way, then their competitive equilibrium is unstable.2. If a single major factor is the critical factor, then the2. If a single major factor is the critical factor, then thecompetitive equilibrium is unstable.competitive equilibrium is unstable.3. If multiple factors may be critical factors, then it is possible3. If multiple factors may be critical factors, then it is possiblefor each competitor to have some advantage and befor each competitor to have some advantage and bedifferentially attractive to some customers. The moredifferentially attractive to some customers. The moreAnalyzing Competitorswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-266differentially attractive to some customers. The moredifferentially attractive to some customers. The morefactors that may provide an advantage, the morefactors that may provide an advantage, the morecompetitors who can coexist. Competitors all have theircompetitors who can coexist. Competitors all have theirsegment, defined by the preference for the factor tradesegment, defined by the preference for the factor trade--offsoffsthey offer.they offer.4. The fewer the number of critical competitive variables, the4. The fewer the number of critical competitive variables, thefewer the number of competitors.fewer the number of competitors.5. A ratio of 2 to 1 in market share between any two5. A ratio of 2 to 1 in market share between any twocompetitors seems to be the equilibrium point at which it iscompetitors seems to be the equilibrium point at which it isneither practical nor advantageous for either competitor toneither practical nor advantageous for either competitor toincrease or decrease share.increase or decrease share.
  • 267. For many years, the major national broadcastFor many years, the major national broadcasttelevision networks shared 100% of the market, andtelevision networks shared 100% of the market, andtraded market share back and forth periodically.traded market share back and forth periodically.During the last two decades, the emergence ofDuring the last two decades, the emergence ofnationally available cable programming, and the risenationally available cable programming, and the risewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-267nationally available cable programming, and the risenationally available cable programming, and the riseof rival broadcast networks like Fox, UPN, and WBof rival broadcast networks like Fox, UPN, and WBhave increasingly cut into the market share of thehave increasingly cut into the market share of the“big three.” What steps would you“big three.” What steps would yourecommend that the “big three”recommend that the “big three”networks take to stop or slownetworks take to stop or slowthis loss of market share?this loss of market share?
  • 268. Designing The CompetitiveIntelligence SystemFour Main StepsFour Main StepsSetting Up the SystemSetting Up the SystemCollecting the DataCollecting the Datawww.bookfiesta4u.com1-268Collecting the DataCollecting the DataEvaluating and Analyzing the DataEvaluating and Analyzing the DataDisseminating Information and RespondingDisseminating Information and Responding
  • 269. Designing The CompetitiveIntelligence SystemSelecting CompetitorsSelecting CompetitorsCustomer Value Analysis (CVA)Customer Value Analysis (CVA)Customer Value = Customer BenefitsCustomer Value = Customer Benefits ––Customer CostsCustomer Costswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-269Customer CostsCustomer CostsCustomer Benefits = product benefits, serviceCustomer Benefits = product benefits, servicebenefits, personnel benefits, image benefitsbenefits, personnel benefits, image benefitsCustomer Costs = purchase price, acquisitionCustomer Costs = purchase price, acquisitioncosts, usage costs, maintenance costs, ownershipcosts, usage costs, maintenance costs, ownershipcosts, disposal costscosts, disposal costs
  • 270. What do you see as the potential impact of theWhat do you see as the potential impact of theavailability of information via the Internet on theavailability of information via the Internet on thedesign of competitive intelligence systems? Whatdesign of competitive intelligence systems? Whatproblems could be caused by the inability of theproblems could be caused by the inability of thewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-270problems could be caused by the inability of theproblems could be caused by the inability of theaverage computer user to verify the accuracy ofaverage computer user to verify the accuracy ofdata from the web? What impact will emergingdata from the web? What impact will emergingdatabase technologies likedatabase technologies liketexttext--based data mining havebased data mining havein competitive intelligencein competitive intelligencesystems?systems?
  • 271. Table 9-3: Customer Cost of Three BrandsAA BB CCPricePrice $100$100 $ 90$ 90 $ 80$ 80Acquisition costsAcquisition costs 1515 2525 3030Usage costsUsage costs 44 77 1010www.bookfiesta4u.com1-271MaintenanceMaintenancecostscosts22 33 77Ownership costsOwnership costs 33 33 55Disposal costsDisposal costs 66 55 88Total costsTotal costs $130$130 $135$135 $140$140
  • 272. Designing The CompetitiveIntelligence SystemMajor Steps in Customer Value Analysis:Major Steps in Customer Value Analysis:1. Identify the major attributes customers value.1. Identify the major attributes customers value.2. Assess the quantitative importance2. Assess the quantitative importanceof the different attributes.of the different attributes.www.bookfiesta4u.com1-2723. Assess the companies’ and competitors’3. Assess the companies’ and competitors’performances on the different customerperformances on the different customervalues against their rated importance.values against their rated importance.4. Examine how customers in a specific4. Examine how customers in a specificsegment rate the company’s performancesegment rate the company’s performanceagainst a specific major competitor on anagainst a specific major competitor on anattributeattribute--byby--attribute basis.attribute basis.5. Monitor customer values over time.5. Monitor customer values over time.
  • 273. Classes of CompetitorsClasses of CompetitorsStrong versus WeakStrong versus WeakDesigning The CompetitiveIntelligence Systemwww.bookfiesta4u.com1-273Close versus DistantClose versus Distant“Good” versus “Bad”“Good” versus “Bad”
  • 274. Figure 9-6:HypotheticalMarketDesigning CompetitiveStrategieswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-274MarketStructure
  • 275. Designing CompetitiveStrategiesMarketMarket--Leader StrategiesLeader StrategiesExpanding the Total MarketExpanding the Total MarketNew UsersNew Userswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-275New UsersNew UsersMarketMarket--penetration strategypenetration strategyNewNew--market segment strategymarket segment strategyGeographicalGeographical--expansion strategyexpansion strategyNew UsesNew UsesMore UsageMore UsageDefending Market ShareDefending Market Share
  • 276. IGT’s home page focuses on customer serviceIGT’s home page focuses on customer servicewww.bookfiesta4u.com1-276
  • 277. Defense StrategiesDefense StrategiesPosition DefensePosition DefenseFlank DefenseFlank DefensePreemptive DefensePreemptive DefenseCounteroffensive DefenseCounteroffensive DefenseDesigning Competitive Strategieswww.bookfiesta4u.com1-277Mobile DefenseMobile DefenseMarket broadeningMarket broadeningPr