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Transcript of the beginnings of filipino nationalism


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  • 1. Transcript of The Beginnings Of Filipino Nationalism (mid 1700's - 1900's) The Beginnings Of Filipino Nationalism CHAPTER 8 British Invasion and Occupation The Silang and Palaris Revolts Basco's Economic Plans The Campaign for Secularization Laissez-faire and the Opening of Ports The Rise of The "Filipino" Middle Class Education of Some Filipinos The Opening of Suez Canal The liberalism in The Philippines * 1761 Spain and France entered into a treaty against England's ambition for supremacy. *Archbishop Manuel Rojo - acting governor-general when the British bombarded Intramuros, Malate, Ermita and Bagumbayan. - surrended Manila and Cavite while Simon Anda escaped to Pampanga to continue the resistance. *Diego Silang - an Ilocano from Ilocos province rose in revolt. - he demanded the expulsion of Spaniards and Spanish provincial governor and many Spaniards from Vigan. 1762 *Gabriela Silang - took over the leadership and carried on the fight courageously but she was later captured and hanged, along with 100 followers.
  • 2. *Juan de la Cruz Palaris - led a widespread revolt in Pangasinan, for the end to payment of tributes and countless abuses by the Spanish official. - upon the conclusion of the war with France and Spain, the British left in 1764. - Palaris was defeated and died in the battle. * The economy developed slowly for several reasons: (1) the incompetence of Spanish officials; (2) graft and greed of the merchants and religious corporations engaged in the galleon; (3) restrictive economic policies which closed some parts of the country to other foreign countries; and (4) the constant quarrels between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities assigned in the colony. * 1778 - Jose Basco y Vargas was appointed governor-general of the Philippines - He found the galleon trade particularly unproductive for the government because it was benefiting only the few officials and religious orders who monopolized it. * Basi Revolt - was among the bloodiest uprisings ever recorded during this time. * Laissez-faire or "let alone policy" in commercial and trading ventures by the Europeans soon caught the interest of the Spanish king * 1834 - the King, realizing the futility of opposing modern trends in commerce and trade, open Manila to foreign traders. * Nicholas Loney - introduced the first modern machinery that converted sugar cane into refined sugar.
  • 3. - this led to the unprecedented prosperity of the provinces engaged in sugar production and to the risepf the middle class. * 5 Principal Social Classes in the Philippines (1750's)* 1. Peninsulares - included the Spanish friar, were the Spaniards born in Spain. 2. Insulares - Spaniards born in the Philippines. 3. Middle Class a. Spanish mestizo b. Principalia c. Chinese mestizo 4. Chinese 5. Indio The Spaniards in the Philippines founded many colleges for men and women. But these colleges and universities were exclusively for the Spaniards and Spanish mestizo *Ilustrados - they were the middle class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish and European nationalist ideals. included; - San Juan de Letran - San Jose - San Felipe - and others - The opening of the Suez Canal, one of the important changes that took place in the second half of the nineteenth century had far-reaching effects on the Filipinos. *1869
  • 4. - this resulted the shorter route and travel time between Spain and the Philippines. -many Spaniards with progressive ideas migrated to the Philippines. - among them were exiled creoles from Mexico like Varela and Novales, whose subversive ideas and activities advocated freedom and liberties. Governor -General Carlos Maria de la Torre - one who fought for popular suffrage and freedom of speech, the press, and the religion, brought to the country some liberal and progressive Spaniards. - he arrived in Manila in 1869, he put into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionists in Spain. * The return of Autocracy - the republic of Spain ended in 1870 when the monarchy was restored and a new King assumed the Spanish throne. *Preisthood was composed of two classes: - Regular Priests were those who belonged to the religious orders like Dominicans, Recollects, the Augustinians, and the Franciscans. - Secular Priests were not members of any religious order. *The Cavite Mutiny - the mutineers included Indios, mestizo, and Criollos (Spaniards born in Mexico and exiled in Cavite) *The Execution of GomBurZa - on February 17, 1872, the three priest marched from Fort Santiago to Bagumbayan field. - the importance of the execution of the three priest rested on the fact that the Filipino who witnessed the execution began to think and feel as Filipinos, not Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Visayans, Bicolanos, and others.