S ALVO “Service to the Line, On the Line, On Time”Vol. 12, No. 5 U.S. Army Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, NY May 31, 2012 What just happened? Photo from 2/11 FA and Wikipedia Vietnam-era M107, 175mm self-propelled howitzer, left, had a range of 34 km and a weight of 62,400 pounds. Fast forward to the M777, 155mm towed howitzer that is in use today in Afghanistan, and the range increases to 40 km and the weight is only 9,300 pounds. By John B. Snyder health during their careers. This relationship began for many in the 1970s at a place called Moway House, at Ft. Sill, Okla., where The Watervliet Arsenal’s young warriors have a lifespan artillerymen called for fire as young lieutenants andof about 30 seconds, but what a wonderful life they will enlisted Soldiers.have. If their forefathers could speak, they would tell Those were very tough, challenging times in the 1970sthe world about all the places they have served, from the as austere budgets and troop downsizing affected the cul-islands of the South Pacific to the deserts of North Africa to ture, as well as the morale of the force. Although junglethe mountains of Afghanistan. warfare might have been the tactics of the day given where But don’t feel sorry for these short-lived hardened the artillery had been for most of the 1960s and earlyfighters because they have been well appreciated by 1970s, the focus for the artillery was redirected towardartillerymen from the time of their conception until the end fighting a conventional army, such as a Soviet-type ofof their fatigued life. In fact, seasoned artillerymen who force.have recently retired may have spent more time with these To match such a formable force, the U.S. ArmyArsenal warriors than they have with their own families,as they fed them, cleaned them, and nursed them back to Story continues on page 3, see Artillery
Page 2 Salvo May 31, 2012 Commander’s Corner This is a great time of the year. The frigid days ofwinter are over and dog days of summer have yet to ar-rive. Everywhere around us, there seems to be a newsense of energy as we break out of our cocoons and dust possible implications to the Arsenal.off our lawn mowers and place our patio furniture back Suffice it for me to say, stay the course and don’t getonto our decks. There is a new sense of energy at the wrapped up in the “what ifs” that you may take awayArsenal, too. Have you seen it? from those stories. There is a lot that could happen be- We are doing things today that we could not have tween now and the election in November. But let’s helpimagined five years ago. Take a look at our production ourselves by continuing to weed out inefficiencies so thatwhere cannon production was once supreme to now the Arsenal continues to be a value to the American tax-where mortar sustainment is our top production line. payer. If you walk through Building 20, you will see very As good as you are, try to become better at what youvisible results from our 6S efforts. Whether the im- do each day you come to work. And, above all else, beprovements, such as in Building 20, come from 6S, a team player. Regardless of your specialty, we are allLEAN, Value Engineering, or from the Army Suggestion working toward the same goal; we want to be the Depart-Program, really doesn’t matter as long as we are making ment of Defense’s manufacture of choice for cannons,progress to make our workplace safer and more efficient. mortars, and all associated material. In the short term, we In regards to community engagement, we have gone can do this by improving our efficiencies in light-weightfrom virtually no community engagements five years mortar production, as a way to increase our market shareago to now conducting nearly 60 community events for mortar systems.this year. Just this month, we have supported Honor-A- As more of you are now out driving motorcycles,Veteran ceremonies in Albany and Rensselaer Counties, boating, swimming, and barbecuing, please be safe. Wea career day at the Cohoes Middle School, participated are manned at a point where the loss of any one individu-in the New York Senate’s Veterans Hall of Fame activi- al has a significant effect on our mission. Please don’t beties, marched in the Village of Green Island and the City that one. Be safe this summer and get SWARMED!of Watervliet Memorial Day Parades, and hosted severalsenior level managers from GE’s Schenectady Plant. There are also new discussions in the local and na- Mark F. Migaledditional news media about the future implications of a Commandingdeclining defense budget. Trust me in that we are ob- Manufacturer 6serving and assessing those articles everyday to gleanCommander, Col. Mark F. Migaleddi The Arsenal Salvo is an authorized monthly publication for members of the DepartmentPublic Affairs Officer, John B. Snyder of Defense. Contents of the Salvo are not necessarily the official views of, or an endorse-Editor, John B. Snyder ment by the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, orPhotographer: John B. Snyder the Watervliet Arsenal.Arsenal Facebook Page @ News may be submitted for publication by sending articles to Public Affairs Officer, 1 Buffington Street, Bldg. 10, Watervliet, NY 12189, or stop by office #102, Bldg. 10,http://on.fb.me/sq3LEm Watervliet Arsenal. The editor may also be reached at (518) 266-5055 or by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The editor reserves the right to edit all information submitted for publication.
Page 3 Salvo May 31, 2012Artillery cont. ing about 1,000 rounds a day in comparison. Swage Autofrettage. The hydraulic autofrettage pro- cedure used in the early 1970s was an expensive, difficult,Field Artillery had to revamp its gun systems, or what the slow, and sometimes dangerous procedure where pressur-Watervliet Arsenal affectionately calls its “warriors.” ized hydraulic fluid, on the order of 100,000 psi or greater, The Army closed out the 1960s with a wide variety of ar- was pumped into the bore of the tube to apply compressivetillery delivery systems such as the 175mm M107 howitzer; residual stress at the bore.the 155mm M126 self-propelled howitzer; the 8-inch M110 The autofrettage process imparts a deformation to thehowitzer; the 105mm M137 lightweight towed howitzer; bore of a cannon tube in order to increase the ballistic pres-and the 105mm M103 self-propelled howitzer. sure sustaining capability of the tube. In other words, the The Watervliet Arsenal, tube that has been autofrettaged will be capable of with-working hand-in-hand with standing a higher internalthe Army’s Benét Labora- ballistic pressure than itstories, was instrumental in non-autofrettaged coun-the research, design, pro- terpart without going to atotype development, and thicker tube wall.the production of the tubes The swage autofret-and various assembly parts tage process developedfor each of these warriors. and implemented in theThey were truly state- late 1970s by contrast, isof-the-art at the time and a significantly less expen-initially offered a superla- sive, easier, faster, andtive response to any Soviet safer process that producesartillery systems. much more controllable Photo by John B. Snyder But in a place where The rotary forge process dramatically improved the Arsenal’s ability to rap- results and is much betterachieving the standard is idly respond to an urgent need. Here, a preform tube is heated to nearly suited to high productionnot good enough, Benét and 2,000 degrees and is being readied to enter the mandrel for shaping. rates. In the swage auto-Arsenal technicians knew they had to do better. frettage process, a preci- The first 1970s major weapon modernization program at sion high-strength mandrel is pushed through an undersizedthe Arsenal involved the production of a 105mm main gun bore of the tube to permanently enlarge the bore prior tofor the upgraded M60A1 tank. In 1973, the Arsenal manu- final machining. By varying the relative size of the cannonfactured 150 complete guns. But by 1977, the Arsenal was bore, the entire length of the tube can be autofrettaged tomanufacturing more than 1,800 guns a year. different amounts in a single pass of the mandrel. Because Although there was tremendous growth of the tank gun no special end seals, high pressure pumps and lines, or ex-program in the 1970s, it paled in comparison to what the pensive external restraining fixtures are required, the swageArsenal was doing for the field artillery. The Arsenal lever- autofrettage process has been greatly simplified, as well asaged its state-of-the-art technology to not only improve its made the process safer for the machinist.processes, but also to increase the range and tube life for Rotary Forge. Prior to the 1980s, cannon tube forgingsartillery systems. were obtained from commercial forging houses as conven- Simulation Testing. What is taken for granted today tional tube forgings, that is in a near shape and length to thewas a technological marvel of the time — simulation test- actual finished cannon tube. The conventional forging thusing. With simulated testing, the Arsenal could take tubes obtained was unique to a specific cannon tube design andand breech rings to the end of their fatigue life, without configuration, was heat treated, and ready for machining.leaving the Arsenal. A fatigue life is the number of rounds The initial procurement of conventional tube forgings couldthat a tube or breech can be fired before it reaches cata- take up to 18 months or more and the ability of commercialstrophic failure. forging houses to supply large quantities of tube forgings in This type of fatigue simulation testing has saved millions a rapid time frame to support production requirements wasof dollars in development test costs, as well as dramatically problematic.reducing the time required to fatigue test a tube or breech In the late 1970s, the Arsenal sought to create an in-from months to weeks. Typically, live firings of a single house capability to produce tube forgings by using newtube at a proving ground can be accomplished in about a rotary forging equipment. The rotary forge provides theweek, with 100 rounds being fired a day. Laboratory hy-draulic-fatigue cycling at the Arsenal is capable of simulat- Story continues on page 4, see Artillery
Page 4 Salvo May 31, 2012Artillery cont.capabilities to forge cannon tubes on essentially a moment’snotice, to almost any external shape and configuration re-quired for any cannon, and is capable of very high produc-tion rates. The rotary forging process starts with a very genericshort, thick walled, hollow-cylindrical steel shape that istypically about 10-feet in length. This raw material, or pre-form as it is commonly called, can be used to produce can-non tube forgings for different cannons, and is therefore notunique to a particular design. In the rotary forging process, a preform is heated to near-ly 2,000 degrees to soften the steel and then rotated over amandrel and advanced horizontally under hammers to shapethe hot forging to near finished tube geometry. This forging Photo provided by Arsenal Museumis then moved through associated heat treatment furnaces Photo of cannon production in the Historic Big Gun Shop duringfor quenching (rapid cooling) and toughening to desired the Vietnam War. Inset photo is the Big Gun Shop exterior.mechanical strength property requirements. All of these replacement design was increased at least ten-fold fromprocesses are computer controlled. the original design, and in service failure was eliminated. Higher Strength Steel. In general, the higher the Although this system is no longer in service with the U.S.strength of the gun steel used in a particular cannon design, military, it continues to provide safe and effective fire powerthe lighter the cannon can be. Also, higher strength mate- to NATO allies.rial allows the cannon to be fired at greater pressures for There have been a significant amount of improvementsimproved performance and range. As with most things in through the last 30 to 40 years, far too many to list in thislife, nothing comes for free. As the strength of gun steel article. Despite all the improvements, however, the Arsenalis increased, resistance to fatigue failure and cracking un- warriors still only have a lifespan of about 30 seconds.der high pressure decreases. Put another way, as strength, Why only 30 seconds?pressure, and performance increase, cannon life decreases, If one adds up the total time it takes to safely fire roundssometimes dramatically. through a tube before the gun experiences a degradation In order to achieve acceptable fatigue resistance, the ma- to its mission, the total time is less than 30 seconds. Forjority of artillery cannon designs up to the 1970s used gun example, a LW155mm tube has a safe fatigue life of aboutsteel at strength levels of about 160,000 psi yield strength. 2,600 full-charged rounds. The time to fire just one round isSome of the “newer” cannon designs in this era, such as about 0.01 seconds. Multiply that by 2,600 and you comethe original 175mm M113 Gun on the M107 Self-Propelled up with less than 30 seconds.System, experimented with what were considered very high As more seasoned artillerymen ready themselves for re-strength steels for the time with gun steel strength levels tirement, they will probably reflect on the memorable timesabout 180,000 psi yield strength. they served alongside an Arsenal warrior in such places as Unfortunately, what was to later become the science Grenada, Panama, Iraq, and Afghanistan. They may thinkof fracture mechanics and related fatigue failure was not about how much they have changed during their career, aswell understood or appreciated at this time, and the origi- well as how much the artillery delivery system has changednal 175mm M113 Gun experienced premature catastrophic since their first call for fire at Ft. Sill’s Moway House. Andbrittle fracture at a very low round count. Investigation of as senior artillerymen turn over their duties to the next gen-these in-service failures greatly advanced the understanding eration of artillerymen, they should know that work contin-of fracture mechanics and the relationship between strength ues at the Watervliet Arsenal to improve the life expectancyand fatigue resistance in gun steels, essentially making of the Arsenal warrior for the next cohort of artillerymenBenét Lab scientists and engineers the world recognized that will pick up the unit’s colors — maybe to 35 seconds.experts in fracture mechanics of high strength pressure ves-sels. In a very short period of time, the original M113 Gun Special thanks to Benét Labs’ Robert Mysliwiec and Ste-was significantly redesigned to lower the strength levelsof the material, while using the new autofrettage process phen Van Dyke-Restifo for their technical assistance into make up for the loss of strength. The fatigue life of this drafting this article.
Page 5 Salvo May 31, 2012Dog days of summer come early By John B. Snyder minutes or hours," Dyer said. As a quick demonstration, Dorn threw his car keys into a grassy area out of the view of Dyers dog. More validation the Watervliet Arsenal is becom- When Dyer released his dog, the dog sniffed up anding more important to the community was achieved down a 20 area and found the keys in seconds.on May 16 when nearly 30 regional law enforcement Many of us could use that type of dog at home toK-9 teams converged on the Arsenal to standardize find our misplaced keys.their tactics, techniques, and procedures in hopes of This is the second time the Albany Police Depart-better protecting lives. ment has used the Watervliet Arsenal as a training The daylong exercise brought together K-9 teams resource and according to Arsenal Security Trainingand trainers from such places as New London, Officer, Lt. Roy Barringer, this wont be the last.Conn., Pittsfield, Mass., as well as from several New "This is a great opportunity for the Arsenal in thatYork communities, and was coordinated by the Al- having a regional training exercise not only buildsbany Police Department. great relationships with those who may be called From a distance, upon to help supportthose floppy-eared, the Arsenal in a timemans best friends of crisis, but we alsoseemed lovable. But get great training evenstep too close and a though we dont havedose of reality im- K-9 teams," Barringermediately set in. This said.was no stroll in the "It is very importantpark with ones house- that we know how K-9hold pet, nor should teams operate whenit be. Those dog han- conducting a search ordling teams are often an apprehension," Bar-thrust into harms way ringer said. "The lastto apprehend fleeing thing that we want is tofugitives or to seek out Photo by John B. Snyder do is to impede the dogbombs and we should Master K-9 Trainer Bill Nott, the tactical K-9 instructor and police sergeant team or worse yet, getwant them to be intimi- for the Newlocal K-9 teams. police department, is providing hands-on training to London, Conn., someone hurt becausedating. we dont know a K-9 Steve Dorn, from the Albany Police K-9 unit and teams techniques and tactics."who was one of the primary coordinators for the At the end of the day, there had to be a definitiontraining, said "It is important that we conduct this of success.type of regional training once a quarter because there To Dorn, the definition of success was that they,have been several occasions when we have had to dogs and their handlers, were leaving better trainedprovide, as well as receive, K-9 support from local than when they had arrived.and state police units." To the dogs, the definition of success was the "Todays training focused on such topics as build- receipt of a "jute" toy.ing and vehicle searches, apprehension, narcotics de- "To the dogs, this is all a game," Dyer said. "Theytection, and gunfire neutralization," Dorn said. "But do what they do because they know if they are suc-probably the toughest area to train was on tracking." cessful, they will receive a toy." Brian Dyer, from the Albany K-9 team, said that But what the dogs and their handlers do is certain-for a dog tracking is not an exact science. ly not a game. Just after Dyer had finished his com- "Dogs follow the human scent and depending on ments, he showed a photo of a gun that his dog, Red,the weather and the terrain, the scent may only last had discovered during an apprehension in early May.
Page 6 Salvo May 31, 2012 Arsenal builds cannons, community spirit By John B. Snyder For nearly 200 years, the Watervliet Arsenal has to our former and current military, it would be an been building things and it was no different this understatement to say that the Arsenal does not past Memorial Day. What the Arsenal workforce get some additional value from these community built, however, cannot be measured in dollars or events. Each time the Arsenal rolls out the gate in cents, but in community spirit. support to the community, someone new is touched What started out as a core working group of by the Arsenal’s messaging. Sometimes that about five folks several months ago, turned into someone is an elected official and sometimes they more than 100 volunteers by the time the Arsenal are a child who will never forget what they had just rolled out for the City of Watervliet’s Memorial experienced. Day parade on May 28. And so, here the Arsenal is three years later and After many years of little, if any community en- has found itself in such great demand by the com- gagements, the Arsenal started to aggressively re- munity that it now cannot support all requests. Just engage the community in 2009. In the small com- in the past seven days, the Arsenal has supported munity of 10,000 that borders the Arsenal called a major community event with the New York state Watervliet, the Arsenal ‘s spirit began to flow out of Senate, a Memorial Day Parade for the Village of the fence line ever so slowly back into streets, busi- Green Island and finally, the Memorial Day Parade nesses, and into the homes of New York’s Capital for the City of Watervliet. District. This week, the remaining pieces of equipment And just like the ebb and flow of the ocean tide, were just removed from the last float and the plan- the flow of the Arsenal’s spirit came back into the ning now begins for the City of Albany Veterans’ fence line after every community event and moti- Day Parade in November. Every day, the Arsenal vated the workforce to support the next community builds something quite valuable — sometimes it event with even more. is a gun for an Abrams Tank and sometimes it is Although the key objectives for each commu- the spirit of a child who has seen something great nity engagement is to pay proper respect and honor called the Watervliet Arsenal. Photos by John B. Snyder
Page 7 Salvo May 31, 2012 Outside thefence line in May Photos by John B. Snyder
Page 8 Salvo May 31, 2012Six ways to clean up, become more efficient By Mark Ripley Maybe you have heard of 6S before or better yet,you have had the ultimate experience by being ona 6S event team. But whether you have been herethree months or 30 years, you will hear differentexplanations of what 6S is. This is my interpretation. First, what 6S is not. It is not a clean-upcampaign — well it kind of is. It is not about getting Before Photorid of all your stuff — well it kind of is that, too. Building 20OK, I can’t say what it is not because 6S covers Photos provided by Mark Ripleyjust about everything you do during the course of aworkday. So, what is 6S? It is an excellent starting point forfuture improvement efforts because the 6S processwill reduce or eliminate much of the variability inyour workspace. Your team will address workflowimpediments such as running out of supplies, tryingto find the resources to complete the task, or how tomitigate potential safety hazards. The bottom line is that the 6S process provides After Photoworkers and leaders with the tools to bring order to Building 20their workspaces by reducing much of the clutterand obstacles to improving team performance. Andthe process works whether it is on the production You may have already figured out that 6S is reallyfloor or in an administrative office. six “s” words. Here they are, in order: Safety: Throughout the entire process, safety is During 6S events, we all must remember number one.the old LEAN saying; “don’t do anything to mewithout me.” The teams should be made up mostly Sort: Clearly distinguish between what isof employees from the area. They will be the ones necessary in an area and what is not – then getusing the new, improved process. And they are most rid of what is “not.”likely to have great ideas how to make the processbetter. Straighten: Organize the remaining items so A 6S event is a lot of hard work – both mental they are easy to find, use and put away.and physical. Your reward, however, is more thana hearty handshake and a pat on the back from the Shine: Clean (and inspect…and fix!)commander; it’s a work area that you can be proud everything in an area.of for a long time. The process also is a team builderbecause everyone on the team receives some benefit Standardize: The fifth “s” word ensures that Safety, Sort, Straighten and Shine areof working through the process. maintained. But you don’t need to wait for the formal processto begin before you may use many of the 6S tools. Sustain: This sixth (and final, I promise) “s”Take initiative by looking at your desk or work area word is based on the idea that nobody canand see if you can improve safety, sort, straighten, reach perfection in one attempt – keep trying.shine, standardize or sustain. I bet you can.
Page 9 Salvo May 31, 2012 CPAC Corner Did You Know? The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is changing the way federal government agencies maintain and access official personnel folders (OPF). Personnel offices across the nation are changing from a paper-based personnel records system to an electronic official personnel folder (eOPF). Your OPF is your official file which documents all important events related to your career within the federal sector. If you have any questions, What does eOPF mean to Army (Appropriated and Nonappropriated Fund)? contact the CPAC office The eOPF is designed to electronically store, at manage, and distribute OPF documents. Employ- 266-4058. ees will be able to access their individual records online. All current paper OPF documents are being uploaded into the web-enabled eOPF. eOPF stores all OPF documents as Portable Document Format (PDF) files, complete with data describ- ing the folder and its contents. The schedule for eOPF deployment is pending but we are expect- ing the Northeast region to be deployed within the next few months. As soon as we have a date when employees can access their own OFPs, we will communicate the information immediately. Arsenal-Coordinated
Page 10 Salvo May 31, 2012Arsenal museum marks its 25th anniversary By Mark Koziol Arsenal MuseumTwenty-five years agoon May 22, 1987, a ded-ication ceremony tookplace at the WatervlietArsenal Cast Iron Build-ing to mark the “of-ficial” opening of theArsenal Museum.Despite this grand open-ing, the museum actu-ally began operations in Photos provided by Arsenal Museum1968 when the Arsenal Left: Dignitaries, historicthe Arsenal Museum May 22, 1987. William Bradford, left,history welcome the20th public to the opening of re-enactors representing many eras in American military shows off an earlyHistorical Committee of century drill press.volunteers was foundedand operated by many arsenal • A 24-pound British cannon, • 16-inch naval gun tubepeople such as James Murray, made in 1718, and used by used on the World War II-Hank Maloy, Chet Crell, and John Gen. Howe’s Army dur- era battleships.Kacharian. ing the Battle of Saratoga (1777) in a failed attempt • M40 106mm RecoillessTheir years of dedicated work in to seize control of Albany Rifle, used in the Vietnamassembling at the Cast Iron Build- and the Hudson Rivers. War.ing a collection of historic artifacts The bronze cannon was oneand constructing exhibitions led • M224 60mm Lightweight of many weapons surren-to a museum that operated in the Mortar, used in the Gulf dered by the British Gen.1970s on an appointment only ba- Burgoyne to the Colonists War and the recent wars insis. In order to improve its opera- on October 17, 1777. Afghanistan and Iraq.tions, museum officials in the early1980s hired museum professional • A 12-pound cannon, made • M109 Paladian Self-Pro-William Bradford as curator. His in 1760, used by the Brit- pelled Howitzer’s 155mmtask was to organize and create a ish to defend Fort George Gun tube, used since themore formal museum operation in Canada, located at the Vietnam War until the pres-as well as create a professional western end of Lake On- ent.exhibition gallery. The completed tario. During the War of The museum is currently closedproject opened to the public sev- 1812, the American forceseral years later in 1987. due to the installation of a fire sup- attacked and captured Fort pressant system. Reopening is George on May 27, 1813. Each artifact on display has currently planned for early July.a fascinating story to tell. Two Examples of several weapons For up-to-date information, pleaseinteresting and historic weapons systems made at the Watervliet Ar- check the museum’s web pageon exhibit that were not made in senal and on exhibit at the museum at: http://www.wva.army.mil/mu-Watervliet include: include: seum.php
Page 11 Salvo May 31, 2012 Safety office stung due to lack of a name During the May town hall meeting, the commander praised the safety office for their coming up with a new safety slogan. Not soon after the words of praise left the com- mander’s lips, did the commander come up with another challenge ─ name the bee. Nominations can be emailed to Maj. Donald Freer through June 15th. Then the Command Group and Safety Office will select the overall winner and two runner- ups. All three will receive gift items from the Safety Store. The winners will be publi- cized in the June SALVO. Watervliet Arsenal Safety Office ET VLI AR SE ER T NA WA L 1813 Safety Checks and Area Inspections S Signs, labels and barricades in place - Ensure all safety/emergency signs and barricades are posted and readable W Wear PPE properly - Ensure all building inhabitants are wearing required PPE A Administrative controls - Ensure all safety labels, placards, and JSAs are posted and readable R Risk free walking / working surfaces - Ensure proper housekeeping and keep working areas clean and hazard free M Machine guarding - Machine guards and engineering controls are in place and operational E Energy hazard controls - Ensure all Lock-Out/Tag-Out procedures & policies are in place and followed D Disposal of chemicals - Ensure chemicals are properly labeled, stored, and disposed of
Page 12 Salvo May 31, 2012 Arsenal Appreciation Night with the ValleyCats Saturday, 18 August SA egin VE l es B at 7 p.m. THE et Sa! D ATETick Now Contact Contact John Snyder John Snyder at 266-5055 at 266-5055 or or in Room 102 in Room 102 Building 10 Building 10 for tickets!!! for tickets!!! Our own Suzanne Delaney will sing the National Anthem • The Arsenal has coordinated with the Tri-City ValleyCats baseball organi- zation for the 4th Annual Arsenal Appreciation Night. • Game is on Saturday, 18 August, at 7 p.m. (Fireworks Night) • Department of the Army Civilians and Arsenal family members may pur- chase a "Reserved Box" ticket for only $5.50 (42% discount). These are better seats than what we had in the past (Section 230). And, for the first time, if you want to save a few bucks, you may purchase Grandstand tickets for only $4 (38% discount). Yes, a price for everyone. • Even though we have better seats, All Arsenal Military Veterans will still receive a free ticket. • You may also purchase a reduced meal voucher for only $3.50 This voucher is good for one hot dog, small soda, and bag of chips. • For tickets and information, contact John Snyder, room 102, Bldg. 10.