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  • Describing the inter-linkages: The impact of DLDD on Water Scarcity: Water scarcity is defined as a situation where insufficient water water resources are available to satisfy long-term average requirements. It refers to long term water imbalances, combining low water availability with a level of water demand exceeding the natural supply/recharge. In the face of DLDD, natural recharge is reduced as the soil looses its water retention capacity. Water availability problems frequently appear in areas with low rainfall but also in areas with high population density, intensive agriculture and/or industrial activity. The impacts of Water and Climate Change: When there is a temporary decrease in the water availability this is known as drought. Drought is a natural phenomenon and the frequency with which it is experienced around the world in the last few years appears to be exacerbated by climate change: Dry areas become drier and those presently wet, wetter. The impacts of climate change on drought intensity and frequency attract great attention and raise questions among countries. Climate change models project more frequent and intense summer droughts, due to a joint effect of a rise in temperature and a drop in precipitation. Land and Climate Change impacts CO-2 induced climate change and land degradation remain inextricably linked. The general high temperature and low precipitation in the drylands lead to poor organic matter production, more soil erosion and soil salinisation. Again the quality and quantity of water scarcity is affected.

Transcript

  • 1. Agua y Cambio Climático, evidencias metodólogicas Sergio A. Zelaya Punta Cana Republica Dominicana 29 Octubre 2009
  • 2. Water is a crosscutting issue
    • Water Cycle is at the heart of the 3 Rio Conventions
    • JLG a high level policy making platform for the three Rio conventions
    • UN-Water another instrument for coordinating water and climate change issues
    • For the UNCCD in particular sustainable and integrated water resources management is an essential ingredient for achieving the Strategic Objectives
  • 3. Climate Change and Water Resources
    • Frequent and severe summer droughts
    • Drop in water retention as snow melts
    • Low recharge of the water tables
    • Reduced river water flow
    • Increased water scarcity
    • Increased dependence on ground water
    • Increased water salinity
    • Increased saline intrusion with rising sea levels
    • Disappearing glaciers reduce fresh water availability
  • 4. Climate Change impacts rainfall patterns
    • Expected to cause drop in precipitation with rise in temperatures
    • Rainfall will be highly variable with considerable regional variations,
    • Dry areas are likely to become drier, and those presently wet – wetter,
    • Mean annual precipitation is likely to decrease in some regions and increase in others,
    • Intensity of rainfall events is projected to increase even in regions where the mean annual precipitation is likely to decrease
    • Changes in rainfall pattern extremes are likely to be more dramatic than in the means,
    • Climate change is expected to reduce water availability and increase irrigation withdrawals,
    • small Islands with small catchments that do not provide perennial flows are highly vulnerable.
    • Source IPCC, UNCCD, FAO, UNDP and other sources
  • 5. Drylands rainfall patterns
    • Most drylands have climatic conditions which almost entirely depend on rainfall
    • Two or three, or sometimes up to six consecutive dry years are observed
    • Statistical analysis of rainfall in these regions reveals a stepped drop since the early 70s
    • A reduction of approximately 20% in the rainfall results in a 40% reduction in surface runoff
  • 6. Climate Change and drought
    • Droughts can be considered as a temporary decrease of the average water availability
    • Although drought is a natural phenomenon, its frequency around the world in the last few years appear to be exacerbated by climate change
    • Drought duration is largely variable from one country to another
    • Overall economic impacts of drought events are set to double over the next few years
    • Small Island states are most vulnerable
  • 7. Climate Change and water availability
    • Total renewable freshwater is the total volume of river run-off + groundwater recharge by precipitation + rivers water flowing from neighbouring countries
    • This resource is supplemented by water stored in lakes, reservoirs, icecaps and fossil groundwater.
    • Climate change reduces water availability through:
    • - lower ground water recharge caused by droughts
    • - the drop in water retention as snow
    • - lower precipitation
  • 8. Impacts of CC and water availability
    • Food insecurity: critical in coming years
    • Migration: push and pull factors
    • Social conflicts
    • Biodiversity loss
    • More droughts, more drylands (currently between 33 to 41 % of earth surface)
  • 9. Linkages: climate change and DLDD Land Climate Change Water High temperatures Disappearing glaciers Varying rainfall patterns
    • Drought
    • Water Scarcity
    • Floods
    CO-2 Sequ. Soil restoration Desertification Land degradation Rainfall patterns
  • 10. DLDD , Climate Change and Water
    • Articles 2, 3, 4 and 17 of the UNCCD Convention underline the importance of sustainable use of water resources
    • UNCCD has the mandate to address drought issues as they relate to climate change in the drylands
    • UNCCD - a unique instrument in bringing attention to DLDD issues in drylands
    • UNCCD – increasingly a recognised instrument for making substantial contributions to poverty reduction and sustainable development  ‘UN-LAND’ as an example of activity we undertake
  • 11. Strategic objectives of the UNCCD To mobilize resources to support implementation of the Convention through building effective partnerships between national and international actors 4
  • 12. Some global policies on water
    • Water should be viewed as a basis for access to food security
    • Water should be treated as a common good
    • Access to water is essential for the sustainable development of all living species .
    • Part and parcel of the solution at the climate change framework