Water and Energy Nexus and Challenges by Michela Miletto, World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), Coordinator a.i.

1,744 views
1,558 views

Published on

Presentation on Water and Energy Nexus and Challenges by Michela Miletto, World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), Coordinator a.i. at 2014 UN-Water Annual International Zaragoza Conference. Preparing for World Water Day 2014: Partnerships for improving water and energy access, efficiency and sustainability. 13-16 January 2014.

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,744
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water and Energy Nexus and Challenges by Michela Miletto, World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), Coordinator a.i.

  1. 1. Michela Miletto WWAP, Coordinator a.i. 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. FRESHWATER AND ENERGY ARE CRUCIAL FOR HUMAN WELL BEING AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT People without access to improved water 0.76 billion People whose right to water is not satisfied 3.5 billion People without access to improved sanitation 2.5 billion People lacking access to electricity 1.3 billion People using solid fuels for cooking 2.6 billion THE MAJORITY OF THE UNSERVED POPULATION RESIDES IN LDCS AND SUBSAHARAN AFRICA IN PARTICULAR 3
  4. 4. POPULATION USING SOLID FUELS FOR COOKING AND WITHOUT ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY, IMPROVED WATER AND SANITATION THE CASE OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (selected representative countries): Using solid fuel for cooking No access to electricity No access to improved water No access to sanitation 78% 66% 31% 78% IT IS NO COINCIDENCE THAT THE FIGURES CONCERNING ACCESS TO WATER/SANITATION SERVICES AND ENERGY ALIGN SO WELL. IT IS OFTEN THE SAME PEOPLE WHO ARE MISSING OUT ON BOTH. 4
  5. 5. WATER AVAILABILITY: APPROACHING CRITICAL LIMITS Annual average scarcity in major river basins (1995-2005) Increase of 1% per year of total freshwater withdrawals (19872000) Increase by 55% by 2050 of global water demand in terms of withdrawals Map prepared for GEO5 (UNEP) Map prepared for GEO5 (UNE 5 P)
  6. 6. WATER AVAILABILITY: APPROACHING CRITICAL LIMITS Major aquifers 20% of the world’s aquifers are over-exploited Groundwater abstraction increasing by 1% -2% per year Water stress of aquifers important for farming (Nature 488, 197–200) 6
  7. 7. HOW MUCH WATER IS REQUIRED FOR PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION? Water withdrawals and consumption vary for fuel production (IEA, 2012) 7
  8. 8. GROWING DEMAND FOR ENERGY (IEA, 2012). Increase by 1/3 by 2035. Currently, energy accounts for 15% of all freshwater withdrawals. 8
  9. 9. Fact: 80% of the world’s electricity is provided by fossil fuels and nuclear power WHERE DOES OUR ELECTRICITY COME FROM? Electrical power generation is expected to increase by 70% by 2035! World electricity generation by source of energy in 2010 9
  10. 10. HOW MUCH WATER IS REQUIRED FOR ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION? Water use for electricity generation by cooling technology (IEA, 2012) 10
  11. 11. WHERE ARE WE HEADED? New technologies largely sustainable Peaking fossil fuels Stanford University Global Climate and Energy Project 11
  12. 12. THE OTHER SIDE OF THE NEXUS: ENERGY WATER 12
  13. 13. FOSSIL FUELS AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION: THE CHALLENGE… nuclear approximately 90% of global power generation is water intensive natural gas diesel coal oil 13
  14. 14. POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS? HYDROPOWER 90% of expected increase in 2010-2035 would be in non OECD Countries Hydropower undeveloped potential Africa 92% Asia 80% Australia/Ocea nia 80% Latin America 74% 14
  15. 15. POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS? GEOTHERMAL Use of geothermal energy for power generation is underdeveloped and its potential is greatly underappreciated. It is climate independent, produces minimal or near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, does not consume water, and its availability is infinite at human time scales. From a water perspective, solar photovoltaic and wind are the most sustainable sources for power generation but they provide an intermittent service. WIND SOLAR 15
  16. 16. OPPORTUNITIES FOR SYNERGIES: CO-PRODUCING ENERGY AND WATER SERVICES • • • • Combined power and desalination plants Alternative water sources for thermal power plant cooling Combined heat and power plants Sewage water energy recovery 16
  17. 17. Thank you 17

×