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Groundwater Rule Overview and Best Practices

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An overview of the Groundwater Rule plus related disinfection and monitoring best practices

An overview of the Groundwater Rule plus related disinfection and monitoring best practices

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  • 1. Groundwater Rule: WaterTrax Overview and Best Practices Gary Lynch, VP Water Quality Park Water Kenny Hughes, Regional Manager WaterTrax
  • 2. GoToWebinar Controls Click the button with the arrows to minimize your GoToWebinar controls Type your questions for us into the box at the bottom and press Send
  • 3. A Utility Perspective of the Ground Water Rule WaterTrax Webinar November 10, 2009 Gary R. Lynch V.P. – Water Quality Park Water Company
  • 4. Intent of the Ground Water Rule Correct all significant deficiencies Eliminate source of contamination Provide an alternate source of water Provide treatment that reliably achieves at least 4-log treatment of viruses
  • 5. Key Dates December 1, 2009 – GWR compliance date December 31, 2012 – States must have completed Sanitary Surveys for all Community Water Systems December 31, 2014 – States must have completed Sanitary Surveys for all Non Community Water Systems
  • 6. New Challenges for GW Systems Sanitary Surveys – Source – Treatment – Distribution system – Finished water storage – Pumps, pump facilities and controls – Monitoring, reporting and data verification – System operations and maintenance – Operator compliance
  • 7. New Challenges (continued) Source Water Monitoring and Reporting – New opportunity for M & R violations “Treatment Technique” violations if fail to correct significant deficiencies Treatment – 4-log inactivation / removal – New level of expertise required, certified treatment operator O & M / Record Keeping – New opportunity for M & R violations Unintended Consequences
  • 8. How Should Groundwater Systems Plan? “GWS’s must provide the state with any pertinent existing information that will enable the State to perform the Sanitary Survey” So, why not do your own evaluation? – Sanitary Survey aspects (eight) – Source Water Assessment Program Gather any available information on hydrogeology Review well construction data Do some source monitoring
  • 9. Check For Contaminating Sources Check your existing Source Water Assessment, review for contaminating activities Evaluate well situation to environment – Drainage – Sewers – Septic systems – Storm drains
  • 10. Check Well Construction Drilling method – Cable tool – Rotary Gravel pack Annular seal Surface seal Casing condition Cascading water Oil lube well / water lube well
  • 11. Do Some Monitoring Which method to use? – E. coli – Enterococcus – Coliphage Central Basin ground water recharge basins recharged for >40 years with recycled water
  • 12. Issues For Water Systems Triggered Source Monitoring – With TCR TC+ sample, have short time to make distribution system determination – Multiple wells • State requires source water monitoring plan for representative samples – Initial sample at source – If E. coli positive, 5 repeat samples w/in 24 hrs – Reporting and record keeping Source Assessment Monitoring (12 months) – E. coli positive will lead to immediate public notification – Reporting and record keeping
  • 13. Issues For Water Systems (continued) Wholesaler / Consecutive System Relationship – Who notifies who, when? – Reporting and record keeping Mixed systems (groundwater and surface water) – Where do you take your triggered source sample? – How do you determine if TC+ sample is sw related? Public Notification – Different triggers for • Triggered source monitoring • Source assessment monitoring – Special notice to the public – CCR – Reporting and record keeping
  • 14. Issues For Water Systems (continued) Treatment – What to do to meet 4-log inactivation / removal? – O&M – Reporting and record keeping Appropriate Level Treatment Operator – Reporting and record keeping Reporting and Record Keeping – Documentation on any decision process related to rule compliance
  • 15. 4-log Inactivation / Removal Inactivation – Disinfectants • Chlorine gas – elemental Cl2 or ClO2 • Hypochlorite – solid or liquid • Ozone • UV (in combination with something else) – How to get CT? • Use existing USEPA CT tables Removal – Surface water treatment – Membranes • Membrane operations and integrity testing Combination – ?
  • 16. How To Get CT Dose is dependent on how long of a contact time can be achieved before first customer Distance to the first customer – Unless your lucky • Small pump lots – Build circuitous pipelines – Increase pipe diameter • Build storage – Acquiring land for storage – Construction parameters » Baffles » Separate inlet and outlet » others – Could require changing out your well pump – Booster pumps from storage
  • 17. Challenges to Effective Disinfection (Inactivation) Application of disinfectant What means do you use to get contact time to meet 4-log? Use of a continuous online monitor – GWR states online monitor must comply with CFR 141.74(a)(2) • DPD and amperometric titration methods only approved • No reagent-less monitors currently approved • Calibration of monitor every 5 days Accurate readings of monitor – State determines residual disinfectant required – Must document lowest residual level every day (SCADA system?) Certified Operator – Operator in plant – Wells at remote sites, no operator
  • 18. Recording Disinfectant In-line, continuous, records lowest residual level each day – Failure of in-line monitor – Grab samples every four hours Daily grab samples, must monitor during hour of peak flow – If fall below state determined residual level, perform grab samples every 4 hours until restored
  • 19. How Do You Apply a Disinfectant to Ground Water? Chemical feed pump In-line static mixer Chemical feed to discharge line
  • 20. How Do You Apply a Disinfectant to Ground Water? Internal Workings of Static Mixer Disc (Wafer) Mixer No Static Mixer Static Mixer
  • 21. How Do You Apply a Disinfectant to Ground Water? In-line residual monitor In-line residual Monitor Chemical feed pump with pulsation dampener
  • 22. How Do You Apply a Disinfectant to Ground Water? Commercial Cal-Hypo Unit Bulk Cal-Hypo system Down well casing chlorine application
  • 23. How Do You Apply a Disinfectant to Ground Water? Salt chlorine generation (0.4% available chlorine) Rotometer Chemical feed pump and Rotometer
  • 24. How Do You Apply a Disinfectant to Ground Water? On-site chlorine generation (0.4%) On-site chlorine generation (0.8%) 0.8% bulk storage with chemical feed pumps and pulsation dampeners
  • 25. Triggered Monitoring Source Monitoring Plan
  • 26. Issues Beyond the GWR Triggered Source Sample – If source is E. coli positive and have a TC+ resample, what does this mean? – This would be a public notification scenario under TCR Should you quantify repeat samples with something like Idexx Quantitray to get a density? No distribution system residual required if doing 4-log inactivation/removal – Not the same as SWTR
  • 27. Issues Beyond GWR (continued) If disinfection is initiated, what about unintended consequences? – EPA lists possible release of lead, copper and arsenic from pipelines – What about: • Released biofilm • Taste & Odor from biofilm die-off • Colored water • Corrosion • T & O from disinfectant • Iron and Manganese precipitation • Compliance with Stage I and Stage II DBP Regulations
  • 28. EPA Guidance Guidance is available on EPA website – Complying with the GWR: Small Entity Compliance Guide – Consecutive System Guidance – GWR Source Water Monitoring Methods Guidance – Source Water Assessment Guide – Sanitary Survey Guidance Manual for GW syst. – GWR Corrective Action Guidance Manual – GWR Triggered & Representative Source Water Monitoring Guidance
  • 29. Conclusions Do an advance review of your system’s ability to comply with the GWR GWR will be a significant challenge Many opportunities for M & R violations 4-log inactivation/removal may not be practical, especially for small systems Avoid treatment if possible – Find other means to eliminate customer exposure to fecal contamination Stay in touch with your state on their implementation schedule
  • 30. CT Calculator EPA is developing a CT calculator to put into a guidance manual – not done yet Visit www.WQTS.com and you will find a CT calculator – Acknowledge the disclaimer and calculate your CT requirements based on your differing water quality parameters – Then, calculate your production well’s time to first customer based on pipe diameter, gallons per minute produced and distance to first customer. Then multiply the disinfectant level by the time to first customer and see if you can meet 4-log virus inactivation – Then what do you do?
  • 31. WaterTrax Product Demo WaterTrax Water Data Management Webinar December 8th, 1:30pm Eastern / 10:30am Pacific Register at: WWW.WATERTRAX.COM
  • 32. WaterTrax Product Demo WaterTrax Water Data Management Webinar December 8th, 1:30pm Eastern / 10:30am Pacific Register at: WWW.WATERTRAX.COM
  • 33. WaterTrax Product Demo WaterTrax Water Data Management Webinar December 8th, 1:30pm Eastern / 10:30am Pacific Register at: WWW.WATERTRAX.COM
  • 34. WaterTrax Product Demo WaterTrax Water Data Management Webinar December 8th, 1:30pm Eastern / 10:30am Pacific Register at: WWW.WATERTRAX.COM
  • 35. WaterTrax Product Demo WaterTrax Water Data Management Webinar December 8th, 1:30pm Eastern / 10:30am Pacific Register at: WWW.WATERTRAX.COM
  • 36. WaterTrax Product Demo WaterTrax Water Data Management Webinar December 8th, 1:30pm Eastern / 10:30am Pacific Register at: WWW.WATERTRAX.COM