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Water use efficiency
 

Water use efficiency

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Water use Efficiency in India -- Current status, factors governing efficiency and how to enhance

Water use Efficiency in India -- Current status, factors governing efficiency and how to enhance

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    Water use efficiency Water use efficiency Presentation Transcript

    • Measures to increase Water Use Efficiency in Agriculture 1 WATER MANAGEMENT FORUM A Peripheral body of The Institution of Engineers (India) http://www.wmf-iei.org
    • Indian Water-Agriculture Scenario 2
    • 3 Category of key Challenges: Water Availability Supporting Facts 50% of precipitation received in 15 days & 90% of river flows in 4 months of year Sustains 16.9 % of world's population on 4% of global water resources 70% of surface water resources & ground water reserves are contaminated Ground water levels declining at the rate of 10 cm per year 26 % of waste water treated & 38.2 bln litres of sewerage generated every day INDIA FACES SIGNIFICANT WATER CHALLENGE
    • 4 Category of key Challenges: Efficiency Implementat ion Issues Supporting Facts  Irrigation efficiency barely 35 % & water productivity of food-grains as low as 0.48 kg/m3 of consumptive use. Low storage per capita 36 % of utilizable resource (252 BCM out of 690 BCM) Only 16% of farmers aware of irrigation efficiency technologies 50% water lost to leakage & system inefficiencies Unaffordable conditions of farmers to bear cost of adoption of technology. INDIA FACES SIGNIFICANT WATER CHALLENGE Source: Indian Assessment—Planning Commission-World Bank report
    • Water Resources (In Billion Cubic Meter) Total rainfall 4000 Total Water Availability 1869 (Source: MoWR/Deptt. Of Agri. & Cooperation) Surface Water 61% Ground Water 39% BCM 433 690 5 Source: MOWR/ Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
    • Demands of various Sectors (Source: MoWR/Planning commission report-11th Five year Plan) Sector Water Demand in BCM Standing Sub-Committee MoWR NCIWRD* Year 2010 2025 2050 2010 2025 2050 Irrigation 688 910 1072 557 611 807 Drinking Water 56 73 102 43 62 111 Industry 12 23 63 37 67 81 Energy 5 15 130 19 33 70 Other 52 72 80 54 70 111 Total 813 1093 1447 710 843 1180 In view of likely improvement in irrigation efficiency, the recommendation of NCIWRD has been accepted * The National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development (NCIWRD) 6
    • 2010 •MOWR 813 •NCIWRD 710 2025 •MOWR 1093 •NCIWRD 843 2050 •MOWR 1447 •NCIWRD 1180 2000 634 Water Demand (In Billion Cubic Metre) 7
    • conserve every drop of water and improve efficiency Water demand Water Supply Population Growth Urbanisation Industrialisation 8
    • Indian Agriculture  80-84% of water consumed for agriculture  Lower productivity of most of the major crops  Real problem: wastage of water & lack of Demand management, not shortage  Wasteful utilisation of water resources diminish crop productivity  resulting in lower efficiency. 9
    • • Different definitions by agriculturists, Hydrologists, Engineers, etc • Enhancing WUE is an important goal in our water policy. • Efficiency is a measure of output, obtained from a given unit of input. • Efficient water utilisation reflects – how efficiently water is stored, distributed and used for crop production. • Principle factors influencing WUE : – Design of the irrigation system, – Degree of land preparation and – Skill & care from the irrigator Water Use Efficiency (WUE) 10
    • • “Handbook for computing the Water Use Efficiency (WUE) for Irrigation Projects” published by CWC, GOI, New Delhi in April 2010 – narrates Standard Operating Procedure for computing WUE – provides information- data required to be collected, processed and analysed. – gives insight about what measures should be taken up to enhance WUE. • More emphasis laid on agriculture use as it consumes most of the water. 11
    • Surface water Ground water Present Scope 35- 40% 60% 75%65-70% SURFACE SPRINKLER DRIP 0 20 40 60 80 100 SURFACE SPRINKLER DRIP 40 70 90 30 30 60 80 60 20 35 12
    • Efficiency implementation Issues: Key Challenges Key Challenge: Limited technical & managerial capabilities Description: •Low levels of water efficiency and productivity •Low levels of technical awareness and adoptions to improve irrigation and water use efficiencies •Limited storage capacity •High quantum of leakages from poor service delivery network •Lack of governance & autonomy •Missing leadership to create enabling environment •Lack of private & user participation to achieve performance competencies •Lack of integrated approach at basin level
    • Key Challenge: Lack of capital & inability to recover costs Description: • Lack of capital – New infrastructure – Operation and maintenance – High energy cost of distribution – Last mile & rehabilitation infrastructure – For end user adoption of efficiency techniques • Pricing distortion due to subsidies – Undervalued water resources & increased wastage 14 Efficiency implementation Issues: Key Challenges
    • Methods to improve Water use efficiency 15
    • (1) Storage/ Conservation System losses 1. Evaporation 2. Percolation 3. Seepage 4. Leakages(Gates,Outlet works, hydraulic structures etc) 16
    • Prevention of water losses through gates Regular inspection & timely & proper O&M & repairs Evaporation retardants Selection of optimum cropping pattern Reservoir bed soil treatment Optimum reservoir operation through rule levels Reservoir Operation Plan for various uses Regular sedimentation surveys & restoration of capacities. Enhancing storage capacity by measures like fuse gate Measures to Increase Reservoir Efficiency HIGHMEDIUMLOW 17
    • (2) Conveyance System losses 1. Evaporation 2. Percolation 3. Seepage 4. Vegetative growth 18
    • Measures to Increase Conveyance Efficiency • Evaporation losses • Deep percolation to soil layers underneath the canals • Seepage through canal bunds Prevention of losses • Stabilisation of Embankments • Removal of vegetation • Retrofitting of canal/pipes • Prevention of Rat holes/animal burrow in canal bunds Maintenance 19
    • • Lining of canals,Use of PVC Pipeline • Hydraulically & geometrically efficient system layout • Canal Escapes & tail channels with outfall • CR planning considering concept of storage pool Canal System • Optimum O & M through automation , regulation & prevention of overtopping • Adoption of Rotational Water Supply & irrigation scheduling • Climatic crop water requirement to be factored in operation plan • Appropriate functioning of canal hierarchy Operation 20
    • (3) Field Application Losses Uneven field surfaces & slopes Water-logging during flood watering Evaporation from fields (Root zone moisture) Evaporation from field channels & network Loss from field channels How to improve onfarm efficiency? 21
    • Enhancing Water Use Efficiency Performance evaluation Best irrigation management practices Integrated River Basin planning Bench marking Water Audit PIM Legal & institutional framework Appropriate Maintenance Less water intensive crops Optimum drainage network OFD ,LL Micro Irrigation 22
    • Flood Irrigation high water consumption & low yields Furrow Irrigation reduces water consumption and increases in crop yields. 23
    • Lining of canals Adequate drainage Improvement in water management CAD Conjunctive use Measures to Mitigate Water logging 24
    • Best Practices in Agriculture Drip irrigation Green House Technology Hydroponics -- A soilless plant growing technology Mulching – Covers open ground surface around plant root with dry grass/hay/leaves for conservation of underneath moisture. – Reduces evaporation significantly and increases water use efficiency. Waste Water Treatment & Recycling • Use of Semi-treated sewage water as source of irrigation and plant nutrients • Recycling of drainage from farms containing water with unused fertilisers 25
    • ANTICIPATED INCREASE IN IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY YEAR 2025  Surface Irrigation 35%  50%  Ground Water Irrigation 65%  72% YEAR 2050  Surface Irrigation 35%  60%  Ground Water Irrigation 65%  75% 26
    • THANK YOU 27