Traditional water harvesting in India Part 3


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Traditional water harvesting in Central Highlands of India.The presentation shows various methods employed for water conservation and recharging in Central India (Rajasthan, MadhyaPradesh,Chhattisgadh)

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Traditional water harvesting in India Part 3

  3. 3. Pat System• Bhitada village , Jhabua district of Madhya pradesh developed pat system.• Devised according to peculiarities of terrain to divert water from swift-flowing hillstreams into irrigation channels called pats.• Diversion bunds across stream made by piling up stones, lining them with teakleaves & mud• Pat channel negotiates small nullahs that join the stream off & on,& also sheer cliffs• These invariably get washed away during monsoons, require constant maintenance• Stone aqueducts have to be built to span intervening nullahs.•Villagers irrigate their fields by turns.
  4. 4. Saza Kuva• This is an open dug well, has several owners.• In Mewari language, saza means partner.• Method for irrigation in the Aravalli hills inMewar, eastern Rajasthan.• Considered common property resources.• Soil dug out to make the well pit is used toconstruct huge circular foundation orelevated platform sloping away from well.• Saza kuva construction taken up by group offarmers with adjacent landholdings;• Harva, a man with special skills in groundwater detection, helps fix the site.• Water shared on the pro-rata basis of size ofthe holding.• Protection of well and annual repairs anddesiltation taken up collectively by allpartner farmers.
  5. 5. REHAT (PERSIANWHEEL)• Found in Punjab, Rajasthan, MadhyaPradesh, western UP, Maharashtra.• Water lifted manually using pulley, rope& bucket or using animal power.• A traditional lifting device is rehat(Persian Wheel); the sloping platform isfor the chada, in which buffaloes areused to lift water.• Water lifted in series of small bucketsfixed on an endless belt or chainmoving on a vertical wheel or drum• Bullocks or camels walking in a circleturn the drum through a set of bevelgears and shafts, which moves Rehat• Revolving movement of the belt risesthe bucket full of water on one side,and empties it when it reaches the top.
  6. 6. Naada / Bandha• Found in Mewar region of Thardesert.• A stone check dam, constructedacross a stream or gully, to capturemonsoon runoff on a stretch ofland.• Submerged in water, the landbecomes fertile due to siltdeposition.• Constructed in phases over severalyears.• Height slowly increased up to thesame height of the checkdam,which determines the size of thenaada.
  7. 7. Rapat• A percolation tank,– with a bund to impound rainwater flowing through awatershed and– a waste weir to dispose off the surplus flow.• In case of small height, bund may be of masonary,otherwise made of earth.• Rajasthan rapats, being small, are all in masonry• Rapats and percolation tanks do not directly irrigateland• Recharges well within a distance of 3-5 kmdownstream.• Silting is a serious problem with small rapats• Estimated life of a rapat varies from 5 to 20 years.
  8. 8. Chandela Tank• Built by Chandelas (Rajput families) who ruled much of theBundelkhand region in MP• Established a network of several hundred tanks that ensured asatisfactory level of groundwater• Constructed by stopping flow of water in rivulets flowingbetween hills by erecting massive earthen embankments, havingwidth of 60 m or more• Hills with long stretches of quartz reefs running underneaththem, acted as natural ground water barrier helping to trapwater between ridges• Tanks are made up of lime and mortar• Chandela tanks usually had a convex curvature somewhere inthe middle of the embankment
  9. 9. Bundela Tank• The Bundela Kings who came later used lime and mortarmasonry and were bordered by steps, pavilions and royalgardens.• The tanks built close to palaces and temples and were notoriginally meant for irrigation at all, but for the use of all.• Breaching of embankments and cultivation on the tank bed hasdestroyed many.• But the wells in the command area of these tanks continue toyield well and also serve to recharge the groundwater.• Bigger in size as compared to Chandela tanks.• Had solidly constructed steps leading to water in the tank;• Structures had chabootaras, pavillions and royal orchardsdesigned to show off the glory of the king who built them.• Not as cost effective and simple as Chandela tanks.
  10. 10. Talab / Bandhis• Talabs are reservoirs--may be natural e.g. ponds (pokhariyan) at Tikamgarh in Bundelkhand or– human-made (lakes in Udaipur).• A reservoir area of less than 5 bighas is called a talai;• A medium sized lake is called a bandhi or talab ;• Bigger lakes are called sagar or samand .• The pokhariyan serve irrigation and drinking purposes.• When the water in these reservoirs dries up just a few days after monsoon,pond beds are cultivated with rice.• The Mewar region is well-known for its built reservoirs {talabs).
  11. 11. Johad• Small earthen check dams that capture andconserve rainwater, improving percolation andgroundwater recharge.• Collects and stores water throughout the year, tobe used for drinking purpose by humans & cattle.• In many parts of Rajasthan annual rainfall is verylow (between 450 and 600 mm) and water canbe unpleasant to drink.• Rain falling during July and August is stored injohads and used throughout the year.• Johads are called as "khadins" in Jaisalmer.• They are popularly known as tankis in most partsof the country.• These are simple mud and rubble barriers builtacross the contour of a slope to arrest rainwater.• These earthen check dams are meant to catchand conserve rainwater, leading to improvedpercolation and groundwater recharge.• They are built across a slope with a highembankment on 3 sides while fourth side is leftopen for rainwater to enter.• They are very common in the Thar desert ofRajasthan.