The Value of Measuring the Health of Our Rivers

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The Value of Measuring the Health of Our Rivers

  1. 1. The value of measuring the health of our rivers Prof Stuart Bunn 斯图亚特·巴恩 教授 Director, Australian Rivers Institute 澳大利亚河流学会 会长 Griffith University 格里菲斯大学
  2. 2. Outline 概述What is river ecosystem ‘health’?什么是河流的’健康’?Threats to rivers – two perspectives:河流面临的威胁主要来自两方面:• humans and nature• 人类与自然Why monitor?需要监测的原因 ?Guiding principles指导准则
  3. 3. What is river ecosystem ‘health’?什么是河流的’健康’?• Often describe rivers as being “healthy” – similar to describing people as being in good health• 经常形容河流“健康的” – 类似于形容人身体很健康 
  4. 4. Analogies with human health  与人体健康的类比• or “unhealthy” 或者‘不健康的“Depends on people’svalues取决于人们的价值观念
  5. 5. Threats to river ecosystems 河流生态系统面临的威胁Point and diffuse source pollution电源污染与面源污染
  6. 6. Threats to river ecosystems 河流生态系统面临的威胁 Loss of floodplains and wetlands 泛洪平原和湿 地的消失Dams and weirs– barriers, altered flows水库大坝的修阻隔了河流的流通建改变了河流的形态
  7. 7. Global threats to river ecosystems全球河流生态系统面临的威胁
  8. 8. Mapping global threats 全球水资源威胁隐患图示Adjusted threat tohuman water security3.4 b people indeveloping countrieslive in areas withthe highest adjustedthreat category发展中国家34亿人口处于高隐患区No similar investmentfor biodiversityprotection
  9. 9. Trends in biodiversity: 生物多样性趋势1970-2000 Population declines in freshwater are twice that of terrestrial and marine systems 淡水生物多样性的减少是陆地 和海洋生物多样性减少的两倍 • 10,000-20,000 freshwater species are extinct or imperiled 一万到两万种淡 水生物已经灭绝或濒临灭绝 • In intensively developed regions, more than one- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 third of the species in some freshwater taxa are threatened 在发展程度比 较高的地区,超过1/3的淡 水生物受到威胁
  10. 10. Freshwater biodiversity 淡水生物多样性 Mekong catfish“Goddess of the Yangtze” (Baiji ) Spiny crayfish Platypus BC Sturgeon Qld Lungfish Pig-nose turtle ~10% of all described animal species; ~40% of Aquatic invertebrates fish diversity and 30% vertebrate diversity
  11. 11. Why monitor? 需要监测的原因 ?• To ensure that important environmental ‘assets’ and ‘values’ are protected 保证重要的环境“资产”及“价值”得到保护 Ecosystem goods and services 生态系统的产品和服务 Clean, fresh drinking water is an example of an ecosystem service that healthy rivers provide … (for free) 洁净、新鲜的饮用水是是健康河流“免 费”提供的生态产品的一个例证
  12. 12. Other examples of ‘assets’ 其它例证 Recreation 娱乐Fishing - protein 捕鱼 - 蛋白质 Freshwater biodiversity 淡水生物多样性Aesthetics 美的享受
  13. 13. Guiding principles 指导准则1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  14. 14. Identify the objectives of the program确定项目目标Important to set clear goals and objectives and be able to present avision for the future: 设置明确目标及对未来愿景的阐述非常重要For example, your vision might simply be “Healthy River”例如,你的愿景可能非常简单:“健康的河流” What would a healthy river look like? 健康的河流应该是怎样的 ? • Is it safe to drink? 河水是否可以安全饮用 ? • Will it have more fish? 是否拥有更多的鱼类 ? • Will it be safe to eat the fish? 河流中的鱼类是否可以安全食用?With a clear vision, it is possible to identify the values that reflect thatvision, and the water quality and ecosystem health objectives thatprotect those values.有了清晰的愿景我们才能够确定反映该愿景的价值,才能确定保护这些价值的水质及环境系统健康的指标
  15. 15. Selection of indicators 选择评估指标Important to select a few indicators that are meaningful.选择有意义的指标非常重要• Ones that respond to things that threaten the values we identify 这些指标可以直接响应我们确定的河流既定价值• Guide management actions 为实施管理提供指导方针Design of the monitoring program and selection ofindicators are very important.监测项目的设计及评估指标的选择非常重要
  16. 16. Testing indicators 测试指标
  17. 17. River Classification 河流分类Different types of rivers:不同的河流将
  18. 18. Classifying rivers into different types将河流进行系统分类It is important to recognise the differences in river types whendeveloping a monitoring program because: 认识河流形态的不同对开展监测项目而言尤为重要,其原因如下:• Different types of rivers (and other freshwaters) will not look and behave the same even when they are healthy. 即便在健康状态下, 不同类型的河流(及其他淡水水域)其外观及运行也有所不同;• The types of indicators that might be appropriate in one type of river may not be appropriate for another.某些适用于某个地区的评估指标 无法在其他地方适用;• The methods used to sample in one type may not be possible or relevant in another. 同样的,在某个地区采用的采样方法可能无法在 其他地方进行;• Even where the same indicator can be used in different river types, the thresholds or targets are likely to differ. 即便某些评估指标可使用 于不同形态的河流,其阈值的选取也将因地而异
  19. 19. Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考 What is ‘healthy’ and what is not? 何为“健康”与“不健康” 
  20. 20. Report card – communication tool评估报告卡——沟通工具 www.ehmp.org
  21. 21. Report card 估报告卡
  22. 22. Why monitor? 需要监测的原因 ?Targeted management actions 目标管理行为 Sewage Treatment Plant upgrades 污水处理工厂升级改造 Riparian Rehabilitation 河岸生态系统恢复Environmental flows for rivers 河流的环境流量
  23. 23. Summary 总结Stream ecosystem health monitoring and reporting needto be developed in the context of an adaptive process生态系统健康监控报告需要逐步的被适应并采纳 • clearly linked to identified values and objectives, 该系统 与被认可的价值与目标挂钩 • is informed by rigorous science, 已被科学数据严格论证 • guides management actions and 为实施管理提供指导方针 • is responsive to changing perceptions and values of stakeholders. 响应相关利益者 价值观的改变
  24. 24. Thankyou 谢谢Science for rivers, coasts and catchments www.rivers.edu.au

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