Using FOAMS: A look at hygiene promotion in the Pacific


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WASH 2011 coference: Diane Cousineau

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  • Case studies: a range in scale, geography and approach - from mass media campaigns to community-based behaviour change.FOAMS is a framework that was designed to help in the development, monitoring, and evaluation of hygiene behaviour change programs.
  • - Explain workshop
  • Hygiene promotion using PHAST doesn’t always focus on particular messages or groups. Sometimes many The church was identified as a potential institution of influence to disseminate hygiene messages andmotivate behaviour change.The lack of understanding of the drivers of behaviour change in communities by WV staff was suggested to be overcome by spending more time incommunities, discussing their habits and getting to know them better.
  • Campaign approach in Fiji – great for one behaviour change – HWWSMove from least desirable to ideal practicePHAST – sometimes many behaviours being addressed simultaneously… info overload?
  • 1. so people take the step from simply understanding the importance of handwashing, to actually handwashing with soap. 2. Men who understand good hygiene not only change themselves, but also create the opportunity for others to change with them
  • PPP - Often not a natural partner for NGOs or governments, but there is huge potential to raise awareness about hygiene through partnerships with private companies. Specific events such as Global Handwashing Day can represent an opportunity for partnership. Companies can market and mobilise their customer base at a rate and speed which is hard for an NGO to achieve. In integrated WASH programs, hygiene promotion requires the staff, skills, training and budget support that water supply and sanitation components receive. Successful community participation approaches rely upon well-trained and confident cadres to encourage and facilitate behaviour change through action-planning and follow-up.- Sustainability - think about exit strategy… how will hygiene champions be supported?
  • Knowledge building! 1 – Kids – physical tools AND mental tools
  • fear of disease & improved health, are not the only or the strongest driver for practicing good hygiene behaviours… - Peer to peer learning, not top-down education
  • M&E for hygiene behaviour change is notoriously difficult… it’s a challenge in the Pacific as well
  • Using FOAMS: A look at hygiene promotion in the Pacific

    1. 1. Using FOAMS: A look at hygiene promotion in the Pacific<br />Diane Cousineau<br />
    2. 2. Sharing Experiences: effective hygiene promotion in South-East Asia & the Pacific <br /><ul><li>Partnership of WaterAid Australia, IRC and IWC
    3. 3. Publication begins with two key papers used to set the stage for the 11 project case studies:
    4. 4. Health message myth in achieving behaviour change
    5. 5. FOAMS – key elements that need to be analysed to achieve hygiene behaviour change</li></li></ul><li>FOAMS Workshops<br /><ul><li>Launch of Fiji’s National Handwashing Campaign (a PPP)
    6. 6. Took FOAMS to World Vision’s Pacific regional WASH conference for Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands & Vanuatu</li></li></ul><li>Know your focus group<br />How can we improve?<br /><ul><li>Find out what motivates behaviour change, other than health messages
    7. 7. Try piloting different messaging materials – which are effective?
    8. 8. Who is influential, can motivate the community, and support the campaign? </li></ul>Great! <br /><ul><li>Using PHAST to understand behaviours of target audience
    9. 9. Focus on children in School WASH programs – using fun and creative messaging, music, hygiene mascots</li></li></ul><li>Focusyour message – focuspractices<br />How can we improve?<br />Giving information isn’t enough – invest time<br />Identify/discuss problems and agree on solutions.Focus on key behaviours that resonate with the audience.<br />Small, easy, sequential steps… gradual change is easier to incorporate. <br />Great! <br /><ul><li>Focus message – handwashing with soap
    10. 10. Small, do-able actions – focus on a single, or a few, behaviours at a time
    11. 11. For several changes – PHAST - work toward understanding risky behaviours & good practices</li></li></ul><li>Ensure that there is opportunity to change<br />How can we improve?<br />Households need a designated place for handwashing<br />Availability of soap<br />Great! <br /><ul><li>Building low/no-cost handwashing stations
    12. 12. Demos in public places: schools, markets, clinics
    13. 13. Recognising the importance of gender</li></li></ul><li>Creating opportunity at the institutional level<br />Great! <br /><ul><li>Community level - training government staff in hygiene promotion
    14. 14. National Public Private Partnership – govt support, stakeholder collaboration</li></ul>How can we improve?<br />Specific strategy<br />Dedicated budget<br />Well-trained staff<br />
    15. 15. Facilitating the ability to change<br />Great! <br /><ul><li>Using PHAST to help people understand which behaviours are risky…
    16. 16. Using PHAST to demonstrate to large groups how to build a tippy tap
    17. 17. Giving kids the tools to establish the habit</li></ul>How can we improve?<br />PPP - Teachers may need more training in hygiene education and given time to teach hygiene<br /> SOAP! SOAP! SOAP!<br />…and soap alternatives!<br />
    18. 18. Use of local motivatingfactors<br />Great! <br />Mothers want better lives for their children<br />How can we improve?<br /><ul><li>Fear of disease/improved health are not the only or the strongest drivers… take time to understand
    19. 19. Health motivation comes from participatory assessments of good/risky behaviours and conditions peer to peer learning </li></li></ul><li>We don’t know if behaviours are sustained<br />Opportunities to improve!<br />Need data, not just anecdotes<br />M&E needs sufficient budget, training and staff to determine if behaviour change has been sustained.<br />Assess at start, during, after. And after after.<br />M&E should involve the community.<br />Don’t just ask. Combine methods!<br />
    20. 20. Hygiene promotion works! We are making progress<br />We know how to do effective hygiene promotion (FOAMS). <br />We need to:<br /><ul><li>Allocate sufficient time up-front, during and post (is it sustained?)
    21. 21. Allocate a specific budget for hygiene promotion
    22. 22. Strategies to bring it to scale
    23. 23. Keep approaches manageable, action-orientated and reflective of local practices</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!<br />
    24. 24. Let’s FOAMS<br />Group activity <br />In small teams: choose one person’s hygiene work to analyse using the FOAMS framework<br />1. Which elements of FOAMS are done well?<br /> 2. Which elements could be improved? How?<br />Using butcher’s paper, record your group’s answers and report back to the workshop group.<br />
    25. 25. The FOAMS model<br />Describes key elements of hygiene promotion programs that need to be analysed in order to achieve behaviour change.<br />Focuson a target audience / on a behaviour<br />Opportunitiesexisting in the environment to practice the behaviour – community / institutional<br />Abilityto practice the desired behaviour (skills, time)<br />Motivationunderstand it for different focuses<br />Sustainedis the behaviour being sustained?<br />