Mep stuart bunn nov10
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Mep stuart bunn nov10 Mep stuart bunn nov10 Presentation Transcript

  • River health assessment: 河流健康评估:South East Queensland Healthy Waterways Case studyProf Stuart Bunn 斯图亚特·巴恩 教授Director, Australian Rivers Institute 澳大利亚河流学会 会长Griffith University 格里菲斯大学
  • Background to the study region 研究区域的背景情况15 major catchments15个流域 22,353 km2
  • Importance of the region’s waterways该地区水域的重要性High conservation significance (Ramsar) 意义重大的湿地保护区(Ramsar)Major commercial and recreational fisheries 主要的商业及休闲渔场Water supply (urban and rural) 水资源供应(覆盖城市及农村)Recreation & transport 娱乐与交通
  • Threats to ecosystem health and freshwaterbiodiversity 生态系健康和淡水生物多样性威胁 • 20% of original vegetation remains - less adjacent to the streams 剩下20%的原始植被-与河流较少关连 • Altered hydrology - dams & weirs 水文状况受影响-大坝和 • Declining water quality (nutrients & sediment) 水质恶化(营养物和底泥) • Declines in aquatic diversity 水生物多样性恶化 1881 1947 1991 <30 30-250 Persons km-2
  • Having a common vision:相同的展望 “South-east Queensland‟s catchments and waterways will, by 2020, be healthy living ecosystems supporting the livelihoods and lifestyles of people in South-east Queensland and will be managed in collaboration between community, government and industry.” 到2020年东南昆士兰州的流域面积和河流将拥有 健康活跃的生态系统,将支撑起东南昆士兰州人 民的生存和生活,并且通过社区,政府和行业的合 作进行管理. 5
  • Achieving the visionSet values that reflect the vision • numerous workshops with stakeholdersMeasurable water quality or ecosystem healthobjectives that protect the values • underpinned by sound scienceManagement actions to achieve these objectives • working with policy makers
  • Adaptive management framework - ongoing knowledge acquisition - continuous improvement in identification and implementation of management. - effective communication of knowledge for policy/planning - critical role of monitoring
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • No shortage of potential indicators确保每个潜在指示不遗漏 Everyone has their own „pet‟ indicators 每个人都会采用自己喜 欢的指示方法
  • List of potential indicatorsECOSYSTEM PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PATTERNS生态系统过程 生物规律1 Amino acids in algae 28 Genetic structure of population2 Benthic metabolism 29 Structure and function of fish communities3 Tracking sewage Nitrogen using d15N 30 Structure and function of in-stream habitat4 Tracking catchment disturbance using d15N 31 Structure and function of macrophyte communities 135 Tracking Carbon using C 32 Structure and function of riparian vegetation6 Food web structure 33 Structure and function of invertebrate communities7 Nitrogen cycling - denitrification 34 Structure of benthic microbial community8 Filamentous algae – nutrient or shade limitation 35 Structure and function of benthic algal community9 Filamentous algae – using tiles as substrate 36 Structure and function of diatom community10 Chlorophyll a - as measure of productivity 37 Structure and function of frog community11 Measures of resilience 38 Blue-green algae – presence/absence12 Microbial processing in sediments 39 Macrophyte condition13 Depth of biological activity in sediments 40 Fish condition / Fish kills14 Macrophyte biomass measure of productivity 41 Recreational fish catch & extent of fish stockingHUMAN HEALTH 人类健康 42 Health and presence of “megafauna” (eg. platypus)15 Coliform counts 43 Presence of exotic species16 Chryptosporidium counts 44 Asymmetry / high rates of deformities17 Giardia counts 45 Bio-accumulationDISTURBANCE 直接导致干扰的措施 WATER QUALITY 水的物理化学 46 Nutrient concentrations18 Riparian canopy – Hemiphot assessment 47 Nutrient flux from sediments19 Extraction: un/licenced 48 Colour20 Weirs: presence and effects 49 Salinity/conductivity21 Hydrological deviation 50 Temperature22 Extent of flow regulation 51 Dissolved oxygen – snapshot measures23 Assessments of channel integrity 52 Dissolved oxygen – diel measures24 Pins for measuring erosion 53 Turbidity25 Floodplain area 54 Pesticides – snapshot measures26 Presence of rubbish in urban drains 55 Pesticides – integrative measures27 Encroachment of terrestrial vegetation 56 Alkalinity - ionic composition
  • Selection of indicatorsImportant to select a few indicators that are meaningful.选择有意义的指标非常重要•Ones that respond to things that threaten the values weidentify 这些指标可以直接响应我们确定的河流既定价值•Guide management actions 为实施管理提供指导方针Design of the monitoring program and selection ofindicators are very important.监测项目的设计及评估指标的选择非常重要
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • What factors influence importantenvironmental assets? Minimally Impacted Site 受影响较小的地域影响重要环境资产的因素• Show how healthy ecosystems function Nutrients GPP R24 Sediment 展示健康的生态系统如何运作• Show how important assets are affected by human disturbance 展示重要的环境 SEQRWQMS 2001 资产如何受人为活动影响 Highly Impacted Site 受影响较大的地域• Indicate critical components in the ecosystem to target for monitoring 显示 生态系统中必须检测的关键因素 N and P GPP R24• Highlight appropriate management Sediment actions for rehabilitation 着重强调如何 从利用管理手段复原健康生态系统 SEQRWQMS 2001
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • River Classification 河流分类Different types of river will:不同的河流将• Require different indicators 要求不同的指示物• Have different targets 有不同的目标
  • Classification of SE Queensland streams Based on 4 variables – rainfall – altitude – slope – stream size 4 groups – Upland (red) – Lowland (blue) – South Coastal (green) – North Coastal (light blue)
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • Testing indicators 测试指标Literature survey – examples fromprevious studies 文献综述——文献研究中的案例Disturbance gradient approach todetecting impacts应用干扰变化方法发现影响• Define a disturbance gradient 定义干扰变化• Objective comparisons - at same sites & times 目标比较-在相同试点和时间
  • Testing indicators against a disturbancegradient 测试指标与干扰变化Ecological health indicator生态健康参数指标 Low低 High高 Disturbance gradient 干扰变化
  • Final EHMP Program 生态健康监控项目Implemented 2002 • 120 freshwater sites (sampled 2x / yr) Final EHMP: • 5 indicators; 5种指示 • 16 indices; 16个参数
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考What is ‘healthy’ and what is not? 何为“健康”与“不健康” X 
  • Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考Need to define a reference point for indicators需要定义指标的参考点 – What should we expect at a site?我们对试点应该期待些什么? Logical reference point is:逻辑参考点是: – Expected condition if undisturbed by human activity (Biological Integrity)无人为影响的期待的条件(生物完整性)In practice 实践中: – Such sites will not exist for many stream types 该试点不广泛存在在很多河流类型 – Common as a concept, rare in practice 概念里比较普遍,但实践中很少
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • Report card – communication tool评估报告卡——沟通工具
  • Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous „river types‟ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区/威胁的优先顺序
  • Links to policy Strong link between science and policy makers
  • Targeted management actions 目标管理行为Sewage TreatmentPlant upgrades 污水处理工厂升级改造 Riparian Rehabilitation 河岸生态系统恢复 Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices 雨水质量改善装置
  • Effectiveness of management actions~$400Mcommitment by localgovernment toreduce wastewater d15N Sewage Plume 1998 (summer) d15N Sewage Plume 2001 2005 2008 (summer)
  • Identifying sources of sedimentModelling - 70% sediment inBay comes from <30%catchment areaTracer study confirmsthat most sedimentcomes from these soils Caitcheon & Howes (2005)
  • Setting priority targets for restorationThe 10 highest yielding (red) = ~10% ofthe total catchment area but supply 60% ofthe sediment load.The next ranked 10 (yellow) = 13% of thetotal catchment area and supply a further22% of the load.
  • Targetted restorationChannel/habitat Gullyrestoration stabilization Fencing and riparian rehabilitation
  • Summary 总结Stream ecosystem health monitoring and reporting need to bedeveloped in the context of an adaptive process生态系统健康监控报告需要逐步的被适应并采纳 • clearly linked to identified values and objectives, 该系统 与被认可的价值与目标挂钩 • is informed by rigorous science, 已被科学数据严格论证 • guides management actions and 为实施管理提供指导方针 • is responsive to changing perceptions and values of stakeholders. 响应相关利益者 价值观的改变
  • Thankyou http://www.healthywaterways.org