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Development and urban infrastructure: a sustainability perspective
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Development and urban infrastructure: a sustainability perspective


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WASH 2011 conference: Stuart White, ISF, UTS

WASH 2011 conference: Stuart White, ISF, UTS

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  • First level circle are problems or challenges – population growth, climate change, environmental damageSecond level circle are drivers – provide water services and meet MDGs, plan for uncertainty, conserve the environment, protect public health
  • Costs of the business as usual approach are crippling, particularly for developing cities.This figure presents current and projected costs for supplying water in urban areas, showing that costs for developing cities (according to the standard supply-side planning approach) will be 2, 3 or more times current costs.Eg China the South North water diversion project involving transferring water from the Yangtze basin in the south to the Yellow, Huaihe and Haihe river basins in the north. Cost is US $1.2 billion (excluding externalities). Plan responds to water demand forecasting that predicts rapid growth in consumption that isn’t supported by empirical analysis. While Beijing’s population increased by 20% from 1980-2001 water demand remained constant (due to pricing and industrial water saving initiatives).Source: Serageldin 1995 cited in Vairavamoorthy and Mansoor chapter in Butler and Memon (eds) ‘Water Demand Management’ IWA book 2006
  • By taking stock and questioning how we actually use water now (disaggregating water demand into “end uses” such as toilets and showers), how this varies significantly from city to city and how water usage is likely to change over time (e.g. a move from pour flush to single flush toilets) we can begin to truly understand how to forecast water demand in any given city. Having this clearer vision of how water is and will be used in the future will enable us to determine how to provide water services differently and potentially save water through “conservation potential”.
  • Per capita domestic water consumption in different countriesContext is critical – need to respond to actual water needs with appropriate supply and demand options in different citiesSource: Memon and Butler chapter in Butler and Memon (eds) ‘Water Demand Management’ IWA book 2006
  • Supporting and building on current initiatives eg GTZ is doing decentralised san in Can Tho, CTU doing re-use stuffCSIRO AusAID research alliance- integrate any of this with them.
  • TO REVISE AND MAKE SUCCINCTWater use (end use) focus – a ‘disaggregation’ approach to planning (building from the bottom up, outcomes oriented approach)It’s about working out what’s needed and tailoring solutions to meet that need in the most cost effective and sustainable way
  • Transcript

    • 2.
    • 3. Pressures and drivers
      Pressure to achieve MDG water and sanitation targets and ‘water for all’
      Uncertainty and threat of water scarcity
      Need to protect public health
      Need to conserve the environment
    • 4. The pressure of increasing costs
      Source: World Bank World Development Report 1992
    • 5. A new approach for urban waterNext generation water systems must be…
      Cost effective
      Low risk
      Focused on meeting needs - ‘service’ rather than water provision
      More equitable
      Environmentally sustainable
      Protect public health
      This requires a focus on actual water uses and users - the demand side of water planning and management
    • 6. New approach is underpinned by ‘end use’ or ‘demand side’ analysis
      Water end use
      Demand side planning
      Conservation potential
      Disaggregation of water use data
      Integrated Resources Planning
      Understanding how we use water now is essential to accurately forecast future water needs in different cities and best plan to meet those needs
    • 7. The quantity of water used varies greatly between countries
      Need to respond to actual water needs in different cities with appropriate supply and demand option
    • 8. The quantity of water used varies greatly between and within countries
      litres per capita per day
      Residential (pink), non residential (yellow) and unaccounted for water (light blue) per capita demand comparison (EBMUD is the Oakland area, east of San Francisco)
    • 9. Not just quantity that differs, also how water is used – eg Alexandria and Sydney
    • 10. Alexandria residential water use
      A disaggregated water use analysis (‘end use study’) is the foundation for good supply-demand planning
    • 11. Level of water/ energy/ materials use per capita
      Level of water/ energy/ materials use per capita
      Level of development
    • 12. Pathways to sustainability
      Bossell (1998) “Pathways to sustainability”
    • 13. Stock models - toilets
    • 14. Stock models - toilets
    • 15. Then what? The ‘5 Step’ Process as a way forward
      Step 1: Plan the overall process
      Step 2: Analyse the situation
      Demand forecasting
      Step 3: Develop the response
      Design & analyse options
      Step 4: Implement the response
      Step 5: Monitor, evaluate & review
    • 16. The focus is on cost effective water service provision
      Forecast water demand more accurately
      Think differently - ‘water service provision’ not just water supply
      Design and compare broad selection of options (water efficiency, reuse, supply)
      Use same $/m3 to compare costs and benefits of all options supplying or saving water
      We can provide water services differently and potentially save water and money through identifying “conservation potential”
    • 17. Salalah – supply curve
    • 18.
    • 19. Four generations of infrastructure
    • 20. Principles for eco-technology
      • Maximise efficiency and source control
      • 21. Water reuse, energy recovery, nutrient capture
      • 22. Distributed systems can reduce energy use and capital cost, as well as reduce risk
    • The economics of generational change
      Relative cost per household
      We are here
      Developing cities have the opportunity to be at the forefront of innovation
    • 23. Tools for sustainable urban water futures
      International Demand Management Framework
      Analysis of costs and benefits and options assessment
      Social inclusion approaches (poverty, gender)
      All policy instruments (regulation, economic instruments and communication)
      Deliberative processes
    • 24. Australian ODA on health and watsan
    • 25.
    • 26. Citizen engagement/ stakeholder engagement
    • 27. Citizen engagement/ stakeholder engagement
    • 28. Examples
    • 29. Key messages
      Current conventional urban water management approaches are unsustainable environmentally and economically. We need to move beyond ‘business as usual’based on increasing water demand and intensive and expensive treatment of wastewater.
      Best practice approaches emphasise cost effectiveness, adaptability and sustainability – this requires a focus on the demand side of water planning so solutions are right for their context and we can tap into conservation potential.
      There are a suite of tools to support demand centred planning for sustainable urban water systems – social and regulatory drivers.
      Developing cities have the opportunity to be at the forefront of innovation – they can ‘leapfrog’ to sustainable options, characterised by efficient water use and adaptive wastewater treatment systems (or waterless waste systems).
    • 30. Further information