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Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up

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WASH 2011 conference: Kamal Kar

WASH 2011 conference: Kamal Kar

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Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up Presentation Transcript

  • Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up
    Dr. Kamal Kar
    CLTS Foundation, Calcutta, India
    Presented at the WASH Conference 2011
    16-20 May 2011
  • Globally millions of tones of human excreta poured in the open everyday
    In India alone nearly 600 millions are practicing open defecation, thousands of truck loads of shit is being released in the open everyday, more than 42 children dying every hour from diarrhea, & waterborne enteric diseases
    OD contaminates water bodies on a daily basis and valuable human excreta not used in food security A child dies in every 15 second, millions of U5 children suffering sever bouts of diarrhea (mostly poor)
  • Traditional - professional ‘mind-set’ in tackling the problems
    Subsidize * Standardize *Prescribe * Top-down hygiene behaviour teaching* Health as key motivator for hygiene behaviour change
    Attract the poor in ways like rewards so that they use toilets
  • Fate of free toilets in a slum of a Municipality town near Calcutta, India
  • Fate of subsidized sanitation hardware- Portloko, Sierra Leone, Ibb, Yemen
    Who’s design for whom?
  • Fate of sanitation subsidy in Yemen
  • Abandoned Collapsed Communal Latrine –Dangme West District, Greater Accra Region, Ghana
  • The Origin
    Originated in Bangladesh in 1999-2000 from the process of evaluation of a traditional WATSAN project
    Spread rapidly in Bangladesh through NGOs mainly Water Aid, Plan International and partner NGOs
    DFID supported scaling it up in Bangladesh
    WSP (SA and EAP) was instrumental in bringing it to India, Indonesia, and other countries in South Asia and East Asia Pacific regions
    Through Plan International introduced in 13 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa in 2007
    Since 2008 with support of UNICEF introduced in 22 countries in Africa including West and Central Africa and in Latin America (Bolivia)
    • More than 20 million people in 44 countries across Asia, Africa and Latin America benefit from CLTS
    • More than 1000 facilitators and trainers in these countries have been actively engaged in implementing and training of CLTS
    • The Hand Book on CLTS has been translated in to at least ten different languages including French, Spanish and Portuguese
  • What is Community – Led Total Sanitation ?
    They are total & involve/affect everyone in communities e.g. total elimination of open defecation, total freedom from hunger)
    Collective Community decision & collective local action are the keys
    Social Solidarity and cooperation are in abundance
    They are locally decided and don't dependent on external subsidies and prescriptions or pressures
    Natural Leaders emerge from collective local actions who lead future collective initiatives
    They often don’t follow externally determined mode of development and blue print
    Local diversity and innovations are main elements
  • Identification of right person in the community
    Self Empowered Committee formed
    • Defecation
    area transect
    • Defecation
    Mapping
    • Flow diagram
    • Calculation of
    faeces
    etc.
    Entry/ Ignition
    PRA
    How to get a latrine slab
    Registration daily monitoring on map
    Start pit latrine from tomorrow
    Community realization of terrible impact of faecal-oral contamination
    Spreading messages from the mosque
    We do it first and stop open defecation
    Each of us cover 10 families
    10 H/H
    10 H/H
    Diagrammatic presentation of the process of igniting Community- Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)
  • Land less don’t have place for defecation. Land owners often blame them for defecating in open. Landless poor (women specially) are the worst victims who want to come out of that humiliation.
    Will form positive pressure groups from within to convince others for having latrine
    X
    Better off
    X
    X
    L
    X
    X
    L
    X
    L
    X
    L
    L
    Medium
    X
    Spoiling environment by open defecation
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    Poor
    X
    X
    X
    Very poor
    L
    L
    X
    X
    X
    X
    Latrine owners can’t get rid of negative impacts as many others adding faces everywhere.
    L
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    Participatory
    Planning
    P. R. A.
    X
    X
    X
    Moving towards 100% sanitised village
  • More yellow powder in places where there is more shit- Sierra Leone
  • Food and shit demonstration
  • Children’s procession protesting against open defecation
  • Worried faces of mothers after their own analysis- Llala Gua, Bolivia
    Shit everywhere. Our children growing on shit- we can’t accept this
  • Notice who is teaching and who is learning
  • “If we defecate in the open, we eat each others shit, if you don’t wash your hands with ash or soap, you eat your own shit” - a Natural Leader of CLTS from Malawi
  • Hundreds of low-cost local community-made toilets are surfacing in the rural landscape in CLTS villages in Bangladesh.
  • Who’s idea and who's decision matters in household sanitation?South Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Great mosaic of latrine models innovated by local communities in Kampung Spu in Cambodia
  • Do we have patience to allow communities to gradually move up the Sanitation Ladder?
    Sanitation behaviors changes as community moves up the ladder
    Pour flush latrine
    Latrines with plastic pan and water seal
    Offset Pit latrines
    Simple Pit Latrines
    10
    9
    8
    7
    6
    5
    4
    3
    2
    1
    Open defecation
    O
  • Newly constructed toilets in Kampong Svay villages, Kampong Tralach district of Kampong Chhnang province in Cambodia - great sense of ownership and pride. Mr.Hoeun invites neighbours to use his toilet to get more manure for his crops
  • Use of ash after defecation in direct pit latrine is an innovation by the community of Skun villages of Tbeng Commune of Siem Reap province in Cambodia. One gets potash rich manure at the end. Whose idea?
  • Community Innovated direct pit latrine- Skun village, Banteay Srei, Cambodia
  • Local Community Innovation in Kalyani
  • Proud Kepala Desa showing different toilet models to visitors- Lumajang,East Java, Indonesia
  • Local Community Innovation in Kalyani
  • Construction details of community innovated low-cost latrine
    Tin sheet, old plastic bottles and plastic sheets are used to construct such toilets
  • Locally innovated toilet model in flood prone areas and in places with high water table at Sambas, West Kalimantan
  • Repair
    platform
    of all 69
    hand tube wells
    Stop
    Open
    Defecation
    All 213 H/H
    Clean up
    drain
    In 5 months
    ten slums covering
    more than 800 H/Hs
    have stopped OD by
    constructing toilets mobilizing
    more money than what KUSP
    could offer as subsidy
    Clean up
    garbage and
    Repair Road
  • Signboard declaring Open Defecation-Free, Para Vidyasagar Colony, Kalyani Municipality, West Bengal
  • Are these all sustainable change or just another jargon?
    • Communities in ODF villages in Bangladesh, Kenya, in Mekong delta and in other countries rebuilt their toilets after they were destroyed by flooding
    • Reduction in Cholera and diarrhea in the districts of Nyando, Busia, Siaya in Nyanza and Western provinces of Kenya after CLTS was introduced never returned back with that severity. All communities seriously maintain ODF status
    • 100% ODF villages in many communities did loose that that status but never returned to the level where they were before CLTS
    • Quack doctors in thousands of villages lost their income seriously
    • Sale of medicines of diarrhea/dysentery dropped in village medicine shops
    • Sale of sanitary hardware in shops in village shops in Indonesia increased sharply
    • Everyday new villages all over the world are declaring themselves ODF
    • For more please look at the book “Shit Matters”
  • Global Spread of CLTS
    Afghanistan
    NEPAL
    PAKISTAN
    EGYPT
    BANGLADESH
    INDIA
    YEMEN
    CAMBODIA
    ETHIOPIA
    SIERRA LEONE
    NIGERIA
    UGANDA
    KENYA
    INDONESIA
    TANZANIA
    EAST TIMOR
    MALAWI
    ZAMBIA
    BOLIVIA
  • What are the major challenges of sustainability?
    In the next slide
  • Challenge of multiplying Facilitators, Trainers and Community Consultants
    The pace with which demand for CLTS is growing there is need to train hundreds of trainers immediately in Africa and Latin America (Franco phone Africa, Spanish speaking countries specially)
    Thousands of ‘Natural Leaders’ turned in to ‘Community Consultants’ with in countries
    Dozens of Champions with in the Government Ministries and Departments
    A few Ministers and MPs or elected people’s representatives in each countries
  • Institutional Challenges
    Attitudes and mind sets of professionals in the institutions and their belief on local community capacity
    Feeling of loosing control and technical and academic supremacy by engineering, health and social development professionals
    Institutional hierarchy and unclear understanding of the ground reality including poor functional linkages with the front line
  • Institutional Challenges
    Difficulty to escape from the old established mind-set of ‘donor’ and ‘recipient’ defining ‘uppers’ and ‘lowers’
    Inertia in moving out of the preference of ‘things’ to ‘people’. Shiftfrom‘latrine construction’ to ‘creating Natural Leaders’ and ‘ODF villages’
    Pressure of spending huge sums
    Variations in the focus of institutions working only on water and sanitation versus those working with wider humane objectives
  • Institutional Challenges
    CLTS as a fad and some have their own version of ‘community led’(subtle difference between ‘functional participation’ to ‘interactive participation’ or ‘self mobilization’)
    Struggle to streamline other approaches of sanitation with true empowerment encouraged in CLTS. TSSM in Indonesia, TSC in India, others in Ethiopia, individual house hold vs community
    CLTS is just one another approach and it might survive better if other sanitation approaches work freely without using this label. All approaches have uniqueness.
  • Institutional Challenges
    Challenges of intellectual institutional supremacy- who knows more and who prescribes the best solutions?
    Competition for attracting more donor funding by implementing agencies
    Struggle and compromise to fit in a new community led approach in the old existing system of government structure designed to perform in a ‘supply driven’ rather than ‘demand driven’ mode
  • Political Challenges
    Asia: Countries like India, China with better per capita still support subsidized, externally prescribed household sanitation where as countries like Bangladesh, Cambodia scaled up CLTS exponentially. Percentage of usage of externally funded toilets are appalling
    Africa: Quicker understanding and acceptance of the approach by governments of Sierra Leone, Malawi, Zambia, Ethiopia
  • Abandoned Free Latrines depicts
    welfare mindset of institutions
    in Fatenayili ODF Village
  • Existing ‘Social solidarity and community cooperation’ as insider to insider subsidy- can those be recognized?
    Need to document and recognize huge local resources mobilized by local communities
  • Distinct example of social solidarity- rich of village declared help for all to achieve ODF status
  • What is the potential of CLTS in countries in the East Asia and the Pacific region?
    CLTS has been adopted by the government of Indonesia, Cambodia and has been spreading fast
    WESLIC-III has been scaling up CLTS
    In Cambodia, Lao, PDR, Vietnam
    Introduced in East Timor by Water Aid Australia
    Still a lot need to be done
    Major sector players and funding agencies need to have a better understanding of the approach and its underlying principals, and support
  • Goal 7
    Sanitation halving proportion without access
    Goal 6
    Major diseases especially diarrhea
    Goal 4
    Under 5 mortality
    MDG Goals
    MDG 5
    Maternal mortality
    CLTS and MDG Goals
  • The Ethical Challenges
    The challenges are personal, professional and institutional.
    “We” and our normal views and reflexes are the problem.
    “They”, people in communities, are the solution.
    Serious unlearning is entailed, and then continuous learning, adapting, improvising and innovating to enable the poor to become an active partner in development and not remain as passive recipient.
    These changes of understanding and behaviour apply at all levels – Ministers, senior officials, staff in funding agencies, and Government and NGO staff.
  • What are our challenges today?
    • Sanitation to be addressed as a part of larger poverty reduction strategy given its known implications for dignity, productivity, human health and well being.
    • Emergence of ODF communities - first critical step towards achieving safe sanitation that effectively prevents the fecal contamination of water
    • Initially developing few hundreds of ODF Communities as learning laboratories for CLTS
    • Natural Leaders as Community Consultants- scaling up CLTS
    • How to enhance emergence of innovative local institutions as champions on CLTS?
    • How to involve local communities as active partners of research in technology development and in sanitation marketing?
  • THANK YOU