“Big Bang” Decentralization ?

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WASH 2011 conference: Francois Brikke
Senior Wash Consultant, Former Chief WASH UNICEF Indonesia, WSP Regional Team Leader for Latin America, IRC Program Officer

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“Big Bang” Decentralization ?

  1. 1. “Big Bang” Decentralization?The experience of decentralization and impact on the WASH sector in Indonesia <br />Water Conference 2011 Brisbane 16 – 17 May 2011<br />Francois Brikke<br />Senior Wash Consultant<br />Former Chief WASH UNICEF Indonesia, WSP Regional Team Leader <br />for Latin America, IRC Program Officer<br />
  2. 2. Contents of the presentation<br />Decentralization<br />(Context)<br />2. What’s in it for the Local Governments?<br />3. What support to the communities ?<br />4. UNICEF’s support to decentralization<br />
  3. 3. Context of Decentralization<br />A major challenge<br /><ul><li>Large numbers </li></ul>Population of 240 Million, 33 Provinces, 376 Districts, 98 Cities, 6,652 Sub districts, 77,112 Villages<br /><ul><li>Geographical dispersion and cultural variety</li></li></ul><li>Context of Decentralization<br />The Big Bang Strategy … 31 functions decentralized, including Water and Sanitation<br /> THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT FUNCTION<br />GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONs<br />Shared or Local Govt<br />Central Govtonly<br /><ul><li>DEFENCE
  4. 4. POLICE
  5. 5. MONETARY
  6. 6. JUSTICE
  7. 7. FOREIGN AFFAIRS
  8. 8. RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS</li></ul>Optional Function<br />(Core Competence)<br />Compulsory Function<br />(Basic Services)<br />Examples: agriculture, <br />trade, industry, tourism, <br />Forestry etc<br />Examples: Health, Public <br />Work, Education, Environ-<br />ment, Water and <br />Sanitation etc<br />MINIMUM SERVICE<br />STANDARD<br />
  9. 9. 5<br />Big Bang … a Nation Wide Participatory Planning Process<br />January - April<br />May - August<br />September - December<br />Evaluation of Ministry and Governor<br />Input from Community<br />Ministry of home affairs<br />Circulars / guidelines<br />Local govt. draft regulations of APBD<br />MoU and priorities and budget ceiling<br />Discussion of draft regulation of APBD<br />Discussion of APBD draft<br />Parlia-ment/DPRD<br />APBD local regula-tions<br />Bupati/mayor regulation draft<br />APBD Draft<br />Temporary Priorities Budget Ceiling<br />Local govt agencies priorities & ceiling<br />Local govt. medium-term development plan<br />Bupati/Mayor<br />Bupati/major regulation Final<br />Preliminary design of regional framework<br />circular ceiling priorities and indications<br />discussion with local government budget team<br />Local govt budgeting team<br />Local govt. work plan<br />Discussion on local government budget team<br />Finance managt of local govt agencies<br />APBD draft (from local government agencies and work plan)<br />Finalizing data and projections<br />endorsement<br />Local governt agencies<br />Budget work plan of local govt agencies<br />Local govt. agencies strategic plan<br />Local govt. agencies work plan<br />Implementation of change in budgets<br />Implementation document <br />Source: Ministry of Home affairs<br />
  10. 10. 2. What’s in it for Local Governments ?<br />Main constraints identified <br /><ul><li>Reluctance to transfer power too much too soon, with some diametric relations between Central and Local
  11. 11. Problems of capacity of staff and high rotation of staff
  12. 12. Planning still very much linked to local political agenda, more on infrastructure than on soft issues (Pro poor ?, Community)
  13. 13. Local financial constraints (90% resources coming from National Government, out of which 70% go for functioning of administration and out of the remaining only 9% are dedicated to water and sanitation)</li></li></ul><li>2.What’s in it for Local Governments ? In reality at local level, there are many actors<br />Separated and not integrated<br />Who will coordinate ?<br />
  14. 14. 2. What’s in it for the Local Governments ? Local Water and Sanitation Working Groups (AMPL Pokja)<br />Innovation<br />
  15. 15. 2. What’s in it for the Local Governments ?AMPLPokja contributions<br />Contributes to the planning process, developmengt of WASH Strategic Plan ( RENSTRA), strong support from WASPOLA Program managed by WSP<br />Ensures Coordination between the various local Government agencies and other actors (External Programs and NGOs) <br />Monitors implementation of water supply and sanitation programs<br />Monitors issues and problems of water supply and sanitation (PHBS, Environmental degradations, Weak of Coordination AMPL, etc.). <br />strong coordination among actors<br />Advocacyand pressure group to policy reform of AMPL sector<br />
  16. 16. Funds for Local Governments (2010)<br />(Exchange rate 1 US$ = 9,000 RPS)<br />Source : APBNP2010<br />Transfer to Local Budgets<br />Through budget ministry/<br />Line ministry<br />National Programs <br />Commodity Subsidies<br />(APBD)<br />•PNPM<br />0.84%<br />• <br />Oil and gas<br />7.89%<br />•DBH/ revenue-sharing<br />7.96%<br />• Deconcentration fund<br />2.96%<br />•BOS <br />1.76%<br />• <br />Electric<br />4.89%<br />18.08%<br />• Co fund<br />0.67%<br />• General Allocation Fund<br />•health <br />insurance<br />0.45%<br />• <br />Food<br />1.24%<br />•special allocation fund<br />1.88%<br />• Vertical fund <br />10.11%<br />• <br />Fertilizer<br />1.63%<br />•Special otonomy<br />0.81%<br />• Adaptation<br />1.88%)<br /> Total<br />3.%<br /> Total<br />15%<br /> Total<br />30%<br /> Total<br />14%)<br />Total spend= 125 billion US$<br />For local governments = 63%<br />10<br />
  17. 17. 3. What support to the Communities ?<br />Political will <br /><ul><li>National Policy for the Development of Community-based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
  18. 18. MoH Decree No 852/2008 on National Strategy for Community based Total Sanitation (STBM)</li></ul>Government and Agency Programs<br /><ul><li>PNPM Mandiri Program
  19. 19. SANIMAS, PAMSIMAS
  20. 20. Contriutions from WSP, UNICEF, PLAN, USAID, SWAN, CARE, Mer4cy Corps , GTZ …</li></li></ul><li>11 PRINCIPLES OF NATIONAL POLICY ON COMMUNITY BASED WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION <br />Water is Both Social and Economic Good<br />Demand Responsive Approach based on Informed Choice<br />Environmental-concern Development<br />Hygiene and Healthy Life Education<br />Pro poor<br />Women’s Role in Decision Making<br />Accountability of Development Process<br />Government’s Role as Facilitator<br />Communities’ active participation<br />Well-targeted and optimum service<br />Implementing cost recovery principle<br />
  21. 21. Total Sanitation Strategy (community led)<br />
  22. 22. 4. UNICEF ‘s support to decentralization<br />Institutional capacity development<br /><ul><li>Focal points in all Districts and Provinces where UNICEF is active,
  23. 23. Support on advocacy for the sector,
  24. 24. Support AMPL Pokja functions, monitoring sector progress locally, and budget development</li></ul>Promotion of local sanitation businesses where CLTS is triggered<br /><ul><li>Business and technical training of local masons, suppliers, shop keepers, community leaders
  25. 25. Advocacy to the local Government to support the development of local businesses </li></li></ul><li>15<br />UNICEF strategic support ….<br />January - April<br />May - August<br />September - December<br />Evaluation of Ministry and Governor<br />Input from Community<br />Ministry of home affairs<br />Circulars / guidelines<br />Local govt. draft regulations of APBD<br />MoU and priorities and budget ceiling<br />Discussion of draft regulation of APBD<br />Discussion of APBD draft<br />Parlia-ment/DPRD<br />APBD local regula-tions<br />Bupati/mayor regulation draft<br />APBD Draft<br />Temporary Priorities Budget Ceiling<br />Local govt agencies priorities & ceiling<br />Local govt. medium-term development plan<br />Bupati/Mayor<br />Bupati/major regulation Final<br />Preliminary design of regional framework<br />circular ceiling priorities and indications<br />discussion with local government budget team<br />Local govt budgeting team<br />Local govt. work plan<br />Discussion on local government budget team<br />Finance managt of local govt agencies<br />APBD draft (from local government agencies and work plan)<br />Finalizing data and projections<br />endorsement<br />Local governt agencies<br />Budget work plan of local govt agencies<br />Local govt. agencies strategic plan<br />Local govt. agencies work plan<br />Implementation of change in budgets<br />Implementation document <br />Source: Ministry of Home affairs<br />
  26. 26. Decentralized activities, local private sector taking action (Sanitation marketing in Indonesia) <br />Demand <br />Communities<br />take responsibility (CLTS)<br />Supply <br />Local artisans <br />provide skills & materials<br />Enabling support<br />
  27. 27. Big Bang has started, evolution just goes on … <br />THANK YOU<br />

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