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“Big Bang” Decentralization ?

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WASH 2011 conference: Francois Brikke

WASH 2011 conference: Francois Brikke
Senior Wash Consultant, Former Chief WASH UNICEF Indonesia, WSP Regional Team Leader for Latin America, IRC Program Officer

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“Big Bang” Decentralization ? “Big Bang” Decentralization ? Presentation Transcript

  • “Big Bang” Decentralization?The experience of decentralization and impact on the WASH sector in Indonesia
    Water Conference 2011 Brisbane 16 – 17 May 2011
    Francois Brikke
    Senior Wash Consultant
    Former Chief WASH UNICEF Indonesia, WSP Regional Team Leader
    for Latin America, IRC Program Officer
  • Contents of the presentation
    Decentralization
    (Context)
    2. What’s in it for the Local Governments?
    3. What support to the communities ?
    4. UNICEF’s support to decentralization
  • Context of Decentralization
    A major challenge
    • Large numbers
    Population of 240 Million, 33 Provinces, 376 Districts, 98 Cities, 6,652 Sub districts, 77,112 Villages
    • Geographical dispersion and cultural variety
  • Context of Decentralization
    The Big Bang Strategy … 31 functions decentralized, including Water and Sanitation
    THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT FUNCTION
    GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONs
    Shared or Local Govt
    Central Govtonly
    • DEFENCE
    • POLICE
    • MONETARY
    • JUSTICE
    • FOREIGN AFFAIRS
    • RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
    Optional Function
    (Core Competence)
    Compulsory Function
    (Basic Services)
    Examples: agriculture,
    trade, industry, tourism,
    Forestry etc
    Examples: Health, Public
    Work, Education, Environ-
    ment, Water and
    Sanitation etc
    MINIMUM SERVICE
    STANDARD
  • 5
    Big Bang … a Nation Wide Participatory Planning Process
    January - April
    May - August
    September - December
    Evaluation of Ministry and Governor
    Input from Community
    Ministry of home affairs
    Circulars / guidelines
    Local govt. draft regulations of APBD
    MoU and priorities and budget ceiling
    Discussion of draft regulation of APBD
    Discussion of APBD draft
    Parlia-ment/DPRD
    APBD local regula-tions
    Bupati/mayor regulation draft
    APBD Draft
    Temporary Priorities Budget Ceiling
    Local govt agencies priorities & ceiling
    Local govt. medium-term development plan
    Bupati/Mayor
    Bupati/major regulation Final
    Preliminary design of regional framework
    circular ceiling priorities and indications
    discussion with local government budget team
    Local govt budgeting team
    Local govt. work plan
    Discussion on local government budget team
    Finance managt of local govt agencies
    APBD draft (from local government agencies and work plan)
    Finalizing data and projections
    endorsement
    Local governt agencies
    Budget work plan of local govt agencies
    Local govt. agencies strategic plan
    Local govt. agencies work plan
    Implementation of change in budgets
    Implementation document
    Source: Ministry of Home affairs
  • 2. What’s in it for Local Governments ?
    Main constraints identified
    • Reluctance to transfer power too much too soon, with some diametric relations between Central and Local
    • Problems of capacity of staff and high rotation of staff
    • Planning still very much linked to local political agenda, more on infrastructure than on soft issues (Pro poor ?, Community)
    • Local financial constraints (90% resources coming from National Government, out of which 70% go for functioning of administration and out of the remaining only 9% are dedicated to water and sanitation)
  • 2.What’s in it for Local Governments ? In reality at local level, there are many actors
    Separated and not integrated
    Who will coordinate ?
  • 2. What’s in it for the Local Governments ? Local Water and Sanitation Working Groups (AMPL Pokja)
    Innovation
  • 2. What’s in it for the Local Governments ?AMPLPokja contributions
    Contributes to the planning process, developmengt of WASH Strategic Plan ( RENSTRA), strong support from WASPOLA Program managed by WSP
    Ensures Coordination between the various local Government agencies and other actors (External Programs and NGOs)
    Monitors implementation of water supply and sanitation programs
    Monitors issues and problems of water supply and sanitation (PHBS, Environmental degradations, Weak of Coordination AMPL, etc.).
    strong coordination among actors
    Advocacyand pressure group to policy reform of AMPL sector
  • Funds for Local Governments (2010)
    (Exchange rate 1 US$ = 9,000 RPS)
    Source : APBNP2010
    Transfer to Local Budgets
    Through budget ministry/
    Line ministry
    National Programs
    Commodity Subsidies
    (APBD)
    •PNPM
    0.84%

    Oil and gas
    7.89%
    •DBH/ revenue-sharing
    7.96%
    • Deconcentration fund
    2.96%
    •BOS
    1.76%

    Electric
    4.89%
    18.08%
    • Co fund
    0.67%
    • General Allocation Fund
    •health
    insurance
    0.45%

    Food
    1.24%
    •special allocation fund
    1.88%
    • Vertical fund
    10.11%

    Fertilizer
    1.63%
    •Special otonomy
    0.81%
    • Adaptation
    1.88%)
    Total
    3.%
    Total
    15%
    Total
    30%
    Total
    14%)
    Total spend= 125 billion US$
    For local governments = 63%
    10
  • 3. What support to the Communities ?
    Political will
    • National Policy for the Development of Community-based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
    • MoH Decree No 852/2008 on National Strategy for Community based Total Sanitation (STBM)
    Government and Agency Programs
    • PNPM Mandiri Program
    • SANIMAS, PAMSIMAS
    • Contriutions from WSP, UNICEF, PLAN, USAID, SWAN, CARE, Mer4cy Corps , GTZ …
  • 11 PRINCIPLES OF NATIONAL POLICY ON COMMUNITY BASED WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
    Water is Both Social and Economic Good
    Demand Responsive Approach based on Informed Choice
    Environmental-concern Development
    Hygiene and Healthy Life Education
    Pro poor
    Women’s Role in Decision Making
    Accountability of Development Process
    Government’s Role as Facilitator
    Communities’ active participation
    Well-targeted and optimum service
    Implementing cost recovery principle
  • Total Sanitation Strategy (community led)
  • 4. UNICEF ‘s support to decentralization
    Institutional capacity development
    • Focal points in all Districts and Provinces where UNICEF is active,
    • Support on advocacy for the sector,
    • Support AMPL Pokja functions, monitoring sector progress locally, and budget development
    Promotion of local sanitation businesses where CLTS is triggered
    • Business and technical training of local masons, suppliers, shop keepers, community leaders
    • Advocacy to the local Government to support the development of local businesses
  • 15
    UNICEF strategic support ….
    January - April
    May - August
    September - December
    Evaluation of Ministry and Governor
    Input from Community
    Ministry of home affairs
    Circulars / guidelines
    Local govt. draft regulations of APBD
    MoU and priorities and budget ceiling
    Discussion of draft regulation of APBD
    Discussion of APBD draft
    Parlia-ment/DPRD
    APBD local regula-tions
    Bupati/mayor regulation draft
    APBD Draft
    Temporary Priorities Budget Ceiling
    Local govt agencies priorities & ceiling
    Local govt. medium-term development plan
    Bupati/Mayor
    Bupati/major regulation Final
    Preliminary design of regional framework
    circular ceiling priorities and indications
    discussion with local government budget team
    Local govt budgeting team
    Local govt. work plan
    Discussion on local government budget team
    Finance managt of local govt agencies
    APBD draft (from local government agencies and work plan)
    Finalizing data and projections
    endorsement
    Local governt agencies
    Budget work plan of local govt agencies
    Local govt. agencies strategic plan
    Local govt. agencies work plan
    Implementation of change in budgets
    Implementation document
    Source: Ministry of Home affairs
  • Decentralized activities, local private sector taking action (Sanitation marketing in Indonesia)
    Demand
    Communities
    take responsibility (CLTS)
    Supply
    Local artisans
    provide skills & materials
    Enabling support
  • Big Bang has started, evolution just goes on …
    THANK YOU