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“Big Bang” Decentralization ?
 

“Big Bang” Decentralization ?

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WASH 2011 conference: Francois Brikke

WASH 2011 conference: Francois Brikke
Senior Wash Consultant, Former Chief WASH UNICEF Indonesia, WSP Regional Team Leader for Latin America, IRC Program Officer

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    “Big Bang” Decentralization ? “Big Bang” Decentralization ? Presentation Transcript

    • “Big Bang” Decentralization?The experience of decentralization and impact on the WASH sector in Indonesia
      Water Conference 2011 Brisbane 16 – 17 May 2011
      Francois Brikke
      Senior Wash Consultant
      Former Chief WASH UNICEF Indonesia, WSP Regional Team Leader
      for Latin America, IRC Program Officer
    • Contents of the presentation
      Decentralization
      (Context)
      2. What’s in it for the Local Governments?
      3. What support to the communities ?
      4. UNICEF’s support to decentralization
    • Context of Decentralization
      A major challenge
      • Large numbers
      Population of 240 Million, 33 Provinces, 376 Districts, 98 Cities, 6,652 Sub districts, 77,112 Villages
      • Geographical dispersion and cultural variety
    • Context of Decentralization
      The Big Bang Strategy … 31 functions decentralized, including Water and Sanitation
      THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT FUNCTION
      GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONs
      Shared or Local Govt
      Central Govtonly
      • DEFENCE
      • POLICE
      • MONETARY
      • JUSTICE
      • FOREIGN AFFAIRS
      • RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
      Optional Function
      (Core Competence)
      Compulsory Function
      (Basic Services)
      Examples: agriculture,
      trade, industry, tourism,
      Forestry etc
      Examples: Health, Public
      Work, Education, Environ-
      ment, Water and
      Sanitation etc
      MINIMUM SERVICE
      STANDARD
    • 5
      Big Bang … a Nation Wide Participatory Planning Process
      January - April
      May - August
      September - December
      Evaluation of Ministry and Governor
      Input from Community
      Ministry of home affairs
      Circulars / guidelines
      Local govt. draft regulations of APBD
      MoU and priorities and budget ceiling
      Discussion of draft regulation of APBD
      Discussion of APBD draft
      Parlia-ment/DPRD
      APBD local regula-tions
      Bupati/mayor regulation draft
      APBD Draft
      Temporary Priorities Budget Ceiling
      Local govt agencies priorities & ceiling
      Local govt. medium-term development plan
      Bupati/Mayor
      Bupati/major regulation Final
      Preliminary design of regional framework
      circular ceiling priorities and indications
      discussion with local government budget team
      Local govt budgeting team
      Local govt. work plan
      Discussion on local government budget team
      Finance managt of local govt agencies
      APBD draft (from local government agencies and work plan)
      Finalizing data and projections
      endorsement
      Local governt agencies
      Budget work plan of local govt agencies
      Local govt. agencies strategic plan
      Local govt. agencies work plan
      Implementation of change in budgets
      Implementation document
      Source: Ministry of Home affairs
    • 2. What’s in it for Local Governments ?
      Main constraints identified
      • Reluctance to transfer power too much too soon, with some diametric relations between Central and Local
      • Problems of capacity of staff and high rotation of staff
      • Planning still very much linked to local political agenda, more on infrastructure than on soft issues (Pro poor ?, Community)
      • Local financial constraints (90% resources coming from National Government, out of which 70% go for functioning of administration and out of the remaining only 9% are dedicated to water and sanitation)
    • 2.What’s in it for Local Governments ? In reality at local level, there are many actors
      Separated and not integrated
      Who will coordinate ?
    • 2. What’s in it for the Local Governments ? Local Water and Sanitation Working Groups (AMPL Pokja)
      Innovation
    • 2. What’s in it for the Local Governments ?AMPLPokja contributions
      Contributes to the planning process, developmengt of WASH Strategic Plan ( RENSTRA), strong support from WASPOLA Program managed by WSP
      Ensures Coordination between the various local Government agencies and other actors (External Programs and NGOs)
      Monitors implementation of water supply and sanitation programs
      Monitors issues and problems of water supply and sanitation (PHBS, Environmental degradations, Weak of Coordination AMPL, etc.).
      strong coordination among actors
      Advocacyand pressure group to policy reform of AMPL sector
    • Funds for Local Governments (2010)
      (Exchange rate 1 US$ = 9,000 RPS)
      Source : APBNP2010
      Transfer to Local Budgets
      Through budget ministry/
      Line ministry
      National Programs
      Commodity Subsidies
      (APBD)
      •PNPM
      0.84%

      Oil and gas
      7.89%
      •DBH/ revenue-sharing
      7.96%
      • Deconcentration fund
      2.96%
      •BOS
      1.76%

      Electric
      4.89%
      18.08%
      • Co fund
      0.67%
      • General Allocation Fund
      •health
      insurance
      0.45%

      Food
      1.24%
      •special allocation fund
      1.88%
      • Vertical fund
      10.11%

      Fertilizer
      1.63%
      •Special otonomy
      0.81%
      • Adaptation
      1.88%)
      Total
      3.%
      Total
      15%
      Total
      30%
      Total
      14%)
      Total spend= 125 billion US$
      For local governments = 63%
      10
    • 3. What support to the Communities ?
      Political will
      • National Policy for the Development of Community-based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
      • MoH Decree No 852/2008 on National Strategy for Community based Total Sanitation (STBM)
      Government and Agency Programs
      • PNPM Mandiri Program
      • SANIMAS, PAMSIMAS
      • Contriutions from WSP, UNICEF, PLAN, USAID, SWAN, CARE, Mer4cy Corps , GTZ …
    • 11 PRINCIPLES OF NATIONAL POLICY ON COMMUNITY BASED WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
      Water is Both Social and Economic Good
      Demand Responsive Approach based on Informed Choice
      Environmental-concern Development
      Hygiene and Healthy Life Education
      Pro poor
      Women’s Role in Decision Making
      Accountability of Development Process
      Government’s Role as Facilitator
      Communities’ active participation
      Well-targeted and optimum service
      Implementing cost recovery principle
    • Total Sanitation Strategy (community led)
    • 4. UNICEF ‘s support to decentralization
      Institutional capacity development
      • Focal points in all Districts and Provinces where UNICEF is active,
      • Support on advocacy for the sector,
      • Support AMPL Pokja functions, monitoring sector progress locally, and budget development
      Promotion of local sanitation businesses where CLTS is triggered
      • Business and technical training of local masons, suppliers, shop keepers, community leaders
      • Advocacy to the local Government to support the development of local businesses
    • 15
      UNICEF strategic support ….
      January - April
      May - August
      September - December
      Evaluation of Ministry and Governor
      Input from Community
      Ministry of home affairs
      Circulars / guidelines
      Local govt. draft regulations of APBD
      MoU and priorities and budget ceiling
      Discussion of draft regulation of APBD
      Discussion of APBD draft
      Parlia-ment/DPRD
      APBD local regula-tions
      Bupati/mayor regulation draft
      APBD Draft
      Temporary Priorities Budget Ceiling
      Local govt agencies priorities & ceiling
      Local govt. medium-term development plan
      Bupati/Mayor
      Bupati/major regulation Final
      Preliminary design of regional framework
      circular ceiling priorities and indications
      discussion with local government budget team
      Local govt budgeting team
      Local govt. work plan
      Discussion on local government budget team
      Finance managt of local govt agencies
      APBD draft (from local government agencies and work plan)
      Finalizing data and projections
      endorsement
      Local governt agencies
      Budget work plan of local govt agencies
      Local govt. agencies strategic plan
      Local govt. agencies work plan
      Implementation of change in budgets
      Implementation document
      Source: Ministry of Home affairs
    • Decentralized activities, local private sector taking action (Sanitation marketing in Indonesia)
      Demand
      Communities
      take responsibility (CLTS)
      Supply
      Local artisans
      provide skills & materials
      Enabling support
    • Big Bang has started, evolution just goes on …
      THANK YOU