Anchoring innovative behaviour change communication in local organisations and contexts

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WASH 2011 conference: Antoinette KOME, Ayphalla TE, Heino GUELLEMANN,
Gabrielle HALCROW, Bimal TANDUKAR

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  • Engaging a broad range of stakeholders in the reflections and taking them to the field for validation, helps to give hygiene promotion more prominence and integrate it into local planning and target setting.The review of IEC materials and formative research are good activities to get a people thinking about the complexities of hygiene behaviour change and long term sustainability (“post-ODF”)Done by local professionals, the quality of results is sufficient for messaging.We hope that increased understanding of behaviour will result in better hygiene promotion practices… but we are not yet there
  • Multi-stakeholder reflections on hygiene behaviour change:With a broad group of stakeholders under leadership of the lead agencyReflection on the results of the baseline and where the key gaps are (beyond ODF)Reflection on sanitation targets and strategies.Reflection on what is already done and achieved in hygiene promotionDiscussion about behaviour change
  • Inspired by the UNICEF review in VietnamCollecting all different IEC materials looking at target audience, key messages, users and type of material etc.Looking at how women and disadvantaged groups are picturedDevelop recommendations on gaps (in content or target audience or use) or types of materials (leaflets, videos) or use.Desk study and/or interviews with promoters.The results of the inventory should be shared with stakeholders, and use of material should be discussed.
  • Select a behaviour based on secondary informationDevelop a specific behavioural change question (who, what, when)- distinguishing target groupsDecide whether you will use the FOAM, SaniFOAM or barrier analysis framework.Make assumptions/ hypothesis with the team for each of the determinant. Everything you can think off, but at least one.Work with your questions around those hypothesis, adjusting over the course of the research.
  • “When you come home this evening, how do you explain to your family that you have been discussing about using the toilet and washing hands for one whole week?”. “I will explain them that doing this ourselves is not difficult, but to make sure that everybody in our district uses the toilet properly and washes their hands is a huge challenge. We really need to understand how people think.” (Head of district chapter of journalists of Kalikot, Nepal)
  • Anchoring innovative behaviour change communication in local organisations and contexts

    1. 1. Anchoring innovative behaviour change communication in local organisations and contexts <br />Antoinette KOME, Ayphalla TE, Heino GUELLEMANN, <br />Gabrielle HALCROW, Bimal TANDUKAR <br />SNV Asia<br />
    2. 2. Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All<br />
    3. 3. Strengthening BCC for Hygiene, why?<br />Sustainable behaviour change is <br /> more than ODF:<br />Hygienic use of toilets<br />Use by all<br />Hand washing with soap<br />Safe disposal of child excreta<br />Safe water handling<br />Focus<br />A long term effort<br />
    4. 4. This presentation...<br /><ul><li>How to introduce BCC locally- steps
    5. 5. FOAM for thinking beyond health
    6. 6. Other factors for successful BCC</li></li></ul><li>Starting points: what we found regarding Hygiene Promotion practice…<br />Hygiene promotion less attention when programmes become too “ODF centred”.<br />Material focussed, less on understanding behaviour<br />Health remains the main hygiene message<br />What do we want to achieve…?<br />Engaging local line agencies, authorities, media and others to (re)think hygiene promotion for sanitation<br />To build local capacity for locally specific BCC<br />Anchoring into to overall government sanitation strategies and targets <br />
    7. 7. What we are doing…<br />
    8. 8. Broad group of stakeholders<br />Leadership of the lead agency<br />Link to sanitation targets and strategies<br />Key gaps (beyond ODF)?<br />Reflection on practice in hygiene promotion<br />Discussion about behaviour change <br />Multi-stakeholder reflections on hygiene behaviour change<br />1<br />
    9. 9. Review of existing IEC materials and their use<br />2<br />Looking at target audience, key messages, users and type of material etc.<br />Looking at how women and disadvantaged groups are pictured in IEC<br />Sharing and discussing of results<br />
    10. 10. Review of existing IEC materials - findings<br />2<br />A lot!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<br />Mostly generic health messages<br />Mixture of water, sanitation and hygiene<br /><ul><li>Ethnic minority groups neglected as target audience
    11. 11. Distribution, outreach and use of IEC materials: neglected
    12. 12. Impact of IEC materials: No evaluation so far, no monitoring mechanism</li></li></ul><li>FOAM: too complex, too expensive, how to simplify?<br />Local partners want 10 behaviours, or feel “they know it already”<br />Slogan:<br />The baseline is about WHAT people do<br />The formative research is about WHY people do that<br />Local Formative Research –the dilemma<br />3<br />
    13. 13. Select behaviours on the basis of information<br />Specific behavioural change question (who, what, when)<br />Local Formative Research – how?<br />3<br />Make hypothesis for each of the determinants<br />Work with your questions around those<br />Adjust over the course of the research<br />
    14. 14. Narrow down using a “funnel” approach:<br />Local Formative Research – how?<br />3<br />Key informants<br />2. Focus group<br />discussions<br />3. Validate<br />4. Analyse and prioritise<br /><ul><li>Communication channels: key informants on use and credibility</li></li></ul><li>Initial training and support in set-up is essential<br />Allocate time and effort to keep local governments on board<br />Field work and outcomes are good, but… <br />Analysis of data is a crucial moment<br />Some outcomes of formative research are univeral truths:<br />“Washing with soap gives you grey hair” ;-)<br />Local Formative Research – lessons<br />3<br />
    15. 15. Line agencies conducting formative research, and presenting findings nationally<br />Validation of outcomes with stakeholders through short field work and discussions<br />Presentation of preliminary results locally<br />Lesson learned:<br />Joint field work with partners is essential to get them re-think behaviour change<br />Discussion of formative research outcomes with stakeholders- different ways<br />4<br />
    16. 16. Results…?<br />1<br />(Discussions, IEC review, formative research, validation)<br />2<br />Partners now:<br />Think of rural sanitation as an ongoing challenge, not ODF and finished<br />Commit to post-ODF hygienic use of toilets and other hygiene behaviour<br />Make a case for understanding behaviour and conducting fieldwork before the design of hygiene messages (not field testing of materials only)<br />Come up with all kinds of creative ideas to ensure sustainability, beyond BCC<br />3<br />4<br />
    17. 17. Not successful in all countries (trust)<br />Journalists have the linkages to media and the motivation to write about the topic<br />Journalists bring in a totally different perspective and attitude<br />Private sector is needed for messaging and testing, but:<br /> Local private sector and journalists can learn!<br />Engagement of private sector and/or journalists for messaging<br />5<br />
    18. 18. Vietnamese and Cambodian partners share and discuss findings at local and national level. <br /><ul><li>Nepal: district level workshops to link the BCC strategy to District Sanitation strategies</li></ul>Local BCC strategy linked to sanitation targets and monitoring -ongoing<br />6<br />
    19. 19. Reflections and lessons learned<br />Reflections and field work with broad range of local stakeholders, gives hygiene promotion prominence and helps to link to local planning and target setting.<br />The process makes people think beyond health motivators and about long term sustainability <br /> (“post-ODF”)<br />Local professionals are capable of adequate formative research<br />We believe that increased understanding of hygiene behaviour change results in better promotion practices… <br />but we are not yet there.<br />

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