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2 e flows yellow river (downstream) pilot -cn
 

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    2 e flows yellow river (downstream) pilot -cn 2 e flows yellow river (downstream) pilot -cn Presentation Transcript

    • 中澳环境发展伙伴项目 : 黄河下游环境流量研究 蒋晓辉 黄河水利委员会Workshop, Beijing2012 Feb 23
    • 汇报内容研究背景通用环境流量评估模型研究工作简介经验和教训
    • 研究背景 研究区域 N Lijin Lijin Zibo Luokou Jinan Liaocheng , Tai an Aishan Sunkou Dongping Dongping Lake Dam Xiaolangdi Gaocun Sanmenxia River Qinyang Kaifeng Huayuankou Hydrological station Luoyang Sanmenxia Zhengzhou City Lake
    • 黄河下游存在的问题• “ 母亲河” – 水资源利用程度高 – 一条高度调节的河流• 气候变化和人类对河川径流产生重大影响 – 在过去 50 年径流显著减少,上世纪 70- 90 年代以来,黄河下游 多次断流• 黄河是一条多沙的河流,冲沙入海及维持一条有一定过流能力的河槽 是黄河防洪的需求• 黄河河口三角洲,依靠黄河的水沙补给维持三角洲的健康• 河流湿地 – 河流湿地与河流的水力联系减弱,萎缩严重• 水生生物 – 多样性降低,一些重要物种几乎绝迹
    • 环境流量和水量分配与流域规划 河流规划
    • 通用环境流量评估方法中国已有的环境流量评估方法 :• 水文学方法 - Te n n an t• 水力学方法 - We tte d p e rim e te r m e th o d , R2C RO S S (F o c u s o n o n e o r a fe w ke y s p e c ie s )• 栖息地模拟法 - IF IM (fo c u s o n o n e o r a fe w ke y s p e c ie s )• 整体方法• - - 考虑整个河流生态系统• - - 布局限于某一种分析方法• - - 考虑河流其它用水单元• - - 复杂、繁琐、代价高
    • 通用环境流量评估方法
    • Brief description of work 代表性河段及站点的选择
    • 文献检索、调查、取样及研讨会
    • 河段划分 River channel 4 3 Delta 2 wetlands Dongping Lake 1 ZhengzhouMengjin Kaifeng wetlandswetlands wetlands
    • 识别生态资产
    • 什么是河流资产 ? “ 河流资产( Rive r A s s e t ) ” 是河流天然生态系统对于人类社 会的价值属性。其价值是指来自于 “ 将水留在河流中 ” 所获得的 利益,而不是城市、工业或农业用水等河道外直接取水产生的 利益。 河流资产包括物种、生态种群、具有保护意义的栖息地和生态 系统。
    • 黄河下游的河流资产• 湿地• 泥沙输送• 鱼类 , 如黄河鲤鱼等• 鸟类• 产卵、洄游等生态行为• 水质• 河道形态等
    • 流量与生态资产的概念性模型,识别生 态资产的水力学属性
    • 流量组分与鱼类生态需求关系的概念性模型 流量组分 低流量 流量脉冲 高流量 洪水维持低洼地一定 食物来源 水中含沙量增大, 水深 含氧量减少 维持成鱼的 刺激产卵 为幼鱼提 为鱼类提供 数量 供栖息环 避难所和食 境 物,但鱼类 死亡率增大
    • 黄河鲤鱼生态需求相关的流量组分及水力指标( D = 水深 , V = 流速) 生态目标 流量组分 水力指标 时间分布为成鱼越冬和生存维持有足够的 低流量 Ma x D > 1. 5 m 11- 3 月 , 水深的栖息地 V: 0. 1- 0. 8 ms - 1 4- 6 月 刺激产卵 流量脉冲 D : 1- 2 m 4- 6 月 V< 0. 3 ms - 1为鱼生长提供新的栖息地和食物 高流量 平均 D > 0. 7 m; 7- 10 月 V: 0. 3 ms - 1- 1ms - 1为鱼生长提供新的栖息地和食物 洪水 平均 D > 0. 8 m; 7- 10 月 ,但也为增加鱼的死亡率 V: 0. 5 ms - 1- 1. 2ms - 1
    • No. Flow component Hydraulic/hydrologic criteria F1 Cease-to-flow; Low flow Q ≥ YRCC warning standards of low flow emergency; maintain area‡鱼类 ≥ critical depth* at pool crossings (specified each month) F2 Low flow Maintain area‡ ≥ critical depth* with V ≤ 2.0 m/s1,2 F3 High flow, high flow recession Maintain longitudinal connectivity and area‡ ≥ critical depth* over barriers (shallow areas) F4 Low flow Maintain area‡ with depth ≥ critical depth* in pools F5 High flow pulse Achieve area‡ with depth ≥ critical depth* over barriers (shallow areas) F6 High flow Maintain area‡ with D = 0.5 – 1.0 m1,2 and V ≤ 1.4 m/s1,2 F7 High flow Maintain area‡ with velocity 1.0 – 2.0 m/s1 F8 High flow pulse Maintenance of appropriate† salinity gradient in estuary F9 Low flow and high flow Maintain area‡ of D ≥ 1.5 m1,2 and V ≤ 1.0 m/s1,2 F10 Low and high flow pulses Achieve sufficient depth* to replenish/maintain water in river associated wetlands and backwaters F11 Low flow and high flows Maintain adequate cross-sectional area/discharge* to transport nutrients required to sustain primary productivity F12 Bankfull 2,600 - 4,000 m3/s - see Geomorphologic objective G1 F13 Bankfull 2,600 - 4,000 m3/s - see Geomorphologic objective G2 F14 High flow See Vegetation objective V1 F15 High flow and low flow See Vegetation objective V7 F16 Low flow Maintain mean pool velocity ≥ 0.01 m/s F17 High flow and low flow Sufficient discharge* to maintain morphology in and around the estuary mouth F18 Bankfull 2,600 - 4,000 m3/s - see Geomorphologic objectives G3 and G4
    • 水生植物 No. Objective Flow component Hydraulic/hydrologic criteria V1 Maintain submerged aquatic High flow Inundation to ≤ 1 m vegetation (e.g. Vallisneria, Potomageton and Myriophyllum V2 spp.) Maintain meadow vegetation High flow Inundation to ≤ 0.3 m V3 Maintain Tamarix/Salix shrubland High flow, low flow and low 100% of time shallow groundwater; Jul – Sep flow pulse waterlogging; inundation by summer flow pulse events ≤ 30 days; soil salinity 10 – 30 psu V4 Maintain Tamarix/Salix woodland High flow, low flow and low 100% of time shallow groundwater (at 1.5 – flow pulse 3.0 m); inundation by summer flow pulse events ≤ 30 days; soil salinity 10 – 30 psu V5 Maintain sand flats High flow and low flow 100% of time shallow groundwater (at ≤ 1.8 m); soil salinity ≥ 30 psu V6 Maintain Suaeda salsa High flow pulse Inundate once per year for ≤ 30 days or 30 to 180 days of varying depth from -0.1 to +0.1 m; 100% of time shallow groundwater (at 1.8 m); soil salinity 5 – 30 psu V7 Maintain Phragmites australis High flow and low flow 100% of time waterlogging; varying grassland inundation 0 – 0.5 m deep (1.5 m max.; 0.3 m mean) in summer
    • 鸟类 No. Objective Flow component Hydrologic/hydraulic criteria B1 Foraging Low flows Expose Carex B2 Foraging Low flows Shallow water (<0.3 m) over submerged or emergent aquatic plant community with mud or sand base B3 Foraging Low flows Expose mudflats B4 Wintering area Low flows Maintain ice free water bodies* B5 Food supply and breeding High flows Inundate areas of submerged macrophytes (Vallisneria, Phragmites, Typha, Carex, Tamarisk) B6 Foraging High flow recession Gradually receding water levels from Bankfull peak B7 Mudflat foraging habitat Bankfull An annual event that creation supplies enough sediment load to at least maintain delta area B8 Summer-autumn habitat Bankfull An annual event to area inundate backwaters and wetlands
    • 河道形态 Geomorphologic-based objectives and flow requirements.No. Objective Flow Hydrologic criteria Mean annual Inter-annual Timing Reach Reference component frequency/duration frequencyG1 Scour and deposition processes Bankfull 2,600 - 4,000 m3/s ≥ 1 per year / ≥ 1 day* ≥4 in 5 years Jun – Reach 1 Richards et al. to maintain dynamic and diverse duration Sep (2002) habitats in the channel and connected floodplains 3G2 Maintain channel capacity at Bankfull 2,600 - 4,000 m /s ≥ 1 per year / ~10 – 30 ≥4 in 5 years Jun – All Liu et al. (2006) 3 4,000 m /s days duration; Sep reaches rates of rise and fall within natural range 8G3 Seaward progradation of the Bankfull Sediment load >3.45 × 10 ≥ 1 per year ≥4 in 5 years Jun – Reach 4 Wang K et al. delta tonnes at Lijin; event mean Sep (2007); Wang et sediment concentration al. (2010) 3 ≥ 35 kg/mG4 Flow into delta wetland Bankfull >3,000 m3/s to allow ≥ 1 per year / ≥ 10 days* ≥4 in 5 years Jun – Reach 4 Jiang Xiaohui channels to maintain channel gravity flow days duration (or as Sep (YRCC, pers. form (and also provide required) comm., November freshwater and nutrients to the 2010) delta wetlands)* Based on expert opinion; refinement of this criterion will require investigation.
    • 确定生态资产的管理目标
    • 河流资产管理目标有:• 18 个鱼类管理目标• 6 个水质管理目标 Wa te r q ua lity o b je c tive• 8 个鸟类管理目标 B ird o b je c tive• 8 个大型底栖动物管理目标 Ma c ro inve rte b ra te o b je c tive s• 4 个河道形态管理目标 G e o mo mo rp hic o b je c tive s• 上述管理有的是相互联系,有的是重叠的,最终可以概化为 13 个管理目标
    • Key Obj. met Objectives description Flow componentobj.A F1; M1 Prevent habitat loss through drying of shallow areas Cease to flowB B1; B2; B3 Expose Carex and mudflats; shallow water over submerged aquatics Low flowC F2 Maintain shallow habitats with moderate-high velocity for shallow water dwelling species Low flow and spawners during low flow periodsD WQ1, WQ2, WQ3, Dilute contaminants to Grade III standard Low flow and high flow WQ4E V3; V4 Maintain Tamarix/Salix shrubland and woodland Low flow and high flowF M2; M5; F3; F4; F11; Maintain reasonable area of habitat for most of the time for longitudinal connectivity, Low flow and high flow F16 survival of large-bodied fish, maintenance of primary productivity in the estuary; and maintenance of DO levels in deep poolsG F6; F7; F9 Provide suitable habitats for spawning, allow access of large bodied fish to backwater High flow and wetland habitats; maintain downstream transport of semi-buoyant eggs within the water column; and sufficient depth in pools for large-bodied fishH V1; B5; M3; M4; F14 Maintain submerged aquatic vegetation High flowI V2 Maintain meadow vegetation High flowJ M6; F8 Maintain favourable salinity at estuary and mouth for rearing of Chinese shrimp; and High flow maintain salinity gradient for anadromous fish spawning migrationK V3; V4; F10 Maintain Tamarix/Salix shrubland and woodland; and replenish/maintain water in river Low flow pulse associated wetlands and backwatersL F5; F10 Stimulate spawning, migration (anadromy and potadromy) and maintain habitat High flow pulse continuity between near-shore/estuarine and freshwater habitats to allow free upstream passage; and replenish/maintain water in river associated wetlands and backwatersM G1, G2, G3, G4, Scour and deposition processes to maintain dynamic and diverse habitats in the Bankfull WQ6; B6; B7; B8; M7; channel and connected floodplains; maintain channel capacity at 4,000 m /s; seaward 3 M8; F12; F13; progradation of the delta; allow flow into delta wetland channels for habitat provision and physical maintenance; provide low velocity littoral habitats for small bodied species; and maintain shallow pool crossings with moderate-high velocities
    • 水力学模型 —— 确定生态资产的水力学条 件对应的流量
    • 水力学模型把水力学指标转化为流量指标• 一维模型 – 花费少 Mean velocity V Depth D – 覆盖整个河段 – 得到的是均值• 二维模型 – 代价高 Mean velocity V Depth D – 在很短河段的应用 – 在整个河段的分布
    • 一维的 HEC-RAS 模型
    • 二维的 River2D 模型 Mesh Depth Velocity Flow direction
    • 模型支撑数据• 370 个断面数据 – 每年 1 - 3 次的监测数据 • 用于一维 H e c - ras 模型• 3 个的地点河道地形的量测 – 利津( 1 000 米) – 花园口( 800 米) – 伊洛河口( 1 200 米) • 用于二维 Rive r- 2D 模型
    • 环境流量规则
    • 花园口环境流量推荐值 – 低风险Objectives met Flow component Hydrologic criteria Mean annual Inter-annual Timing frequency/duration frequencyF1; M1 Cease to flow No cease to flow Continuous 100% of the time All yearB1; B2; B3, F2; WQ1, Low flow Dec ≥ 307 Continuous ≥ 75% of the time Dec - MayWQ2, WQ3, WQ4; Jan ≥ 280V3; M2; M5; F3; F4; Feb ≥ 321F11; F16 Mar ≥ 377 Apr ≥ 463 May ≥ 430F6; F7; F9; V1; B5; High flow Jun ≥ 434 Continuous ≥ 75% of the time Jun - NovM3; M4; F14 Jul ≥ 783 Aug ≥ 1,137 Sep ≥ 1,124 Oct ≥ 866 Nov ≥ 543V3; V4; F10 Low flow pulse ≥ 2,000 ≥ 1 per year / ≥4 in 5 years Nov - May 1 – 30 days; rates of rise and fall within natural rangeG1, G2, G3, G4, Bankfull 3,000 – 4,000 ≥ 1 per year / ~10 – ≥4 in 5 years Jun – SepWQ6; B6; B7; B8; 30 days duration;F12; F13; F5; F10 rates of rise and fall within natural range
    • 花园口环境流量推荐值 – 较高风险 Objectives partly met Flow Hydrologic Mean annual Inter-annual Timing comp criteria frequency/duratio frequenc onen n y t F1; M1 Cease to No cease to flow Continuous 100% of the All year flow time B1; B2; B3, F2; WQ1, Low flow Dec ≥ 185 Continuous ≥ 75% of the Dec - May WQ2, WQ3, WQ4; Jan ≥ 174 time V3; M2; M5; F3; Feb ≥ 191 F4; F11; F16 Mar ≥ 229 Apr ≥ 284 May ≥ 263 F6; F7; F9; V1; B5; M3; High flow Jun ≥ 265 Continuous ≥ 75% of the Jun - Nov M4; F14 Jul ≥ 466 time Aug ≥ 754 Sep ≥ 744 Oct ≥ 534 Nov ≥ 335 G1, G2, G3, G4, WQ6; Bankfull 3,000 – 4,000 ≥ 1 per year / ~10 – 30 ≥4 in 5 years Jun – Sep B6; B7; B8; F12; days duration; F13; F5; F10 rates of rise and fall within natural range V3; V4; F10 Not provi ded
    • 推荐的环境流量条件下,水资源配置模 拟
    • 环境流量监测及对河流健康的影响
    • 经验和建议经验 中方河流管理和技术人员通过项目的合作,了解和掌握了有关 河流健康和环境流量的许多新概念、新思路和新方法。 中澳双方在项目研究过程紧密合作,澳方专家在郑州常驻 7 个 月时间,使得中方人员可以更好的了解澳方在环境流量和河流 健康评价方面的工作经验和思路,也使澳方专家与黄河管理科 技人员充分沟通,可以充分认识和了解黄河,因此,最后的研 究成果既在方法上有创新,又有可操作性。该研究堪称国际合 作项目的典范。建议 加强本项目研究成果的推广应用。
    • 谢谢请批评指正!