Advanced Survey of Groundwater Resources of
Northern and Central Turkana County, Kenya
August 2013

Peter Manyara
National...
Table of Contents
• About UNESCO & IHP
• The Turkana Groundwater Survey and Mapping
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Overview
Objectives
Met...
ABOUT UNESCO
•

Established in 1945, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) contrib...
UNESCO-IHP
The International Hydrological Programme (IHP)
•
•

The only intergovernmental programme of the UN system devot...
IHP-VIII, 2014–2021
In response to the priorities and needs of Member States, IHP-VIII focuses on six knowledge
areas, tra...
IHP-VIII, 2014–2021
THEME 2: GROUNDWATER IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
•

Focal Area 2.1 - Enhancing sustainable groundwater r...
IHP PROGRAMMES
CROSS-CUTTING PROGRAMMES AND INITIATIVES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

HELP: Hydrology for the Environment, Li...
Advanced Survey of Groundwater
Resources of Northern and Central
Turkana County, Kenya
OVERVIEW
Target area
Beneficiary
Executioner
Budget
Donor
Duration
Contractor
National framework
Regional frameworks
Paren...
OBJECTIVES
1. To survey and assess the groundwater potential of North-central Turkana County
2. To identify and assess a m...
METHODOLOGY
METHODOLOGY
Landsat 7 Processing

Lithological contrasting

SRTM Processing: Elevation & slope evaluation

Elevations

Wat...
METHODOLOGY
WATEX Radar Processing and classifying shallow groundwater (0-80 m)
METHODOLOGY
WATEX Shallow Aquifer Groundwater Occurrence Model (SAGOM):
Classifying shallow groundwater (0-80 m)

Light bl...
Mapping shallow groundwater (0-80 m)

METHODOLOGY

WATEX fracture mapping and classification
WATEX Landsat and SRTM
proces...
Mapping shallow groundwater (0-80 m)

METHODOLOGY

WATEX Deep Aquifer Model (DAM):
Inferring deep-seated aquifers (100 - 3...
Mapping shallow groundwater (0-80 m)

METHODOLOGY

WATEX Deep Aquifer Model (DAM):
Inferring deep-seated aquifers (100 - 3...
MODEL VALIDATION
WATEX accuracy level in Turkana: > 94% for shallow alluvial groundwater occurrence

UNESCO Validation Res...
RESULTS & FINDINGS
Total Groundwater Resources in Northern-central Turkana County

Aquifer regime

Est. Recharge
(MCM / yr...
RESULTS & FINDINGS
Deep-seated Aquifer Systems in Northern-central Turkana County
Aquifer system

Recharge

Storage

(MCM/...
RESULTS & FINDINGS
Groundwater Potentials for Priority Areas in Northern-central Turkana County
Lodwar

Kakuma

Lokichogio...
RECOMMENDATIONS
Survey tools and maps

•

•

Research

•

•
•
•

Drilling capacities

•

•
•

The Government of Kenya shou...
RECOMMENDATIONS
Short term projects

•

•

Aquifer management

•

•
•

Develop exploratory boreholes (Lotikipi and Lodwar)...
SURVEY OUTPUTS

Full Technical Report
(August 2013)

High Potential Groundwater Target Map;
Groundwater Recharge Map;
Soil...
UN IYWC 2013
UN International Year of Water Cooperation 2013
•

Aims at raising awareness about opportunities in water coo...
Advanced Survey of Groundwater Resources of Northern and Central Turkana County, Kenya
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Advanced Survey of Groundwater Resources of Northern and Central Turkana County, Kenya

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The presentation was done by Peter Manyara (UNESCO)during the first Water Dialogue held in Nairobi, Kenya at the National Museums of Kenya.

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Advanced Survey of Groundwater Resources of Northern and Central Turkana County, Kenya

  1. 1. Advanced Survey of Groundwater Resources of Northern and Central Turkana County, Kenya August 2013 Peter Manyara National Programme Coordinator for Kenya, UNESCO-GRIDMAP Contact: p.manyara@unesco.org ©Natalie Walther Implemented by: Survey contractor: Groundwater Resources Investigation for Drought Mitigation in Africa Programme Radar Technologies International Client: Republic of Kenya Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources Contribution to the national development strategy: Financed by: JAPAN Official Development Assistance
  2. 2. Table of Contents • About UNESCO & IHP • The Turkana Groundwater Survey and Mapping – – – – – – – Overview Objectives Methodology Validation Results and findings Recommendations Survey outputs • UN IYWC 2013
  3. 3. ABOUT UNESCO • Established in 1945, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) contributes to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture. UNESCO strives to build networks among nations that enable this kind of solidarity, by: • Mobilizing for education: access; quality; rights; development. • Building intercultural understanding: cultural diversity; World Heritage • Pursuing scientific cooperation: early warning systems; trans-boundary waters; relations • Protecting freedom of expression: condition for democracy, development and human dignity.
  4. 4. UNESCO-IHP The International Hydrological Programme (IHP) • • The only intergovernmental programme of the UN system devoted to water research, water resources management, and education and capacity building; Tailored to States’ needs it is implemented in six-year phases – allowing it to adapt to a rapidly changing world. IHP-VII: Water Dependencies: Systems under Stress and Societal Responses (2008-2013) • This phase continued to lead international hydrological research, facilitate education and capacity development and enhance governance in water management towards meeting the UN MDGs on environmental sustainability, water supply, sanitation, food security and poverty alleviation. IHP-VIII: Water Security: Responses to Local, Regional, and Global Challenges (2014-2021) • The new phase follows the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era and envisions new challenges to be set in the SDGs. During its eighth phase, IHP aims to improve water security in response to local, regional, and global challenges.
  5. 5. IHP-VIII, 2014–2021 In response to the priorities and needs of Member States, IHP-VIII focuses on six knowledge areas, translated into themes:
  6. 6. IHP-VIII, 2014–2021 THEME 2: GROUNDWATER IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT • Focal Area 2.1 - Enhancing sustainable groundwater resources management • Focal Area 2.2 - Addressing strategies for management of aquifers recharge • Focal Area 2.3 - Adapting to the impacts of climate change on aquifer systems • Focal Area 2.4 - Promoting groundwater quality protection • Focal Area 2.5 - Promoting management of transboundary aquifers
  7. 7. IHP PROGRAMMES CROSS-CUTTING PROGRAMMES AND INITIATIVES • • • • • • • • • • • • • HELP: Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy FRIEND: Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data GRAPHIC: Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change G-WADI: Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands IDI: International Drought Initiative IFI: International Flood Initiative ISARM: Internationally Shared Aquifer Resources Management ISI: International Sediment Initiative JIIHP: UNESCO-IAEA Joint International Isotope Hydrology Programme PC-CP: Water for Peace: From Potential Conflicts to Cooperation Potential UWMP: Urban Water Management Programme International Knowledge, Research, and Policy Initiative on Water Quality WHYMAP: World Hydrogeological Map
  8. 8. Advanced Survey of Groundwater Resources of Northern and Central Turkana County, Kenya
  9. 9. OVERVIEW Target area Beneficiary Executioner Budget Donor Duration Contractor National framework Regional frameworks Parent Project Scientific review Northern and central Turkana County Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources UNESCO $700,000 ($150,000 for exploratory drilling) Japan (Official Development Assistance) July 2012 – June 2013 Radar Technologies International (RTI) Kenya Vision 2030 GRIDMAP, IGAD Strengthening capacity to combat drought and famine in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia), $1.5 million Technical Scientific Committee (Kenya)
  10. 10. OBJECTIVES 1. To survey and assess the groundwater potential of North-central Turkana County 2. To identify and assess a maximum quantity of new clean groundwater resources for populations, with particular focus on Lodwar, Lokichogio, and Kakuma 3. To assess the potential of groundwater for development, with a focus on both shallow and deep structures Lokichogio 36,000 km2 Kakuma Lodwar
  11. 11. METHODOLOGY
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY Landsat 7 Processing Lithological contrasting SRTM Processing: Elevation & slope evaluation Elevations Water dynamics evaluation Surface Drainage Catchment boundaries and harvesting Geological assessment Slopes Soil Type Classification
  13. 13. METHODOLOGY WATEX Radar Processing and classifying shallow groundwater (0-80 m)
  14. 14. METHODOLOGY WATEX Shallow Aquifer Groundwater Occurrence Model (SAGOM): Classifying shallow groundwater (0-80 m) Light blue 30% probability of aquifer presence if combined with a conductive fracture. Green 25% probability of groundwater occurrence, located over hills and mountains. Wells in these pixels should only be drilled with the presence of a conductive fracture Black / dark 0-5%, minimal occurrence potential, likely to be dry or have little potential for groundwater occurrence. 6.25 m 75% probability of aquifer presence if combined with a conductive fracture. Negative Negative Negative Positive 6.25 m Red Minimum of 90%. These pixels represent fracture discharges in alluvial sediments, or pure alluvial aquifers. Negative Negative Negative Negative Positive Positive 6.25 m Yellow Occurrence potential at location Negative Negative Positive Positive Positive 6.25 m Pixel Color Pixel resolution (39 m2) Negative Negative Positive Positive Positive 6.25 m Groundwater potential color coding Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive 6.25 m 6.25 m 6.25 m 6.25 m 6.25 m
  15. 15. Mapping shallow groundwater (0-80 m) METHODOLOGY WATEX fracture mapping and classification WATEX Landsat and SRTM processing for fractures WATEX Fracture classification, Conductive (yellow), non-conductive (blue)
  16. 16. Mapping shallow groundwater (0-80 m) METHODOLOGY WATEX Deep Aquifer Model (DAM): Inferring deep-seated aquifers (100 - 3000 m) Interpretation of gravimetric data Interpretation of seismic data
  17. 17. Mapping shallow groundwater (0-80 m) METHODOLOGY WATEX Deep Aquifer Model (DAM): Inferring deep-seated aquifers (100 - 3000 m) Regional deep aquifers Lotikipi Aquifer (330m) Lodwar Aquifer (126m)
  18. 18. MODEL VALIDATION WATEX accuracy level in Turkana: > 94% for shallow alluvial groundwater occurrence UNESCO Validation Results
  19. 19. RESULTS & FINDINGS Total Groundwater Resources in Northern-central Turkana County Aquifer regime Est. Recharge (MCM / yr) Est. Storage Capacity (MCM) Shallow alluvial systems (0-100 m) 2,085 2,085* Deep-seated systems (100-800 m) 1,362 248,250 3,447 250,335 * In absence of localized data at the regional scale, a conservative estimate for the cumulative storage capacity of shallow alluvial assumes the same amount of annual recharge
  20. 20. RESULTS & FINDINGS Deep-seated Aquifer Systems in Northern-central Turkana County Aquifer system Recharge Storage (MCM/yr) capacity (MCM) (1) Lotikipi Basin 1,200 207,500 (2) Lodwar Basin -* 10,000 (3) Gatome Half-graben 61 17,250 (4) Nakalale Half-graben 59 7,000 (5) Kachoda Half-graben 21 6,500 1,362 248,250 Total * Estimate for recharge of Lodwar Aquifer is not given due to insufficient data on Turkwel River recharge dynamics.
  21. 21. RESULTS & FINDINGS Groundwater Potentials for Priority Areas in Northern-central Turkana County Lodwar Kakuma Lokichogio • • • Groundwater potential (1,292 MCM per year) • • • No seasonal groundwater level variation in the boreholes below alluvial deposits • Endowed with the deep Lodwar Basin Aquifer (10 BCM) • Groundwater potential, within 10km2, (51 million m3/year Current water withdrawals only 2.5% of available groundwater Best options for shallow boreholes (<100 meters) is to drill within the fracture corridor of the Tarash River identified by the study Located 25 km south of the southern portion of Lotikipi Basin Aquifer • • • Groundwater potential, (107 million m3/year) Few viable options available within 10 km of town Located 25 km west of the western portion of Lotikipi Basin Aquifer
  22. 22. RECOMMENDATIONS Survey tools and maps • • Research • • • • Drilling capacities • • • The Government of Kenya should take measures to ensure the dissemination of information and tools to stakeholders. GOK, UNESCO and other partners should expand and build the cadre of skilled professionals who can utilize the survey tools. Kenyan government and its affiliated research institutions should conduct additional studies in order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of these resources and their full potential and vulnerabilities. Expand the WATEX study approach to the rest of Turkana and Kenya in order to benefit other regions. Turkana can be a model for other counties. Study socio-economic potential of groundwater, particularly deep aquifers Continue hydrogeological research and modeling of deep structures, including the exploration of the un-confirmed structures, and more boreholes on the confirmed aquifers. The skills/capacity of the drilling industry is inadequate for carrying out reliable and sound exploratory drilling. A major campaign should be launched to build the capacity of the industry as a whole, and reduce the inefficiencies in the market. It is important if the Government can acquire specialized drilling equipment for exploratory drilling of scientific boreholes.
  23. 23. RECOMMENDATIONS Short term projects • • Aquifer management • • • Develop exploratory boreholes (Lotikipi and Lodwar) to be able to provide immediate water supply to local communities. Drill up to 200-500 shallow alluvial boreholes in high-potential areas identified by this survey. Kenyan authorities should establish a limit on abstraction rates for both the Lotikipi and Lodwar Aquifers. WRMA can establish the rates for abstraction for both normal and emergency situations. Kenyan authorities are recommended to undertake aquifer zoning and gazette adjacent land to protect the aquifers from harmful activities. Establish a modern aquifer monitoring system to monitor the Lotikipi and Lodwar aquifers.
  24. 24. SURVEY OUTPUTS Full Technical Report (August 2013) High Potential Groundwater Target Map; Groundwater Recharge Map; Soil and Vegetation Map (1:200,000) GIS Database of groundwater resources RADAR TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL ! Technical Field Manual for Groundwater Targeting NORTHERN-CENTRAL TURKANA COUNTY Groundwater Exploration Navigation System (GENS) Technical field manual for groundwater targeting Practical field training
  25. 25. UN IYWC 2013 UN International Year of Water Cooperation 2013 • Aims at raising awareness about opportunities in water cooperation. • UNESCO was officially designated by UN-Water to lead the preparations for this IY in 2013. • Water cooperation: has multiple dimensions including cultural, educational, scientific, religious, ethical, social, political, legal, institutional and economic aspects. • A multidisciplinary approach is essential to grasp the many facets implied in the concept and to blend such parts into a holistic vision. • A common understanding of what the needs and challenges are around water is required in order for water cooperation to be successful and long-lasting: building a shared consensus • Participation from a wide range of parties including NGOs, IOs, UN Agencies, National and Regional Institutions, and Academia among others is expected and encouraged.

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