The Water Dialogue II Report


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The Water Dialogue II Report

  1. 1. The Water Dialogue Monthly Multi-Stakeholders Platform for Knowledge Exchange and Collaboration for Integrated Water Resources Management in Kenya th VULNERABILITY AND Key Presentation - Eng. Peter Njaggah - WASREB2013 12th November 2013  OPPORTUNITIES 8 October CHALLENGES AND LESSONS FROM THE WATER SECTOR REFORMS AND DEVOLUTION TAPPING GROUND WATER RESOURCES IN NORTHERN KENYA – KNOWLEDGE, Introduction and Context The OECD has identified multi-level governance gaps in water policy related to water resource management and to the delivery of water services (OECD, 2012). In Kenya, the National Water policy of 1999 and the Water Act of 2002 attempted to solve these problems by laying the groundwork for water sector reforms over the last decade. The main objectives of these reforms were to improve water resources management, meet growing demand for water services, attract more professionals into the sector, attract greater investment, and create a modernized sector that was more robust and more capable of responding to the emerging challenges such as climate change and urbanization. The key reform features included: separation of policy from other functions; separation of water resources management and water services provision; separation of regulatory functions from investments and operations; separation of asset holding from operations; increased user participation; enhance pro poor orientation; socially responsible commercialization in the provision of water supply and sanitation services etc. Devolution is expected to enhance the gains brought on by Water Act 2002 without disrupting service delivery. Achievements so far: Notable successes have been achieved over the last ten years in many of the above areas including improved sector alignment and sector planning; improved accountability by separation of regulation from operations; devolution and greater user-participation; increased investment; skills attracted to and retained in sector; Improved access to water and sanitation services by poor households; alignment to human right to water and sanitation. The WASREB regulates eight WSBs (Water Service Boards) and one hundred and three WSPs (Water Service Providers). Their performance improvement is monitored r through Key Performance Indicators (KPI). From 20042012 there is a positive trend for most KPIs among both urban and rural providers. Further the results t show that bigger sized facilities have higher percentage viability compared to small and medium sized facilities. (Survey carried out in 2011/2012 80% Very Large, 65% medium and 48% small). Challenges  Governance in the water sector: There is fear exacerbated by devolution as there are multiple power levels/sectors. Despite devolution it is the obligation of the state in Art. 43 (COK 2010) to give the citizens their right to water and sanitation  Noncompliance in the water sector – no clear transparency on resources received and how they are used. Robust Legal frame work needed and supported by a strong enforcement mechanism and an in-cooperated monitoring system for sustained compliance  Realisation of universal access and balancing of various water demands which requires Institutional strengthening and capacity building which allows for stakeholder participation
  2. 2. The Water Dialogue Monthly Multi-Stakeholders Platform for Knowledge Exchange and Collaboration for Integrated Water Resources Management in Kenya Lessons learnt in the Last 10years  Need to have uniform norm and standards of water quality service delivery and cost recovery. Agreed benchmarks can help ascertain good performance which are reported and audited regularly (e.g. IMPACT WSS Report 2012).  Under devolution: The need to ring fence water revenue generated so they are re-invested for the water sector to grow. Need to protect transboundary assets for the benefit of all as well as have inter-county collaboration with the National government while dealing with shared resources and their sustainable development especially within major economic hubs of Kenya (e.g. Kisumu, Mombasa, Nakuru, Kakamega and Nairobi) who import water from other counties. On investment in the water sector, there has been a positive trend in sector funding and hence the need to continue to enhance the gains made in order to keep the confidence of donors and development partners.. Conclusion: Water services are already commercialised – the model should be continued and there should be smooth devolution without disrupting service delivery. Counties can benchmark on well performing WSPs as we transition. Clarification and certainty on some issues will be required on pertinent issues and we have to embrace adaptive management. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Water Resource Management Q: Water pollution in Lake Victoria and what is WASREB doing about it?  This regional water mass is managed by a regional body; Lake Victoria Basin Authority (LVBA) comprising of the Eastern Africa Countries based in Kisumu.  Lake Turkana AQUIFER: how will the water be shared and what is the quality of the water?  Umani springs: Over abstraction upstream jeopardises downstream users Water Quality and standards Q: What are the agreed water quality standards and are they monitored?  Water quality standards are developed by the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) T There are attempts to move from national standards to regional standards ( East African standards) .  Development of the East African Standards has been necessitated by the need for harmonizing requirements governing quality of products and services in East Africa. It is envisaged that through harmonized standardization, trade barriers which are encountered when goods and services are exchanged within the
  3. 3. The Water Dialogue Monthly Multi-Stakeholders Platform for Knowledge Exchange and Collaboration for Integrated Water Resources Management in Kenya Community will be removed. East African Standards are formulated in accordance with the procedures established by the East African Standards Committee. The East African Standards Committee is established under the provisions of Article 4 of the EAC SQMT Act, 2006. The Committee is composed of representatives of the National Standards Bodies in Partner States, together with the representatives from the private sectors and consumer organizations. Draft East African Standards are circulated to stakeholders through the National Standards Bodies in the Partner States. The comments received are discussed and incorporated before finalization of standards, in accordance with the procedures of the Community.  How will we ensure Kenyans of their Rights to Water? : The right to water is best achieved in a sector operating under uniform norms and standard on quality, service delivery, cost recovery and protection of consumers. Counties have the constitutional right to provide water supply and sanitation services . This will be achieved through the already established Water service providers..  What is the government doing to realise its achievement: The right to water and sanitation will be achieved progressively. Hence the national government will need to be able to clearly demonstrate the following:  A policy and plan to progressively provide the right to water has been developed, with clear and realistic goals and targets.  The funds necessary to implement the plan have been budgeted for :  The financial arrangements are in place to disburse the funds appropriately, and these arrangements are stable and predictable.  The institutional arrangements to translate the plan into reality are in place  The institutions responsible for investment and operations are fulfilling their duties are not negligent  A regulatory system is in place to oversee and ensure the proper function of these institutions (there is transparency in reporting, monitoring of outcomes, performance and consequences for non-performance).  Pro-poor: Regulation to see service provider plans for low income provision of water and the development of propoor indicators. Devolution of the water sector Q: What is government (WASREB) doing about squabbles in the water sector between the county governments and the water service boards and shared resource between the various counties?  Draft Water Policy and Bill (2013) will address devolution concerns. The water bill 2013 has gone through cabinet stage and is now at the CIC stage before being taken to parliament  Water resource management: need to regulate the charges at catchment level  Conflicts between Water service Boards and County governments is about control of resources; the crisis is not over water resources but their governance. Therefore, the different stakeholder must continue engaging in order to reach a common understanding.
  4. 4. The Water Dialogue Monthly Multi-Stakeholders Platform for Knowledge Exchange and Collaboration for Integrated Water Resources Management in Kenya  There is a risk that counties have vested interest in water services with free money for use. which is a ready cash cow Corruption in the Water Supply sector: Comment: Water shortages in major cities and the emergence of water vendors especially in low income areas fleecing the poor as they purchase water at high prices for a basic commodity in Mombasa and Nairobi cities?  Noted that the historical planning of a city like Nairobi was not designed for rationing hence any attempts are bound to fail and have negative impacts  Existence of gang’s/cartels who collude with water providers to unfairly sell water at exorbitant prices  Nairobi problems are as a result of delay in development next phase of water works and increased population. This also applies to the sewerage system.  Developed indicators for water on pro-poor. WASREB is in the process of developing a Pro-poor indicator.