Is health better than wealth waterford


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First of a 4 part lecture series asking "Is Health Better Than Wealth" in the Waterford of the 18th and 19th centuries

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  • Frank H. Hankins (New York, 1927)
  • Is health better than wealth waterford

    1. 1. Is fearr an tsláintená na táinteIs health better than wealth?Waterford County ArchivistJoanne Rothwell
    2. 2. Is it better to be healthy thanwealthy?It requires a certain amount of wealth to be healthyPoverty brings illness and diseaseWealth can also bring illnessThe two conditions are intimately entwined and it can be hard to separate them enough to judge whether one or the other wins out on pointsThis is the job we are undertaking in this lecture series
    3. 3. Poverty and Health Edwin Chadwicks Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of Great Britain which was published as a report of the Poor Law Commissioners in 1842 "More than half the children of the working classes die, and only one-fifth of the children of the gentry die, before the fifth year of age," and he estimated that "The probable duration of life of a miner who had attained 40 years of age may not be, and we have reason to believe is not, half of that of the agricultural ranks who had attained the same period. "An epidemic of smallpox raged at the end of the year 1837," he declared, "and carried off up- wards of 300 persons; yet of all this number I do not think there was a single gentleman, and not above two or three tradesmen.“ Frank H. Hankins ". . . under existing conditions, some selective impor- tance must be attached to infant mortality. The poverty of the parents, which is obviously the most important environmental cause, is itself primarily due to the inferior physique and intelligence of parents. While one must admit that there is doubtless an enormous number of unselected deaths among infants, he must also admit that in a crude and rough way infant mortality as a whole is biologically selective”
    4. 4. WAGES AND FEES 1820s Average labourers wage was 6d per day 1836 carpenter 1 shilling per day 1840 carpenter 2 shillings 8 ½ pence per day. Yearly income c. £60 per year Rent of land of labourers “cottiers” worked out in labour 25 December 1852 Lismore Workhouse Qtly salaries – J.E. Currey MD salary as MO £12:10, David Barry, apothecary £8:15. Nurse £3:13 and Weaver £2:12 1867 average annual income £10 to £26. Highly skilled labourers average £1pw. Low skilled 14 shillings pw. Irish incomes half those of England and Scotland 1870 – wages ranged from 7 to 10 shillings 30 June 1875 Richard O’Reilly M.D. Lismore Workhouse quarterly salary £25
    5. 5. ProgrammeIntroducing Institutions to Health and Wealth: the birth of banks and health servicesGorging and Gout: health and the disposable incomeDis-ease and Disease: the tonicChronic Conditions in Health and Wealth
    6. 6. 18th and 19th CenturiesAge of EnlightenmentScience and TechnologyRevolutionCottage Industry to big industrySame holds true when it comes to the fields of health and of finance
    7. 7. HEALTH: BARBERS TO SURGEONS Guild of Barbers in Ireland received a royal charter in 1446 – included surgeons, wig-makers and apothecaries (pre-dates London and Edinburgh) Guild dissolved in the 1840s Surgeons originally trained by apprenticeship c.1620 Trinity statues required a Doctor of Medicine “ present at three anatomical dissections” 1654 Fraternity of Physicians (later Royal College of Physicians) founded connected to Trinity 14 June 1710 “...ordered that ground be laid out at the South east corner of ye Physic Garden sufficient for erecting a laboratory and an Anatomical Theatre therefor” Cost £100. Opened 16 August 1711 1729 College of Physicians required that a candidate batchelor be examined in (1) Anatomy, (2) Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Botany, (3) Chemistry and (4) Pathology 1784 – Royal College of Surgeons Ireland founded
    8. 8. WATERFORD HOSPITALS Holy Ghost Hospital – a dissolved monastery purchased at the Reformation in 1545, enlarged in 1741 and 1743 County and City Fever Hospital – for contagious diseases established in 1799 (2 attending physicians and one resident apothecary) Dispensary for Diseases of the Eye and Ear – founded 1831 Lying-in Charity – Queen Street visited women at their own residences Leper Hospital –founded 13th century, closed mid-18th century and re-opened as a General Infirmary. 1839 recognised as a School of Surgery Dispensary – including a fever hospital for typhus Dungarvan founded 1819 Dispensary – Portlaw 1835 Dr. James Martin employed as Resident Surgeon
    9. 9. Physicians and SurgeonsThomas Barry, Main Street, 1846Edward Paoli Drew, 1846,1856John Smith, 1846, 1856Pierce Heally, 1856, 1881Gabriel Redmond, 1881 (Medical Officer at Cappoquin Dispensary) College Registers 1692- 1784 onwards
    10. 10. Workhouse Fever HospitalsPoor Law Unions (1838) – Dungarvan, Kilmacthomas, Lismore and Waterford. Carrick-on- Suir and Youghal Unions served part of Co. WaterfordEach Workhouse had a Fever Hospital and a resident Medical OfficerUnder the Medical Charities Act, 1851the PLUs were further divided into Dispensary Districts with a Dispensary (Doctor’s residence/surgery) staffed by a Dispensary Doctor. 22 in Co. WaterfordVisits to the Dispensary were by ticketProof of lack of means was required
    11. 11. KILMEADENDISPENSARY PLANCopyrightWaterfordCountyArchives
    13. 13. Means – the rise of banks and paper currency Banks were individual and family run businesses – national banks from end of 17th century onwards Bankers notes – receipts for money lodged in their hands Bank of Ireland Royal Charter 1783 1815 Trustees Savings Bank Hibernian Joint Stock Bank 1824 (RCs) Provincial Bank of Ireland 1825 1826 Amalgamation of Irish and English currency National Bank of Ireland 1834 Agricultural and Commercial Bank of Ireland 1834 (1836) 1861 Post Office Savings Bank
    14. 14. Front Back Richard Musgrave Promissory Note
    18. 18. BANKING CRISIS William Colville, Esq., Director of the Bank of Ireland, before a Parliamentary Committee in 1804 " I remember perfectly well, that in 1753, the circulation of paper in Dublin from the private bankers was so general and extensive, that in receiving £1,000, there was not £10 of it in gold at that time. I remember that exchange was near three per cent above par; the consequence of which was, that the bankers of Dublin, of whom there were as many as at present, if not more, were in competition with one another to send their specie over to London, and to get bank bills at four per cent. above par, bringing a clear profit to that extent. The consequence of this shewed itself in the succeeding year; all the banks failed except Messrs. Latouche‘s house, and Sir William Newcomens under the name at that time of Gleadowe and Co. ; and these two banks paid off their entire paper : there followed a total annihilation of bank paper in Ireland at that time…but the result was, that multitudes of people were ruined ; the convulsion was exceedingly severe, many tenants threw up their lands, and there was no person connected with the three Southern provinces of Ireland that did not suffer either immediately or remotely” 1733 Act for the relief of the Bank of Samuel Burton and others (1700-1733) 1755 An Act passed for the relief of the creditors of the bank lately kept by William Lennox and George French, of the city of Dublin. The above bank was carried on in Dublin from 1751 to 1755, when both the partners absconded. As their creditors were numerous, and the ordinary mode of legal settlement difficult and expensive, this Act was passed to afford a more speedy remedy. 3rd March 1797 Bank of Ireland suspended its cash payments 1820 Banking Crisis 1820-1830s Runs on gold. Linked to O’Connell and Irish nationalist movement
    19. 19. Munster Bank Ltd Munster Bank established October1864 1870 Munster Bank merged with La Touche private bank in Dublin Local branch network - small towns Focus on agricultural community - farmers High ratio of lending to deposits 25 January 1883 William Shaw “...that some of the Directors are largely overdrawing their accounts without security and that the Bank is in a very serious position now with those Directors. I now assure you here publicly that there is not the slightest foundation for any such statement…” July 1884 Shaw resigned and announced that £75,000 be moved from reserves to Bad and Doubtful Debts account 20 November 1884 Shaw filed a claim of £40,000 for services to the bank since 1884 in the Court of Chancery 26 June 1885 Dublin shareholders case against directors. Shaws statement in January “as false a statement as had ever been made” 11 July 1885 Munster Bank failed – Bank of Ireland refused to honour its cheques due to it being over its £400,000 overdraft Robert Farquharson manager of Dame Street Branch absconded with £90,000 on 24 July. Since 1880s he had been rifling the banks accounts Shaw and “crony” directors bankrupt – shareholders lost all capital
    20. 20. MUNSTER AND LEINSTER BANK LTD.2 days after the closure of the Munster at a public meeting presided over by the Mayor of Cork Shaw claimed he could get the bank back with a loan of £200,000 in London on bank’s securities A committee was formed to re-establish the bank Support sought from Munster inhabitants – Duke of Devonshire in particular was approached for support Local people became shareholders £5 shares Munster and Leinster Bank established 19th October 1885. Cork, Dublin and 9 other branches 1894 Waterford and Lismore branches added 1899 Waterford County Council moved from Provincial Bank to Munster and Leinster Bank at its first meeting
    21. 21. CONCLUSIONDevelopment of institutions to improve public healthDevelopment of institutions and much broader interaction of people with banking and with savings and investmentDevelopment of new technologies and new advances in health and wealthDisposable Income – what do people do?