Every Rarity of the Season


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A presentation on the facts, fads and fancies of Waterford food history with details from the archives

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  • Canon Power – Michael Kavanagh “…nearly literal rendering”
  • Every Rarity of the Season

    1. 1. Every Rarity of the Season A History of Waterford Food Fads, Staples and Fancies Joanne Rothwell, County Archivist
    2. 2. EARLY DAYS <ul><li>Dairy-Arable society </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth by Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Milk Products </li></ul><ul><li>Oaten Cakes </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking by open fire </li></ul><ul><li>Fulacht Fia – giant cooking pots? </li></ul>
    3. 3. FLESH <ul><li>From Anglo-Norman invasion onwards diet in Ireland changed </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Normans introduced rabbits to Ireland – Cunnigar 1262/63 Sheriff’s Account £1 for “Conygar”. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1537 a Royal Commission was presented with a document by the tenants and burgesses of Dungarvan which noted that “…a certain lande and a warreyn of conyes, called Congary point, is holden by the said Gerald Fitz John, containing the lengthe three quarters of a mile, and in bredthe one boweshot, well replenished with conye.” </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy Gaelic lords, wealthy Anglo-Normans ate meat and many Anglo-Normans followed the Irish diet </li></ul><ul><li>Irish ate more offal, carrion and horse and this was looked upon with some disgust by English – particularly blood puddings </li></ul><ul><li>1613 – Boyle’s accounts Payment each day for cowsmeat (1-4s), payment for hostler (2-3d). Carrick – payment of 6d to the conye </li></ul>
    4. 4. EARLY FOOD CRITICS <ul><li>Andrew Trollope to Walsingham on Irish food (1580) </li></ul><ul><li>And their fede is fleshe if they can stele any…and if they can gett no stolen fleshe, they eate if they can gett them, like blades and a three-leaved grass, which they call shamrocks and for want thereof caryon, and grasse in the felds, with such butter as is to loathsome to discrybe; the best of them have syldom breade, and in the coomon sorte never loke after eny </li></ul>
    5. 5. THE 17 th CENTURY DIET <ul><li>Sir William Petty 1672 </li></ul><ul><li>The Diet of these people is Milk, sweet and sower, thick and thin, which also is their Drink in Summer-time, in Winter Small-Beer or Water…Their Food is Bread in Cakes, whereof a Penny serves a week for each; Potatoes from August till May, Muscles, Cockles and Oysters, near the Sea; Eggs and Butter made very rancid by keeping in Bogs. As for Flesh, they seldom eat it, notwithstanding the great plenty thereof, unless it be one of the smaller Animals, because it is convenient…to kill a Beef, which they have no convenience to save. So, ‘tis easier for them to have a Hen or Rabbet, than a piece of Beef of equal substance </li></ul>
    6. 6. NEW SETTLERS NEW FOOD <ul><li>Although the Annals refer to grain harvests and the Irish diet did include oatcakes, porridge and other cereals. Ireland did not grow a lot of cereals or a wide range of grains. Beer was unhopped in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Apples and pears were grown and wild fruits were gathered </li></ul><ul><li>The new settlers brought a lot more land under tillage. Wheaten bread was eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Wider range of grains grown </li></ul><ul><li>New settlers planted orchards and gardens – broadened the range of fruits (apricots, cherries, peaches, plums) </li></ul><ul><li>Hopped Beer became very popular </li></ul>
    7. 7. 18 th Century Food <ul><li>Better mill techniques in Ireland – more milling and more flour/bread products </li></ul><ul><li>On 16 th June 1714 Richard Musgrave agreed to rent land in Church Street Dungarvan from John and Mathew Hore. Part of the terms included his agreement that he, his heirs and undertenants will use the public mill on the estate of John Hore and no other during the terms of the lease </li></ul><ul><li>Further lease in 1732 required him to pay 12 pence on demand for every “bushel of corn, grain or grist ground at another mill” </li></ul><ul><li>Biscuits and cakes were made as well as more French style breads with milk and eggs. Gingerbread was very popular as were barmbracks </li></ul>
    8. 8. 18 th Century Food Cont’d <ul><li>Rev. Nicholas Herbert, Carrick-on-Suir took his family to their seaside cottage in Bonmahon in 1793. His daugther Dorothea and her friends celebrated with a feast </li></ul><ul><li>… we set all Hands to work, got our Pastry and Music from Carrick with every Rarity the Season afforded in Meats, Fruits or Vegetables –The two Blundons got us all manner of fish and wildfowl – Miss Butler, Miss Blunden and Fanny manufactured the Whipps, Jellies and Creams and I made a Central Arch of Pasteboard and Wild Heath with various other Ornaments and Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Aonach Bhearna na Gaoithe – Tomas Ó Moráin (Tomás na mbodharán)c.1770 Sliabh gCua lists food of the fair (raisins, honeycomb, chicken, meat, crubeens, leek, onions, cheese, carrots, turnips, parsnips, hakes, crabs, herrings, shellfish, salmon, fraughan, gooseberries, apples, gingerbread, plums and cherries…) </li></ul><ul><li>Plúr na nDeise, arán sinséir…Bradán is bric-gheala ón tSiúir ann” </li></ul>
    9. 9. PEOPLE OF MISFORTUNE <ul><li>Poverty meant a lack of variety in the diet and in Ireland this meant a move from a limited diet to one dependent on potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>By 1640s potatoes were cultivated in Munster as garden crops and were initially a popular supplement to the diet </li></ul><ul><li>From 1750 there was an increasing demand for grain for export as well as an increasing population </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer people ate oatmeal, milk, potatoes and herrings but increasingly were forced to depend more and more on potatoes and buttermilk for their diet </li></ul><ul><li>By early 1840s Ordnance Surveyors were reporting with horror the complete dependence on potatoes among the poor </li></ul>
    10. 10. POTATO CONSUMPTION <ul><li>1741 Philip Skelton c.2 lbs per day </li></ul><ul><li>1770s Arthur Young 6-8lbs per day </li></ul><ul><li>1839 Poor Law Surveys 9-12lbs per day </li></ul><ul><li>Breakfast and lunch, the same meal. Supper only eaten in plentiful seasons/harvest seasons and again the same meal </li></ul><ul><li>Skimmed milk/buttermilk/sour milk were eaten with the potatoes but only if in good supply </li></ul><ul><li>Herrings used in Winter when milk was scarce </li></ul>
    11. 11. WORKHOUSE DIET <ul><li>George Nicholls 1839 “…it would perhaps be in vain, even if it were desirable, to seek to make…the diet of the inmates in an Irish Workhouse inferior to those of the Irish peasantry. The standard of their mode of living is so low, that the establishment of one still lower is difficult, and would under any circumstances be inexpedient” </li></ul><ul><li>In the Workhouse people were given approx. 2lbs potatoes daily </li></ul><ul><li>During the Famine it was difficult for Workhouses to get supplies of potatoes so inmates were fed meal instead. In September 1847 Dungarvan Workhouse had 565 inmates and purchased 38lbs meat, 2 tons of Indian Meal, 2800 pints of Buttermilk and 3 stone of sugar. In December they purchased 1 ton of Rye meal, 1 ton Fine Flour, 38 lbs meat, 12,556 pints of Sweet milk and 2cwt of salt </li></ul>
    12. 12. BG/WATFD/ 54 Dietary for Waterford Union Workhouse, 1884 Copyright Waterford County Archive
    13. 13. CHANGES IN THE WORKHOUSE DIET <ul><li>After the famine the diet in the Workhouse continued to reduce its reliance on potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>In August 1869 390lbs of meat was purchased with 320 inmates in the Workhouse in Dungarvan 2780lbs of bread were purchased </li></ul><ul><li>Oxheads, beef and mutton from local suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Best 2 nd Bread – all supplies put out to local tender </li></ul><ul><li>More eggs purchased </li></ul><ul><li>More Wine, Porter, Beer and Whiskey purchased </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas Treats of extra meat at dinner and Christmas Cake (raisins, currants, arrowroot, nutmeg, ginger and sweet almonds purchased) </li></ul>
    14. 14. OUTSIDE THE WORKHOUSE <ul><li>Outside the Workhouse people did continue to eat potatoes but reliance reduced particularly after 1879 following a series of poor harvests </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing use of Indian meal and oatmeal – griddle cakes and stirabout. Damage to intestines and excrutiating pain if not ground and cooked properly </li></ul><ul><li>Turnips and Cabbage – high consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Shop bought bread – new milling methods made bread cheaper. Eaten dry with no butter by poorer families </li></ul>
    15. 15. TEA AND SUGAR <ul><li>Per capita consumption rose .5lb to 2.2lbs between late 1830s-early 1860s and grew further as the 19 th century progressed </li></ul><ul><li>High quality tea was purchased </li></ul><ul><li>Tea was stewed and consumed with lots of sugar and even more sugar if no milk was to be had </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys 1859-1904 indicate a tenfold increase in sugar consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee was a middle and upper class drink </li></ul><ul><li>Workhouses dramatically increased their tea and sugar purchases </li></ul>
    16. 16. ESTATE HOUSES <ul><li>Wealthier people had greater access to variety in food </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive gardens and orchards supplied fruits and vegetables and heated greenhouses allowed for a supply of exotic pineapples (£5000 in 18 th C), grapes </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive travels broadened tastes and French and Italian chefs were de rigeur </li></ul><ul><li>Ice-houses – ice, sorbets, fresh food </li></ul>
    17. 17. IN THE MIDDLE <ul><li>The well-to-do farmers, business and professional people had a diet that was more varied than the labouring classes but not quite as exotic as the big estates </li></ul><ul><li>Pig rearing was very common in Ireland – one for the table and one for market among poorer families but more in other families. Handcured at home and slaughtered late Autumn/early Winter. John Risbal, Dungarvan That Deft committed a nuisance by allowing 3 pigs in his dwelling house situate in Borheenatra in the Town of Dungarvan on Monday 4 th March 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Mutton was eaten – lamb less so (often only if a lamb died naturally). Mutton was boiled to soften </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs – source of income </li></ul><ul><li>Orchards, gardens and local markets gave access to fruit and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Families bought bread and occasional treats of cakes. </li></ul>
    18. 18. DUNGARAN MARKETS <ul><li>Dungarvan was a market town and the markets were operated by Dungarvan Town Commissioners </li></ul><ul><li>Dungarvan Harbour Markets and Improvements Act, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>John Lane, Kilmolash That Deft. Refused to pay Town Commissioners or their officer tolls for use of the markets in respect of goods exposed for sale thereon by the deft on 22 nd August 1868 . Fined 3/6 plus costs. Also, James Megly, Kilgobnet; Michael Cahill, Ballyduff; Michael Dee, Clough; Patrick Connors, Moneygro and James Hennebry, Ballygambon </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine Hanrehan, Balinahasary That Deft in 14 th March 1868 in the Town of Dungarvan did sell and offer for sale in the said Town of Dungarvan a quantity of lump butter and did in said day neglect and refuse to cause the same to be weighed by the weights and scales provided by the Complt contrary to the provision of the Dungarvan Harbour Markets and Imp Act 1863 Fined 6d and 3/6 costs or 7 days Imprisonment </li></ul>
    19. 19. Map of Dungarvan, 1901 showing Fish Market. Copyright Waterford County Archive
    20. 20. Dungarvan Town Council Account Book showing payments for Meat Market stalls 1889 Copyright Waterford County Archive
    21. 21. ADULTERATION <ul><li>Walter Mansfield, Crobally That Deft on 7 th March 1868 in the Town of Dungarvan in said County of Waterford did willfully and knowingly expose for sale and sell two ferkins of adulterated butter knowing the same to be so adulterated contrary to the statutes in such cases made and provided. Settled </li></ul><ul><li>Milk, cream, butter and cheese could be bulked up with – water, flour, starch, milk of almonds, gum, chalk, turmeric, sugar and carbonate of water </li></ul><ul><li>Bread – alum was added to make dark bread look lighter, disguise the taste of barly, oat or rye meal mixed with flour, dry soggy bread and to make bready weigh heavier when added to the dough </li></ul><ul><li>Bole Armenium – reddish clay containing iron oxide. Added to potted fish and meat </li></ul><ul><li>Tea- black tea coloured with graphite or black lead and green tea coloured with indigo or prussian blue </li></ul><ul><li>Wine and Spirits- potash, sulphuric acid, honey, colouring, cinnamon, sugar, water, cayenne pepper and lead </li></ul><ul><li>Beer - sugar, salt or “bitterns” (quasia tree bark) were added to disguise extra water added </li></ul>
    22. 22. TWENTIETH CENTURY <ul><li>Milk consumption declined – tea </li></ul><ul><li>Meat consumption increased – bacon, beef and mutton (coarse cuts), offfal (liver, heart and pigs’ feet), corned beef, crubeens </li></ul><ul><li>Dungarvan hake, mackerel, salted fish </li></ul><ul><li>Local markets and local shops </li></ul><ul><li>Tinned food – Apples: Beauty of Bath, Laxton Fortune, Laxton Superb, Cox’s Orange, Bramleys. Wrapped, tinned and exported from Dungarvan in 1950s Apples always a local business Mary Power, Dungarvan That Deft obstructed the public thoroughfare in the Town of Dungarvan on 9 Sept 1865 by having exposed for sale thereon a quantity of apples she being prohibited against same. Fine 1s plus costs or 48 hrs Also Margaret Linehan, Bridget Hennessy and Mary Tuomy. Admonished </li></ul>
    23. 23. LOCAL PRODUCERS <ul><li>Bakers – Slaters 1856 lists 4 Bakers in Tallow and Thom’s lists 7 in 1909. Dungarvan had 12 bakers in 1909 </li></ul><ul><li>Creameries – small creameries gradually amalgamated into Co-ops and Dairies </li></ul><ul><li>Butchers – 7 in 1909. Originally all located located in Shambles, Bridge Street. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishmongers- 1 fishmonger Patrick Evans, Mary Street in 1909. But sales at market or off the boats. Catherine Roche, Dungarvan That Deft obstructed the public streets in the Town of Dungarvan by selling fish on Friday 12 October 1886. Admonished </li></ul>
    24. 24. DRINK! <ul><li>Beer was produced locally “Native beer for the natives” </li></ul><ul><li>Letter to Boyle from tenant requesting rent abatement </li></ul><ul><li>“… for the brewing of beer to serve the town of Lismore and have by your honourable friendship obtained my rite possession. ..Tallowes men (nothwithstanding) served the towne with beer until Midsomer last…I received no profit…the whole town dothe brew beer selles beer that your [ ] serves but two in the town…” </li></ul><ul><li>Merrys – XX Guinness Stout </li></ul><ul><li>Powers Brewery – Powers 2X </li></ul><ul><li>Keilys XXX Brew from St. Stephen’s Brewery Waterford </li></ul><ul><li>Soft drinks were also produced </li></ul>
    25. 25. LOTS OF DRINK! <ul><li>Aonach Bhearna Gaoithe refers to whiskey, ale, Geneva wine, brandy, splendid/strong beer </li></ul><ul><li>That Deft was drunk and disorderly on the public streets of Dungarvan on the night of… </li></ul><ul><li>11 th October John M To be imprisoned for 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>11 th October Michael S – Dismissed. Also 13 th October-Dismissed </li></ul><ul><li>8 th October Martin M Fined 2/6 or 24 hrs imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>10 th October John C Fined £2 or 7 days imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>15 th October Augustine W Fined 2/6 plus costs or 48 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Mary T 22 December 1872 “…disorderly and language contrary to public decency” 1/10 or 3 days imprisonment </li></ul>
    26. 26. SWEETS FOR THE SWEET <ul><li>Yellowman – cinder toffee (Lammas Day Fair in August) </li></ul><ul><li>Gingerbread </li></ul><ul><li>In the Autumn fruits were collected and handed in to local shops for money. They were then sold on for jam. August 1943 hopeful of an increase in sugar ration to make jam </li></ul><ul><li>Toffee Apples and Sugar Sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Nano Manihan, Dungarvan 1d for toffee apples and 1d for sugar sticks (1950s) </li></ul>