Lived from February 15 th , 1564 – January 8 th ,1642
Made huge contributions to the Scientific Revolution, i.e.-
Is considered to be “The Father of Modern Science”.
Smart guy stuff.
Invented and improved a Geometric and Military Compass.
Constructed a thermometer, which used the expansion and contraction of gas inside of a glass bulb to move water in an attached tube.
In 1624 Galileo perfected the compound microscope.
Built a 3x magnification telescope, and later built an improved telescope with a magnification of about 30x, which he used to observe the skies.
After determining the orbital periods of Jupiter's moons in 1612, Galileo proposed that with enough accurate knowledge of their orbits, he could use their positions as a universal clock, and this would make possible the determination of longitude.
Later in his life Galileo made sketches of various inventions, which included a candle and mirror combination for reflecting light around a building, an automatic tomato picker, a pocket comb that doubled as an eating utensil, and what appears to be a ballpoint pen.
Galilean Thermometer Galilean Geometric and Military Compass Galilean Compound Microscope Galileo’s Telescope
Galileo discovered four of Jupiter's four largest moons: Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede. These moons later became known as Galilean satellites in honor of Galileo.
In September of 1610, Galileo observed that Venus, like the moon, exhibited a full set of phases. This helped prove that the universe was heliocentric, and not geocentric, which was previously believed.
Galileo was the first to discover lunar mountains and craters. He even estimated the heights of the mountains. He concluded that the Moon was "rough and uneven, and just like the surface of the Earth itself,“.
Galileo observed the Milky Way, which was previously thought to be nebulous, and found it to be stars that were packed together so densely that they looked like clouds from Earth.
Galileo located many stars that were too far from Earth to be visible with the naked eye alone.
In1612, Galileo observed Neptune without realizing it was a planet. He considered it to be just another dim star.
Galileo was the first to observe sunspots.
Galileo’s observations of Venus’ phases were among his most important because they proved that the heliocentric model of the universe was correct. Galilean satellites- Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede.
Galileo’s observation of the surface of the moon.
Galileo’s observation of sun spots.
Galileo’s work on the motions of bodies, combined with Kepler’s and René Descartes work, was the foundation of the classical mechanics developed by Sir Isaac Newton.
Galileo dropped two balls of the same material, but of different masses, from the Leaning Tower of Pisa as a demonstration to prove that their time of descent was independent of their mass.
Galileo was one of the first people to understand how sound frequency worked.
In 1632, Galileo presented a theory which explained the tides, based on the motion of the Earth.
“ In 1638 Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance. The first observer opens the shutter of his lamp, and, the second, upon seeing the light, immediately opens the shutter of his own lantern. The time between the first observer's opening his shutter and seeing the light from the second observer's lamp indicates the time it takes light to travel back and forth between the two observers. Galileo reported that when he tried this at a distance of less than a mile, he was unable to determine whether or not the light appeared instantaneously.” (see: http://www.lycos.com/info/galileo-galilei--experiments.html)
Trouble with the Church
The Catholic Church told Galileo to give up the idea of a heliocentric universe, because it threatened the their view of the universe and contradicted the bible. Galileo made the heavens so they weren’t a spiritual place anymore. He made the church realize that the heavens were made up of matter and the world wasn’t the center of the universe. Galileo was sentenced to prison for promoting the heliocentric system. His sentence was later reduced to house arrest. Galileo lived under house arrest until his death on January 8 th 1642. Even with the church fighting it, by the late 1630s and 40s, most astronomers had accepted the heliocentric conception of the universe.
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