Unit2 revolutions3


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Unit2 revolutions3

  1. 1. Unit 2: Nationalism and Revolutions <ul><li>We will be studying five revolutions. </li></ul><ul><li>English Civil War 1642 </li></ul><ul><li>American Revolution 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>French Revolution 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Revolution 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Civil War 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Create a timeline with these revolutions. </li></ul>
  2. 2. General Concepts <ul><li>What is a nation-state? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between personal identity and national identity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a revolution? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unit 2. Part1: English Civil War <ul><li>Where is England? </li></ul>
  4. 4. England
  5. 5. <ul><li>The English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Preview : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the image on the next slide. What do you think is going on? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think led to the actions in this slide? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Reasons for the English Civil War <ul><li>In 1603, Queen Elizabeth died. She never married, so there were no heirs. </li></ul><ul><li>James I (still royal blood) became the King of England. </li></ul>
  7. 8. 3 stages to the English Civil War <ul><li>English Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Glorious Revolution </li></ul>
  8. 10. Reasons for the English Civil War <ul><li>Queen Elizabeth recognized the importance of working with Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>James I did not. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed in Divine Right (God chooses royal families to rule) </li></ul><ul><li>James I did not listen to Parliament. </li></ul>
  9. 11. What is Parliament? <ul><li>A group representing the citizens of a country. </li></ul><ul><li>A group that meets to discuss laws and other public issues. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Reasons for the English Civil War <ul><li>Major problems between Parliament & King over issues of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Problems between the King and Parliament <ul><li>Authority —James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Money —James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style </li></ul>
  12. 14. Vocabulary Quiz: What is divine right? <ul><li>King has power to rule from people. </li></ul><ul><li>King has the power to rule from Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>King has power to rule from Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>King has power to rule from God. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Problems between the King and Parliament <ul><li>Religion —The church of England was the Anglican Church. Many English wanted all Catholic rituals removed; </li></ul><ul><li>James I arranged a marriage of his son (Charles) to a a Catholic princess. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Problems between the King and Parliament <ul><li>Why might the English be afraid of the Catholic religion? </li></ul><ul><li>What might happen if the next king is Catholic? </li></ul>
  15. 17. Reasons for the English Civil War <ul><li>When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became king </li></ul><ul><li>Charles was “worse” than James: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Reasons for the English Civil War <ul><li>Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King could not jail people without a good reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King could not make taxes without Parliament's approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Civil War <ul><li>Charles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between supporters of King (Royalists) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable </li></ul>
  18. 21. Civil War <ul><li>War between Royalists vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>The leader of the Roundheads was Oliver Cromwell . Roundheads won & beheaded the king (1 st public execution of a king) </li></ul>
  19. 23. Opinion Poll: Do you think the Charles I should have been executed? <ul><li>Strongly agree </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat agree </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  20. 24. After the Civil War <ul><li>England had a government with no king & ruled by Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Cromwell led England, but not by democracy— </li></ul><ul><li>He became a dictator! </li></ul>
  21. 25. Cromwell’s New Commonwealth <ul><li>Cromwell forced strict religious rules on people of England: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal to wear makeup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal to go see sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ merrymaking” was illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again </li></ul>
  22. 26. Oliver Cromwell <ul><li>Died in 1658 </li></ul><ul><li>Suffered from Malaria </li></ul>I despise kings and mosquitoes!
  23. 27. After the Civil War <ul><li>Cromwell ruled 1653-1658 </li></ul><ul><li>1660 began The Restoration </li></ul>
  24. 28. The Restoration (1660) After Cromwell died, there was no one to replace him. This is always a challenge for governments. Who will rule? How will we decide?
  25. 29. The Restoration (1660) Restoration means to put back in place. England removed the monarchy in 1649. England restored the monarchy in 1660.
  26. 30. Restoration <ul><li>People wanted a king again, so </li></ul><ul><li>1660, Charles II became King </li></ul><ul><li>Called the “ Merry Monarch ” because he brought back theatres, sporting events and dancing </li></ul><ul><li>AND he got along with Parliament!! </li></ul>
  27. 31. What do you think Charles II did to get along with Parliament?
  28. 32. Restoration Government <ul><ul><li>What Charles II did: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Charles II did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authority. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Habeas Corpus* <ul><ul><li>2. Passed Habeas Corpus. Everyone guaranteed a trial; can’t be held in jail forever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Habeas Corpus: produce the body (of evidence) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. No Theocracy <ul><ul><li>3. Anglicanism was official religion, but treated other religions equally. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Restoration Improvements <ul><li>Parliament created a Constitutional Monarchy based on two documents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Magna Carta limited the power of the King. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Petition of Right guaranteed rights of the people </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Restoration Problems: Money <ul><li>Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give. </li></ul><ul><li>He made an agreement with Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism in exchange for money </li></ul>
  33. 37. Restoration Problems: Who will be the next king? <ul><ul><li>Charles II had no children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1685 he died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His Catholic brother will be king. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is Parliament afraid of a Catholic king? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 38. This is Charles II’s brother, James II. A Catholic!
  35. 39. Glorious Revolution Reasons for the revolution: <ul><li>James II ignored Parliament’s religious laws, and appointed Catholics to government positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament encouraged William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands) to invade and take over. </li></ul>
  36. 40. Where are the Netherlands?
  37. 41. Glorious Revolution (Cont) <ul><li>James II fled to France when he realized he had little support from England. </li></ul><ul><li>This peaceful transfer of power was called the Glorious Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was it considered peaceful? </li></ul>
  38. 42. William and Mary <ul><li>William and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament passed the Bill of Rights of 1689. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This made it clear that Parliament was in control. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 43. What is a constitutional monarchy? <ul><li>Form of government in which monarch’s power is limited by the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Form of government in which monarch’s power is unlimited by the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Form of government where Parliament is in control. </li></ul><ul><li>Form of government where Parliament is not in control. </li></ul>
  40. 44. What is habeas corpus? <ul><li>People have to be tried. </li></ul><ul><li>People cannot be held in prison w/o just cause or w/o a trial. </li></ul><ul><li>People need to be read their Miranda rights. </li></ul><ul><li>People have to have an attorney present at trial. </li></ul>
  41. 45. Story Map <ul><li>Create a story map for the English Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Include major dates, characters and events. </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>Where is France? </li></ul>Unit 2. Part 3: French Revolution
  43. 47. Louis XVI <ul><li>King of France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1774 -1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King of the French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1791 -1792 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizen Louis Capet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1793 </li></ul></ul>
  44. 48. Marie Antoinette <ul><li>Austrian, not French! </li></ul><ul><li>married Louis XVI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen of France 1775- 1793 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 49. Estates-General
  46. 50. Estates-General <ul><li>Estates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st : Clergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd : Nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd : Everyone Else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 51. Estates Populations <ul><li>1 st Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1% of pop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most power! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2% of pop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 rd Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% of pop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>powerless </li></ul></ul>
  48. 52. Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>poor economy and national debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of unfair system of taxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>massive spending of Louis XVI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wars of 18th century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>resentment of royal absolutism ; </li></ul><ul><li>aspiration for liberty and republicanism; </li></ul><ul><li>A resentment of manorialism by peasants, </li></ul>
  49. 53. Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>rise of Enlightenment ideals; </li></ul><ul><li>Food scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment and high bread prices </li></ul><ul><li>resentment of noble privilege </li></ul><ul><li>resentment of religious intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>The failure of Louis XVI to deal effectively with these problems. </li></ul>
  50. 54. National Assembly
  51. 55. National Assembly <ul><li>Estates-General always favored the clergy and nobles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Third Estate proposed equal votes per person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This would better represent more people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The proposal was denied by the King. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Third Estate created the National Assembly on its own. </li></ul>
  52. 56. National Assembly <ul><li>Radicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change a lot. More freedom for the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change a little. More freedom, but not too much. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was wrong with the monarchy? Let’s not change things. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 57. Tennis Court Oath
  54. 58. Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>Remain until constitution was written. </li></ul><ul><li>signed by 577 people </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>Assertion that sovereignty of the people did not reside in the King, but in the people themselves and their representatives. </li></ul>
  55. 59. Great Fear <ul><li>Rumors spread </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants feared nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants became outlaws </li></ul>
  56. 60. What is Bastille Day?
  57. 61. What is Bastille Day? <ul><li>July 14 holiday </li></ul><ul><li>observed in France </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Bastille? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was it stormed? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we care? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at page 220 </li></ul>
  58. 62. National Assembly Reforms <ul><li>A State Controlled Church </li></ul><ul><li>National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials </li></ul><ul><li>This action alarms many peasants, who are devout Catholics </li></ul>
  59. 63. Population Movement
  60. 64. Louis Tries to Escape <ul><li>Louis XVI, worried about his future, attempts to escape France </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionaries catch the royal family near Netherlands border </li></ul>
  61. 65. émigré <ul><li>Emigrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who travels out of a country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who travels in to a country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Émigré </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who traveled out of France to escape the French Revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who would do this? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  62. 66. sans-culotte <ul><li>Sans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means “without” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>culottes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means knee-length shorts </li></ul></ul>A skirt is not culottes.
  63. 67. sans-culotte <ul><li>Sans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means “without” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>culottes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means knee-length shorts </li></ul></ul>These are culottes.
  64. 68. sans-culotte <ul><li>Sans-culottes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These were the members of the 3 rd Estate </li></ul></ul>
  65. 69. Divisions and Disagreement <ul><li>Major problems, including debt, food shortages remain </li></ul><ul><li>National Assembly splits into Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives </li></ul>
  66. 70. Division and Disagreement <ul><li>Émigrés-nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in power </li></ul><ul><li>Sans-culottes-lower class who want more change from the Revolution </li></ul>
  67. 71. Declaration of Pillnitz 1791 <ul><li>Austrian and Prussians want Louis XVI back in charge of France </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Pillnitz, by Austria and Prussia </li></ul>Why?
  68. 72. Declaration of Pillnitz 1791 <ul><li>Called on other countries to step in and protect the monarchy of Louis XVI. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria and Prussia do not want a strong France, but they also do not want a revolutionary fever to spread through Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a threat to preserve the system of monarchy, but NOT a declaration of war on France. </li></ul>
  69. 73. <ul><li>Austrian and Prussians want Louis XVI back in charge of France </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  70. 74. <ul><li>France felt threatened. </li></ul><ul><li>France declared war on Austria and Prussia. </li></ul>
  71. 75. France at War <ul><li>Prussia starts to win the war </li></ul><ul><li>French mob jails Louis XVI </li></ul>
  72. 76. France At War continued <ul><li>Pressured by mob, Legislative Assembly deposes the king and then dissolves </li></ul><ul><li>National Convention takes office in September, forming French Republic </li></ul>
  73. 77. France beheads Louis XVI <ul><li>1793 </li></ul><ul><li>No longer king. </li></ul><ul><li>Called him just Citizen Louis Capet </li></ul>
  74. 78. France still at war <ul><li>1793, Great Britain, Holland, and Spain join Austria and Prussia in war against France. </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobins begin military draft </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Jacobins? </li></ul>
  75. 79. Jacobin <ul><li>member of a radical society </li></ul><ul><li>revolutionaries that promoted Reign of Terror </li></ul>
  76. 80. Jacobins <ul><li>the Jacobin Club launched the Reign of Terror in 1793, beheading royalists and counter-revolutionaries by the tens of thousands. </li></ul>
  77. 81. Guillotine
  78. 82. French Republican calendar <ul><li>1793-1805 </li></ul><ul><li>An effort to change everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work, worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten-day week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New month names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New years, starting from 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuesday, November 30, of year 2010 = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decadi, Frimaire 10, of year 219 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 83. French Republican calendar <ul><li>Thermidor is the new name for a month in the summer. </li></ul>
  80. 84. Robespierre Assumes Control <ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre rules France for a year </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes leader a dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Does this sound familiar? How? </li></ul>
  81. 86. Reign of Terror <ul><li>Reign of Terror- Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands die during the Terror, including former allies </li></ul><ul><li>85% of those who die during the terror are middle or lower class </li></ul>
  82. 87. Reign of Terror
  83. 88. Reign of Terror
  84. 89. Louvre Museum <ul><li>Opened 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscated church and royal property </li></ul><ul><li>Art is now available to the people! </li></ul>
  85. 90. Thermidorean Reaction: End of the Terror <ul><li>In Thermidor (July) 1794, Robespierre was arrested and executed by guillotine. </li></ul><ul><li>The Reign of Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radicals </li></ul>
  86. 91. Execution of Maximilien Robespierre on July 27, 1794.
  87. 92. End of the Terror continued Moderate Change NOTHING! Change EVERYTHING!
  88. 93. Napoleon’s Rise to Power <ul><li>Born in Corsica </li></ul><ul><li>Military School </li></ul><ul><li>Joins Army </li></ul><ul><li>1795 Stunning Victories </li></ul><ul><li>1799 Coup d’Etat </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleonic Code </li></ul><ul><li>1804 Crowns himself emperor </li></ul>
  89. 94. <ul><li>The Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Bonaparte </li></ul><ul><li>after his </li></ul><ul><li>coronation. </li></ul>
  90. 95. Napoleon’s Fall from Power <ul><li>Loss of St. Domingue (Haiti) (1801) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of the Louisiana Territory (1803) </li></ul><ul><li>Continental System (1806) </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsular War (1808) </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Russia (1812) </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated, exiled to Elba (1814) </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated at Waterloo (1815) </li></ul>
  91. 96. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Congress of Vienna – series of meeting that reshape Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Klemens von Metternich – foreign minister of Austria, influential at Congress </li></ul>
  92. 97. Klemens Von Metternich <ul><li>Balance of Power – a chief Metternich goal, with no one country a threat </li></ul>Klemens Von Metternich Trying to balance power in Europe so no more war. #CongressofVienna
  93. 98. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Congress of Vienna unites European powers </li></ul><ul><li>Fair deals are worked out so more war does not break out </li></ul><ul><li>European nations agree to preserve peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 years of peace! </li></ul></ul>
  94. 99. Conservative Europe <ul><li>Russia, Prussia, Austria pledge to fight revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>European nations pledge to to help fight revolutions </li></ul>
  95. 100. Revolutions in Russia
  96. 101. Write these notes on a separate sheet of paper. The notetaking guide does not match up.
  97. 102. 1917 Bolsheviks October Revolution Time Line Russian Revolutions, 1900–1939 1905 Bloody Sunday: workers protest, asking for better conditions . 1917 Workers March Revolution 1937 Stalin’s Great Purge 1929 Stalin becomes dictator 1918 Russian civil war begins 1900 1939
  98. 103. Achievements of the Russian Revolutions of 1917 Key Idea Revolutions in Russia HOME <ul><li>End to Tsarist rule </li></ul><ul><li>First communist government </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin takes power </li></ul><ul><li>Major reforms </li></ul>1
  99. 104. Quick Vocabulary Write a quick description of these words. Use your textbook, use your phone, ask your neighbor. Revolutions in Russia <ul><ul><ul><li>Kulaks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proletariat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Totalitarian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Purge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Stalin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vladimir Lenin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communist Party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Command economy </li></ul></ul></ul>1 TERMS & NAMES
  100. 105. What Russia revolted against. a. Revolt against Tsar b. Revolt against Bolsheviks c. Revolt against capitalism Russian Revolutions Russia revolted against several things.
  101. 106. Revolt against the Tsar Russian Revolutions Your goal: Understand what led Russian citizens to revolution.
  102. 107. Revolt against the Tsar <ul><li>1881 Alexander III </li></ul><ul><li>Strict censorship, including private letters </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers report on students </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoners went to gulags in Siberia </li></ul><ul><li>Only Russian culture and language allowed </li></ul>
  103. 108. Nicholas II continues autocracy
  104. 109. This is how the Tsar ruled! This isn’t fair!
  105. 110. What the tsar was doing: <ul><li>War with Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping all power to himself </li></ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption in government </li></ul>
  106. 111. Lenin <ul><li>Vladimir Lenin was bringing the Socialist revolution to Russia. </li></ul>
  107. 112. Socialism was coming. <ul><li>The idea of socialism meant that workers would rule the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers would have equal benefit from their labor. </li></ul>
  108. 113. Lenin leads Bolsheviks <ul><li>Revolutionary group protesting tsar </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin is almost arrested, so he left the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Then he waited. </li></ul>
  109. 114. World War I (1914-1919) <ul><li>Germany WANTS revolution in Russia to weaken Russia, so they put Lenin on a train into Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany WANTS Lenin to take Russia out of World War I, so they don’t have to fight Russia anymore. </li></ul>
  110. 115. Tsar Nicholas II steps down. <ul><li>Provisional government fails </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin and Bolsheviks set up another government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide all land equally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop war with Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give factories to the workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds good doesn’t it? </li></ul></ul>
  111. 116. Revolt against the Bolsheviks Russian Revolutions Your goal: Understand why the transfer of power was unsuccessful.
  112. 117. Bolsheviks in Power <ul><ul><li>No more Tsar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone gets some land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more war with Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All workers own part of their factory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not everyone agrees with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Who might disagree with these changes? </li></ul>
  113. 118. Russian Civil War (1918-1920) <ul><li>Red Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin </li></ul></ul>
  114. 119. Russian Civil War (1918-1920) <ul><li>White Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple white armies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone anti-Lenin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US and Europe helped them. </li></ul></ul>
  115. 120. Russian Civil War (1918-1920) <ul><li>14 million people die </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza (worldwide) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red Army wins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks stay in power </li></ul></ul>
  116. 121. Revolt against capitalism Russian Revolutions Your goal: Understand why capitalism was opposed in Russia.
  117. 122. Capitalism CREATES social classes based on wealth.
  118. 123. Lenin hates capitalism. <ul><li>If people are going to be truly equal, the gov’t needs to make sure no one gets rich and no one gets poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin wants a socialist society </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin wants a state-controlled economy </li></ul>
  119. 124. This is not what Karl Marx wanted. The WORKERS were supposed to be in charge. What’s this Communist Party doing running everything? Angry face
  120. 125. Joseph Stalin and State Control Totalitarianism Your goal: Understand what a totalitarian government is.
  121. 126. Collective Farming
  122. 127. Totalitarianism <ul><li>State controls everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you sell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State controls everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sell </li></ul></ul>
  123. 128. Totalitarianism
  124. 129. Josef Stalin wants change for Russia. <ul><li>Waiting for everyone to agree takes too long </li></ul><ul><li>Russia is already too far behind the West </li></ul><ul><li>It will be quicker if everyone just does what Stalin says. </li></ul>
  125. 130. How is Russia behind? <ul><li>The West has </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Factories </li></ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul><ul><li>Modern weapons </li></ul>I want Russia to have that!
  126. 131. First Step <ul><li>Everyone must start sharing property. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called Collectivization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(collecting farms together) </li></ul></ul>
  127. 132. More Collective Farming
  128. 133. Command Economy <ul><li>Government will control all economic decisions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to make it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much money to sell it for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much money to buy it for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make it </li></ul></ul>
  129. 134. This will take some work. <ul><li>Russia had about 200 years of civilization to catch up with. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still Feudalism! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalin REALLY wants to make Russia a superpower. (and quickly) </li></ul><ul><li>How is this Nationalism? </li></ul>
  130. 135. Five-Year Plans (1928-1937) <ul><li>Stalin creates 5-Year Plans with VERY high goals for improvements in Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul>
  131. 136. Why did coal production see the biggest growth?
  132. 137. Human Cost <ul><li>The human cost of rapid industrialization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Purge (anyone who disagreed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-sacrifice by everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less housing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  133. 138. Collective Farming Posters
  134. 139. More Collective Farming Art <ul><li>Posters celebrated Russia’s new progress </li></ul><ul><li>Posters encouraged Russians to join in. </li></ul>
  135. 140. five years plan
  136. 141. five year plan
  137. 142. 5E Five Year Plan
  138. 143. Rodchenko <ul><li>Constructivist Art </li></ul>
  139. 144. Russian Propaganda Art
  140. 145. Young Communists
  141. 146. Communist
  142. 147. Hammer and Sickle
  143. 148. Kulak <ul><li>Kulaks were Ukranians who had already done well but now stood to lose their gains. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you give up your property to help your country? </li></ul>
  144. 149. Stalin killed Kulaks <ul><li>Kulaks did not want to give up their property to the collectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed their property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalin decided to eliminate the Kulaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took all property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed or imprisoned them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 million people died </li></ul></ul>
  145. 150. Great Purge <ul><li>Stalin killed 20 million of his own people. </li></ul><ul><li>This was how he used fear to maintain power. </li></ul>
  146. 151. Chinese Civil War
  147. 152. Ancient China Part 1:
  148. 153. What kinds of things unify a country? <ul><li>What makes China Chinese? </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul>
  149. 154. The Unification of China <ul><li>The Qin dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first emperor was Qin Shihuangdi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(221 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qin China </li></ul></ul>
  150. 155. The Unification of China <ul><li>The Qin dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established central rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large public projects like the Great Wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No opposition! He buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burned all books except some with utilitarian value </li></ul></ul>
  151. 156. China is now Unified <ul><li>The Qin dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies of centralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard laws, currencies, weights, measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printing press developed in 800 AD </li></ul></ul></ul>How would these things help unify a country?
  152. 157. Chinese Trade Routes <ul><li>What does this have to do with the Chinese economy? </li></ul>
  153. 158. China’s Isolationism <ul><li>China wanted to stay isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>China was willing to sell things to the rest of the world, but didn’t want anything from them. </li></ul><ul><li>China had so many people it didn’t NEED to find more markets. </li></ul>
  154. 159. Modern China 1842-2011 Part 2:
  155. 160. Opium War <ul><li>Europe wanted to trade with China. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1835: 12 million opium addicts in China. </li></ul><ul><li>1839 Britain fought to sell the drug in China - and won. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did China not want to trade with Britain? </li></ul>
  156. 161. Goal for Today <ul><li>By the end of the class today, you will be able to write a detailed, six sentence paragraph about Sun Yixian and his role in Chinese history. </li></ul>
  157. 162. Timeline of Modern China <ul><li>1842 Opium War </li></ul><ul><li>1895 Sun Yixian attempts coup to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty- fails </li></ul><ul><li>1898 Boxer Rebellion: anti-foreigner </li></ul><ul><li>1912 Sun Yixian is successful , and founds the Chinese Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu (Qing) Dynasty (1644-1912 AD) </li></ul>
  158. 163. Sun Yixian <ul><li>the “Father of Modern China” </li></ul><ul><li>Started the underground “Revive China Society” to change the way China was ruled. </li></ul><ul><li>His first attempt at revolution failed, so he went into exile. </li></ul><ul><li>World tour in exile 1895-1911 raising money for revolution </li></ul>
  159. 164. Sun Yixian <ul><li>Chinese citizens worldwide donated money. </li></ul><ul><li>Some tried to assassinate him. </li></ul>Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Sacramento
  160. 165. The Xinhai Revolution 辛亥革命 <ul><li>1912 successful overthrow of imperial government </li></ul><ul><li>New government: Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>Removed the last emperor from the throne. </li></ul>
  161. 166. Hsian-T'ung <ul><li>Last emperor of China </li></ul><ul><li>Became Emperor at age 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrown at age 7. (1912) </li></ul>What did I do wrong?
  162. 167. Three Principles of the People <ul><li>Nationalism -- End foreign control! </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Rights --- Democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Livelihood --- Economic security for all Chinese. </li></ul>The Chinese people do not have a national spirit, but they need one. These are the ideas that the new government is being built on.
  163. 168. Republic of China <ul><li>First: President Sun Yixian </li></ul><ul><li>Then: General Yuan Shikai, who was not very democratic. </li></ul><ul><li>He made himself Emperor! </li></ul><ul><li>People revolted against Shikai. </li></ul><ul><li>Then: civil war 1916 </li></ul>
  164. 169. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>This treaty ended World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty written by Western powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul></ul>
  165. 170. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Treaty did not help China get back lost territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Territory that Germany had taken was given to JAPAN! </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this significant? </li></ul><ul><li>One more reason not to trust the West. </li></ul>
  166. 171. May Fourth Movement <ul><li>1919 World War I ends </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles does not reward China </li></ul><ul><li>3000 students marched in protest of Japanese imperialism and Western support of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers, shopkeepers and professionals protest </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this significant? </li></ul><ul><li>China wanted a strong, modern, independent nation, preferably not influenced by the West. </li></ul>
  167. 172. That was a vocabulary term. Did you get it? What was the May Fourth Movement?
  168. 173. 2 Sides to Civil War <ul><li>Nationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Yixian: leader </li></ul><ul><li>Kuomintang: The Nationalist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Western influence </li></ul><ul><li>Communist </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong: leader </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese Communist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-western influence </li></ul>
  169. 174. That was a vocabulary term. Did you get it? What was the Kuomintang?
  170. 175. China needs change. Can the two groups cooperate to get it done? <ul><li>Sun Yixian tried to unite both revolutionary groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Lenin supported this, and helped the Nationalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds good, right? </li></ul>
  171. 176. Good leaders are hard to find. <ul><li>First: Dr. Sun Yixian led Kuomintang 1912, but did not have the authority or military support. </li></ul><ul><li>Second: General Yuan Shikai led Kuomintang next, but did not stay very democratic. (Emperor??) </li></ul><ul><li>Third: Jiang Jieshi took over the Kuomintang 1925. </li></ul>
  172. 177. How does this transfer of power compare to other revolutions? <ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul>
  173. 178. Jiang Jieshi <ul><li>Kuomintang leader </li></ul><ul><li>Promised democracy and political rights for all Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>But his government became less democratic and more corrupt. </li></ul>
  174. 179. Jiang Jieshi <ul><li>When his government became corrupt, people turned to the alternative: </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese Communist Party </li></ul>
  175. 180. Lenin only wanted the Nationalists and Communists to cooperate for a little while. “ get rid of the warlords” Then he was going to eliminate the Nationalists. “ Workers of the world unite.” Communism is international.
  176. 181. Look at where the Communists and Nationalists had power.
  177. 182. Who is communism for? <ul><li>The workers </li></ul><ul><li>But if the country is not industrialized, has no factories, who are your workers? </li></ul>answer: the farmer peasants
  178. 183. Compare <ul><li>Jiang Jieshi & Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>Some Western influence is ok </li></ul><ul><li>For the capitalists </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalists live in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong & Communists </li></ul><ul><li>No Western influence </li></ul><ul><li>For the workers peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants make up 90% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants do not live in cities </li></ul>Where do you think their strength will be?
  179. 184. Who will help them? <ul><li>Foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese in the city </li></ul>Where do you think their strength will be? KMT CCP
  180. 185. The White Terror April 1927 <ul><li>Massacre in Shanghai, Nanking, Hangchow, Foochow, Canton and other large cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist troops, gangs and secret agents shot suspects, raided communist groups and eliminated workers unions. </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 communists were shot and killed , and many more left the party. </li></ul>
  181. 186. The White Terror of April 1927
  182. 187. April 1927 <ul><li>Nationalist forces slaughtered Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese Communist Party was almost entirely eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Just a few remained. </li></ul><ul><li>They fled to the countryside. </li></ul>
  183. 188. Communists are out of the way. Nationalists (Kuomintang) have control of China. Jiang Jieshi becomes president of the Republic of China. Western powers such as US and Britain formally recognize.
  184. 189. You better recognize! Yeah, yeah. We recognize. Yeah, yeah. We recognize.
  185. 190. You killed my communists! I DON’T recognize. Russia wasn’t so happy.
  186. 191. Mao Zedong <ul><li>In order for the Communist Party to survive, he needed the support of the farmer peasants in the country. </li></ul>In order to get their support, he promised to give them something they didn’t have:
  187. 192. Land
  188. 193. Land Land was taken away from landowners and given to peasants. This is called Land Reform.
  189. 194. Journal Entry Why do you think this Land Reform would get the Communist Party the support it needed?
  190. 195. Change Takes Time <ul><li>Capitalist change does not take place overnight. </li></ul><ul><li>Shock therapy? </li></ul><ul><li>Are people patient when they are hungry? </li></ul><ul><li>Communist change is immediate. </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly you have your own piece of land! </li></ul>Thank you, Mao!
  191. 196. The Long March What was it? A 6000 mile journey taken by Communists escaping the Nationalist army from 1934-1936. Why was it significant? Along the way, the Communists shared their ideas and gave hope to desperate peasants. This is how the Communists gained popular support.
  192. 197. The Cold War 1949-1990 The Soviet Union wanted the world to be communist. The United States wanted the world to be capitalist. These nations did not fight each other directly. Instead, they tried to influence other natons.
  193. 198. The Cold War How do you think the Cold War affected the Chinese civil war?
  194. 199. The Cold War The Soviet Union supported the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The United States supported the Nationalist party (KMT).
  195. 200. The Nationalists had the advantage. Nationalists outnumbered the communist Red Army 3 to 1. The United States gave money to the Nationalists: nearly $2 billion. The Communists were on the run, retreating across 6000 miles of territory.
  196. 201. But China today is Communist. What happened to the Nationalists?
  197. 202. The Nationalists lost the people… and therefore, the war. The Nationalists let us down, but Mao gave us ________ and Mao gave us ________.
  198. 203. 1946-1950 <ul><li>Communist Red Army takes over China. </li></ul><ul><li>(see animation) </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese Communists win the Civil War. </li></ul>
  199. 204. Taiwan <ul><li>Nationalists (Kuomintang) escaped to the island of Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations continued to recognize the Kuomintang as the legitimate government of all China. </li></ul><ul><li>Communist China was not recognized. </li></ul>
  200. 205. Taiwan
  201. 206. Taiwan
  202. 207. This is about how Taiwan compares to California in size.
  203. 208. You’re in control now, Mao. What do you want to do? <ul><li>Nationalize businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivize farms. </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>make </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>a modern, </li></ul><ul><li>industrialized, </li></ul><ul><li>powerful nation! </li></ul>
  204. 209. Nationalize businesses! Private businesses were gradually taken over by the government. The Chinese Communist Party then made all decisions for each business. All control is from the government. All profit is for the government.
  205. 210. Increase industry! 1953, Mao launched a five-year plan that set high production goals for industry. China boosted its output of coal, cement, steel, machines and electricity. Thousands of new industrial projects were created.
  206. 211. Now let’s talk about changing the farms. How can we make them more productive?
  207. 212. Collectivize farms! 1950 Mao continued land reform. 1952 Mao wanted to increase productivity everywhere, including the farms.
  208. 213. Remember this? Stalin collectivized farms for greater productivity. So did Mao Zedong.
  209. 214. 1952 Chinese farmers were told to share their animals, equipment and labor with other farmers. Sounds good. We like to share.
  210. 215. Land Reform <ul><li>There were four stages to land reform. </li></ul>
  211. 216. Four Stages of Land Reform <ul><li>Don’t take notes yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Just watch and listen. </li></ul><ul><li>I will sum up the four stages at the end. </li></ul>
  212. 217. 1930’s Chinese farmers often owned no land. They lived and worked for a landlord. Life was hard.
  213. 218. 1940’s Farmers own an equal share of land. Mao Zedong said it was unfair for someone to have lots of land, when other people had none. He split up each piece of land so everyone owned about 1/2 acre of land. They could farm it however they liked.
  214. 219. 1952 Farmers share equipment. Mao Zedong wanted more agricultural productivity. Each farmer now had to share his tools, equipment and labor with 10 other farmers nearby. This was a Mutual Aid Team. It worked really well. Productivity increased.
  215. 220. 1953 Farmers share everything. If small teams work well, don’t you think big teams would work better? Agricultural Producer Cooperatives More farms are joined together. Farmers still have some differences in income based on land and equipment.
  216. 221. What about super-sized teams? <ul><li>Collective Farms </li></ul><ul><li>All private ownership ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone gets paid the same. </li></ul>1954 Farmers own nothing.
  217. 222. <ul><li>Communes were groups of Collective Farms. </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>60 villages together </li></ul><ul><li>Military style checkpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Orchards </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton fields </li></ul><ul><li>Television station </li></ul><ul><li>Oil refinery </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing department </li></ul>Imagine living and working at a high school THIRTY times the size of San Juan!
  218. 223. How do you like me now?
  219. 224. Dazhai Commune
  220. 225. Review Four Stages of Land Reform <ul><li>Farmers own an equal share of land. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers must share tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers must share everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers own nothing. </li></ul>
  221. 226. Journal entry The commune system did not provide the increased productivity that Mao Zedong anticipated. A few farmers cooperating together increased production, but thousands of farmers together did not. Why do you think this happened?