Unit 2  Revolutions
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Unit 2  Revolutions Unit 2 Revolutions Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 2:RevolutionsWe will be studying five revolutions.1. English Civil War 16422. American Revolution 17763. French Revolution 17894. Russian Revolution 19175. Chinese Civil War 1911Create a timeline with these revolutions.
  • General Concepts What is the difference between personal identity and national identity? What is a revolution?
  • Unit 2.1 English Civil War Where is England? View slide
  • England View slide
  • 3 Names for This PlaceEnglandGreat BritainUnited Kingdom
  • –Examine the image on the next slide.–What do you think is going on?
  • 3 stages to the English Civil War1 English Civil War2 Restoration3 Glorious Revolution
  • Henry VII Arthur Henry VIII Margaret Mary Mary I Elizabeth I Edward VI James V"Bloody Mary" King of Scotland Mary Stuart Queen of Scotland James I Charles I Civil War Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell Charles II James II "Merry Monarch"
  • Reasons for the English Civil War James I disagreed with Parliament. What kinds of things do you think they would disagree about?
  • Problems between the King and Parliament Authority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by Parliament Money—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style
  • Problems between the King and Parliament Religion—The church of England was the Anglican Church. Many English wanted all Catholic rituals removed; James I arranged a marriage of his son (Charles) to a a Catholic princess.
  • What is Parliament? A group representing the citizens of a country. A group that meets to discuss laws and other public issues.
  • Reasons for the English Civil War Majorproblems between Parliament & King over issues of –Authority –Money –Religion
  • Vocabulary Quiz: What is divine right?A. King has power to rule from people.B. King has the power to rule from Congress.C. King has power to rule from Parliament.D. King has power to rule from God.
  • Does it matter what religion the King has? Whymight the English be afraid of the Catholic religion? Whatmight happen if the next king is Catholic?
  • Charles I Comes to Power James I died in 1625, & his son Charles I became king Charles was ―worse‖ than James: –Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money
  • Petition of Rights Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628: –King could not jail people without a good reason –King could not make taxes without Parliaments approval –King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime
  • Civil War CharlesI was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years. Conflictbetween supporters of King (Royalists) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable
  • Henry VII Arthur Henry VIII Margaret Mary Mary I Elizabeth I Edward VI James V"Bloody Mary" King of Scotland Mary Stuart Queen of Scotland James I Charles I Civil War Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell Charles II James II "Merry Monarch"
  • Civil War War between Royalists vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years The leader of the Roundheads was Oliver Cromwell. Roundheads won & beheaded the king.
  • Opinion Poll:Do you think the Charles I shouldhave been executed?A. Strongly agreeB. Somewhat agreeC. Somewhat disagreeD. Strongly disagreeWhy?
  • After the Civil War England had a government with no king & ruled by Parliament Oliver Cromwell led England, but not by democracy— He became a dictator!
  • After the Civil War Cromwell forced strict religious rules on people of England: Illegal to wear makeup Illegal to go see sports ―merrymaking‖ & ―amusement‖ were illegal Citizenshated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again
  • I despiseOliver Cromwell kings and mosquitoes! Died in 1660 Suffered from Malaria
  • The Restoration (1660)After Cromwell died, therewas no one to replace him.This is always a challengefor governments.Who will rule?How will we decide?
  • The Restoration (1660)Restoration means to putback in place.England removed themonarchy in 1649.England restored themonarchy in 1660.
  • Restoration People wanted a king again 1660, Charles II became King Called the ―Merry Monarch‖ because he brought back theatres, sporting events and dancing AND he got along with Parliament!!
  • What do you think Charles II didto get along with Parliament?
  • Restoration GovernmentWhat Charles II did:1.Charles II did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authority.
  • Habeas Corpus*2. Passed Habeas Corpus. Everyone guaranteed a trial; can’t be held in jail forever*Habeas Corpus: produce the body (of evidence)
  • No Theocracy3. Anglicanism was official religion, but treated other religions equally.
  • Benefits of the Restoration Parliament created a Constitutional Monarchy based on two documents: –the Magna Carta limited the power of the King. –the Petition of Right guaranteed rights of the people
  • Problems of the Restoration: Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give. He made an agreement with Louis XIV of France toconvert to Catholicism inexchange for money
  • Problems of the Restoration: Who will be the next king? CharlesII had no children; when he dies, his Catholic brother will be king. Whyis Parliament afraid of a Catholic king?
  • Thisis James II
  • Glorious RevolutionReasons for the revolution: James II ignored Parliament’s religious laws, and appointed Catholics to government positions. Parliament was worried the throne would go to James II son (another Catholic). Parliament encouraged William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands) to invade and take over.
  • Glorious Revolution (Cont) James II fled to France when he realized he had little support from England. This peaceful transfer of power was called the Glorious Revolution. Why was it considered peaceful?
  • William and Mary William and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England. Parliament passed the Bill of Rights of 1689. – This made it clear that Parliament was in control.
  • What is a constitutional monarchy?A. Form of government in which monarch’s power is limited by the constitution.B. Form of government in which monarch’s power is unlimited by the constitution.C. Form of government where Parliament is in control.D. Form of government where Parliament is not in control.
  • What is habeas corpus?A. People have to be tried.B. People cannot be held in prison w/o just cause or w/o a trial.C. People need to be read their Miranda rights.D. People have to have an attorney present at trial.
  • AmericanRevolution1776
  • England and Imperialism England had the best Navy in the world England bought and sold items from around the world England set up colonies to help the English buy and sell MORE. The United States began as 13 English colonies.
  • Reasons for Revolution The Navigation Act of 1651English colonies couldn’t sell anything to anyone other than Britain.
  • Reasons for Revolution The French and Indian War 1754 -The French want to take colonies away from the English in North AmericaIndian tribeshelped fight onboth sides.
  • Who won the Frenchand Indian War? Britain
  • Reasons for RevolutionStamp Act of 1765Colonists must pay for the French and Indian War‖Everything printed needed to pay an extra tax to Britain.
  • Reasons for Revolution Tea could only be purchased from Britain Boston TeaParty PROTEST
  • Enlightenment Ideas What are some ideas from the Enlightenment that influenced revolutions? Use your textbook page 198 to fill in the chart. The Idea Who came up with it?
  • Declaration of Independence 1776 GO AWAY!!! The 13 English colonies in North America declare their independence from Britain.
  • Reasons for the Success of theAmerican Revolution1. Americans were more motivated than the British.2. British generals were overconfident and made mistakes.3. It was more expensive for Britain to fight overseas.4. France helped Americans fight Britain.
  • French Revolution1789
  • Louis XVI King of France X = ten V = five I = one X+V+1 = 16Louis the Sixteenth
  • Louis XVIHow would you describe this man?
  • FrenchPeasantHow would you describe this man?Compare him to Louis XVI
  • Louis XVI King of France – 1774 -1791 King of the French – 1791 -1792 Citizen Louis Capet – 1793
  • Queen of France, Marie Antoinette Austrian, not French! – Queen of France 1775- 1793
  • Estates-General
  • Estates-General Estates – 1st: Clergy – 2nd: Nobility – 3rd: Everyone Else • Peasants • Workers • Bourgeoisie
  • Estates Populations 1st Estate – 1% of pop. – Most power! 2nd Estate – 2% of pop. – Power 3rd Estate – 97% of pop. – powerless
  • Causes of the French Revolution Poor economy and national debt Royal absolutism Liberté, égalité, fraternitéLiberty, equality, brotherhood
  • Causes of the French Revolution Enlightenment ideals Food scarcity (Hunger!) High unemployment Noble privilege Religious intoleranceMost of all:The failure of Louis XVIto fix these problems
  • National Assembly
  • National Assembly Estates-General always favored the clergy and nobles. The Third Estate proposed equal votes per person.  This would better represent more people.  The proposal was denied by the King. The Third Estate created the National Assembly on its own.
  • National Assembly Radicals – Change a lot. More freedom for the people. Moderates – Change a little. More freedom, but not too much. Conservatives – What was wrong with the monarchy? Let’s not change things.
  • Tennis Court Oath
  • Tennis Court Oath Remain until constitution was written. signed by 577 people Why is it important? Assertion that sovereignty of the people did not reside in the King, but in the people themselves and their representatives.
  • Great Fear Rumors spread Peasants feared nobles Peasants became outlaws
  • What is Bastille Day?
  • What is Bastille Day? July 14 holiday observed in France What was the Bastille? Why was it stormed? Why do we care? Look at page 220
  • National Assembly ReformsA State Controlled Church National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials This action alarms many peasants, who are devout Catholics
  • Population Movement
  • Louis Tries to EscapeLouis XVI, worried about his future, attempts to escape FranceRevolutionaries catch the royal family near Netherlands border
  • émigré Emigrant – Someone who travels out of a country Immigrant – Someone who travels into a country Émigré – Someone who traveled out of France to escape the French Revolution. – Who would do this? Why?
  • sans-culotte Sans – Means ―without‖ culottes – Means knee-length shortsA skirt is not culottes.
  • sans-culotte Sans – Means ―without‖ culottes – Means knee- length shorts These are culottes.
  • sans-culotte Sans-culottes – These were the members of the 3rd Estate
  • Divisions and DisagreementMajor problems, including debt, food shortages remainNational Assembly splits into Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives
  • Division and DisagreementÉmigrés-nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in powerSans-culottes-lower class who want more change from the Revolution
  • Declaration of Pillnitz 1791Austrian and Prussians want Louis XVI back in Why? charge of FranceDeclaration of Pillnitz, by Austria and Prussia
  • Declaration of Pillnitz 1791 Called on other countries to step in and protect the monarchy of Louis XVI. Austria and Prussia do not want a strong France, but they also do not want a revolutionary fever to spread through Europe. It was a threat to preserve the system of monarchy, but NOT a declaration of war on France.
  • Austrianand Prussians want Louis XVI back in charge of FranceWhy?
  • France felt threatened.France declared war on Austria and Prussia.
  • France at War Prussiastarts to win the war French mob jails Louis XVI
  • France At War continued Pressured by mob, Legislative Assembly deposes the king and then dissolves National Convention takes office in September, forming French Republic
  • France beheads Louis XVI 1793 No longer king. Called him just Citizen Louis Capet
  • France still at war 1793, Great Britain, Holland, and Spain join Austria and Prussia in war against France. Jacobins begin military draft Who were the Jacobins?
  • Jacobin  member of a radical society  revolutionaries that promoted Reign of Terror
  • Jacobins  the Jacobin Club launched the Reign of Terror in 1793, beheading royalists and counter- revolutionaries by the tens of thousands.
  • Guillotine
  • French Republican calendar 1793-1805 An effort to change everything – Work, worship – Ten-day week – New month names – New years, starting from 1 – Tuesday, November 30, of year 2010 = • Decadi, Frimaire 10, of year 219
  • French Republican calendar Thermidor is the new name for a month in the summer.
  • The War Continues French army wins great victory against Prussians and Austrians In 1793 Britain, Spain, Holland join forces against France National Convention orders draft of 300,000 to reinforce
  • Divided CountryNotall people in France support all changes of the Revolution
  • Robespierre Assumes Control Maximilien Robespierre-Jacobin leader rules France for a year Becomes leader of the Committee for Public Safety, a dictator Does this sound familiar? How?
  • Reign of Terror Reign of Terror-Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents Thousands die during the Terror, including former allies 85% of those who die during the terror are middle or lower class
  • Reign of Terror  1793 – 1794  After the death of Louis XVI  Instead of a democracy, it was a war dictatorship  Committee of Public Safety
  • Reign of Terror
  • Louvre Museum•Opened 1793•Confiscated church and royal property•Art is now available to the people!
  • Thermidorean Reaction:End of the Terror In Thermidor (July) 1794, Robespierre was arrested and executed by guillotine.The Reign of Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radicals
  • Execution of Maximilien Robespierre onJuly 27, 1794.
  • End of the Terror continued  Moderate leaders write new constitution –Moderate = middle –a little bit of change is ok. Moderate Change ChangeEVERYTHING! NOTHING!
  • Napoleon’s Rise to Power1. Born in Corsica2. Military School3. Joins Army4. 1795 Stunning Victories5. 1799 Coup d’Etat6. Napoleonic Code7. 1804 Crowns himself emperor
  • The EmperorNapoleonBonaparteafter hiscoronation.
  • Napoleon’s Fall from Power1. Loss of St. Domingue (Haiti) (1801)2. Loss of the Louisiana Territory (1803)3. Continental System (1806)4. Peninsular War (1808)5. Invasion of Russia (1812)6. Defeated, exiled to Elba (1814)7. Defeated at Waterloo (1815)
  • Loss of American Territories In 1801, Napoleon attempts to retake colony of Saint Dominigue but fails Gives up on the Americas and concentrates on Europe In 1803, Sells the Louisiana Territory to U.S. for $15 million.
  • Conquering EuropeBritain,Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces against NapoleonNapoleon crushes enemy forces in Several brilliant battles
  • The Battle of Trafalgar1805, British win Battle of TrafalgarNapoleon to gives up plan of invading BritainLooks for another way to control Britain
  • Continental System Napoleon blockades the British – forced closing of ports Continental System used to strengthen Europe and weaken Britain
  • Continental System
  •  Smuggling and uncooperative allies make this blockade fail Britain responds with it’s own blockade of France, led by it’s stronger navy
  •  America and British fight war of 1812, although they are pushed out, no major damage done to British
  • Peninsular War
  • Peninsular war Napoleon send troops across Spain to attack Portugal, Spanish protest Napoleon appoints his brother King of Spain, angering people
  •  Spanish fight as guerrillas – small groups that attack and then disappear British aid the Spanish
  •  Napoleon loses 300,000 troops during the Peninsular War Nationalist rebels fight French all over empire
  • Invasion of Russia Napoleon decided to invade Russia after relations break down June 1812, Napoleon’s army marches into Russia with 420,000 men
  • Russians use scorched earth policy, destroying crops and livestockNapoleon finds Moscow abandoned and burning
  • scorched earth policy
  • Napoleon is forced to retreat, losing thousands of troops to raids, cold weather
  • Downfall Britain,Prussia, Sweden, Russia, and Austria join forces against Napoleon Napoleon raises another army, but meets quick defeat by allied powers
  •  Napoleon finally surrenders and is exiled to the Island of Elba
  • Last Try Louis XVIII , the new king is quickly overthrown and Napoleon returns from exile Waterloo – British and Prussian forces defeat Napoleons new army
  • Waterloo
  •  This defeat ends the Hundred Days –Napoleon’s last attempt at power He is exiled to an island again.
  • He isexiledto theisland ofSt. Helena.Why didn’t he escape again?
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • Russia
  • Congress of Vienna After exiling Napoleon, European leaders at the Congress of Vienna try to restore order and reestablish peace
  • Congress of Vienna Congress of Vienna – series of meeting that reshape Europe Klemens von Metternich – foreign minister of Austria, influential at Congress
  • Klemens Von Metternich Balanceof Power – a chief Metternich goal, with no one country a threat Klemens Von Metternich Trying to balance power in Europe so no more war. #CongressofVienna
  • Congress of Vienna Congress of Vienna succeeds in uniting European powers Fair deals are worked out so more war does not break out European nations agree to preserve peace and a peaceful time of 40 years follows
  • Conservative Europe Holy Alliance – Russia, Prussia, Austria pledge to fight revolution Concert of Europe – European nations pledge to to help fight revolutions
  •  Conservativegovernments rule across Europe, but new ideas have impact
  • Revolutions in Russia
  • Russian Revolutions, 1900– 1939 Time Line 1905 Bloody Sunday: 1917 Russian 1918 Russian 1929 Stalin Russian workers protest, workers riot in civil war begins becomes dictator asking for better conditions. March Revolution of Soviet Union.1900 1939 1917 Russian 1937 Stalin’s Bolsheviks rebel in Great Purge October killed millions Revolution
  • HOME1 Revolutions in Russia Key Idea Achievements of the Russian Revolutions of 1917 •End to Tsarist rule •First communist government •Lenin takes power •Major reforms
  • 1 Revolutions in Russia TERMS & NAMES Quick Vocabulary Kulaks Write a quick description of these words. Use Karl Marx your textbook, use your phone, ask your Proletariat neighbor. Bolsheviks Totalitarian Great Purge Joseph Stalin Vladimir Lenin Communist Party Command economy
  • Russian Revolutions Russia revolted against several things. What Russia revolted against. a. Revolt against Tsar b. Revolt against Bolsheviks c. Revolt against capitalism
  • Russian Revolutions Revolt against the Tsar Your goal: Understand what led Russian citizens to revolution.
  • Revolt against the Tsar 1881 Alexander III •Strict censorship, including private letters •Teachers report on students •Prisoners went to gulags in Siberia •Only Russian culture and language allowed
  • Nicholas II continuesautocracy
  • This is how the Tsar ruled! This isn’t fair!
  • What the tsar was doing: War with Japan Keeping all power to himself World War I Corruption in government
  • Lenin Vladimir Lenin was bringing the Socialist revolution to Russia.
  • Socialism was coming. The idea of socialism meant that workers would rule the country. Workers would have equal benefit from their labor.
  • Lenin leads Bolsheviks Revolutionary group protesting tsar Lenin is almost arrested, so he left the country. Then he waited.
  • World War I(1914-1919) Germany WANTS revolution in Russia to weaken Russia, so they put Lenin on a train into Russia. Germany WANTS Lenin to take Russia out of World War I, so they don’t have to fight Russia anymore.
  • Tsar Nicholas II steps down. Provisional government fails Lenin and Bolsheviks set up another government. – Divide all land equally – Stop war with Germany – Give factories to the workers Sounds good doesn’t it?
  • Russian Revolutions Revolt against the Bolsheviks Your goal: Understand why the transfer of power was unsuccessful.
  • Bolsheviks in Power – No more Tsar – Everyone gets some land – No more war with Germany – All workers own part of their factory Not everyone agrees with them. Who might disagree with these changes?
  • Russian Civil War(1918-1920) Red Army – Bolsheviks – Lenin
  • Russian Civil War(1918-1920) White Army – Multiple white armies – Anyone anti-Lenin – Disorganized – US and Europe helped them.
  • Russian Civil War (1918-1920) 14 million people die Causes of death – Battle – Famine – Influenza (worldwide) Red Army wins – Bolsheviks stay in power
  • Russian Revolutions Revolt against capitalism Your goal: Understand why capitalism was opposed in Russia.
  • CapitalismCREATESsocialclassesbased onwealth.
  • Lenin hates capitalism. If people are going to be truly equal, the gov’t needs to make sure no one gets rich and no one gets poor. Lenin wants a socialist society Lenin wants a state-controlled economy
  • This is not what Karl Marx wanted. The WORKERS were supposed to Angry be in charge. face What’s this Communist Party doing running everything?
  • Totalitarianism Joseph Stalin and State Control Your goal: Understand what a totalitarian government is.
  • Collective Farming
  • Totalitarianism State controls everything – What you see – What you hear – What you think – What you say – What you buy – What you sell
  • Totalitarianism
  • Josef Stalin wantschange for Russia.  Waiting for everyone to agree takes too long  Russia is already too far behind the West  It will be quicker if everyone just does what Stalin says.
  • How is Russia behind? I want Russia toThe West has have that! Colonies Factories Cars Trains Modern weapons
  • First Step Everyone must start sharing property. This is called Collectivization. – (collecting farms together)
  • More Collective Farming
  • Command Economy Government will control all economic decisions. – What to make – When to make it – How much money to sell it for – How much money to buy it for – How to make it
  • This will take some work. Russia had about 200 years of civilization to catch up with. – Still Feudalism! Stalin REALLY wants to make Russia a superpower. (and quickly) How is this Nationalism?
  • Five-Year Plans(1928-1937) Stalin creates 5-Year Plans with VERY high goals for improvements in Russia. – Industry – Power
  • Why did coal production see thebiggest growth?
  • Human Cost The human cost of rapid industrialization. – Great Purge (anyone who disagreed) – Self-sacrifice by everyone • Less food • Less clothing • Less housing
  • Collective Farming Posters
  • More Collective Farming Art Posters celebrated Russia’s new progress Posters encouraged Russians to join in.
  • five years plan
  • five year plan
  • 5E Five Year Plan
  • Rodchenko Constructivist Art
  • Russian Propaganda Art
  • Young Communists
  • Communist
  • Hammer and Sickle
  • Kulaks wereKulak Ukranians who had already done well but now stood to lose their gains. Would you give up your property to help your country?
  • Stalin killed Kulaks Kulaks did not want to give up their property to the collectives. – Attacked officials – Destroyed their property Stalin decided to eliminate the Kulaks – Took all property – Killed or imprisoned them – 6 million people died
  • Great Purge Stalin killed 20 million of his own people. This was how he used fear to maintain power.