UNIT 1: TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY Mr. Fields Geography
Your Goal:Understand the ways that maps are created and used, and to be able to effectively create and use maps in the future.
WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?• GEOGRAPHY is the study of the worlds environment and mans interaction within the environment.• Geography has two parts:• PHYSICAL• and• HUMAN
WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?• PHYSICAL: The study of the earths natural features, such as mountains, rivers, soil, vegetation, and weather• and• HUMAN: (Cultural) The study of human cultures and man made features.
MAPS• A map is one way to study geography• People who make maps are cartographers.• Why are maps important?• Maps are important because we can show much information on one document.
PARTS OF A MAP• Key/ Legend: Shows information as symbols• Scale: Used for measuring distance (like a ruler)• Scale can also be shown in ratio form (ex. 1:10) or by an equation (ex. 1 inch = 10 miles)• Directional Arrow: All maps must have AT LEAST an arrow showing relative direction. This is called orientation (orientation is any direction or location in terms as points on a compass ie. DC is north of Fredericksburg)• Compass Rose: Shows Cardinal & Intermediary Directions N
TYPES OF MAPS• 1. Political Map- shows political boundaries (countries, states, districts, etc)• 2. Physical Map- shows elevation, mountains, oceans, rivers, valleys, etc.• 3. Thematic Map- shows “themes” on a map- basically any information.• Anything can be shown on a map using symbols, colors, pictures, numbers, contour lines, etc.• MAPS MUST HAVE A LEGEND. This tells the reader what each picture/symbols/color/etc represents on the map
Topographic Maps• These maps use curvy CONTOUR lines to show the relief and elevation of the landscape. These lines also have the number of feet/meters above sea level. G F 50 40 30 J H 20 10
G Topographic Maps F 50 40 30 J H 20 10• Look at the figure to the right. The numbers increase (no negative numbers) so you see that the elevation is increasing. Therefore this picture is ABOVE sea level.
G Topographic Maps F 50 40 30 J H 20 10• Look at the spacing of the lines. The closer the lines, the steeper the slope. The more apart the lines are, the more gentle the slope.
G Topographic Maps F 50 40 30 J H 20 10• Look at the numbers. They are above zero (sea level), so the highest number is the peak or summit of the feature- in this case, a hill. If the numbers were negative numbers, then this feature would be a hole or depression that is below sea level.
ATLAS• Any collection of maps, graphs, and charts is called an atlas.
USING AN ATLAS• Use the INDEX to help locate the location of cities, states, and countries around the world.• Use the LEGEND on the maps to read information• Use the SCALE of the map to find distances• Use the COMPASS ROSE to locate and pinpoint orientation or direction.
What are these?•Index•Legend•Scale•Compass Rose
MAP PERSPECTIVE• Map Perspective is to look at a map with a DIFFERENT point of view.
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE• Reading coordinates is very important in finding location in geography.• Remember that you read the “x-axis” (latitude) first and then read the “y-axis” (longitude) second. X- AXIS Y- AXIS (x,y)
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE• Which axis is latitude?• Which axis is longitude? X- AXIS Y- AXIS
THE GLOBAL GRIDThe Earth is divided by latitude and longitude lines. There areseveral important lines to know on the earths surface: #1 is the ARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #2 is the TROPIC OF CANCER found at 23 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #3 is the EQUATOR which splits the earth into two hemispheres at 0o Latitude #4 is the TROPIC OF CAPRICORN found 23 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator. #5 is the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 6 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator#6 is the PRIME MERIDIAN which runs north to south at 0o LONGITUDE
READING COORDINATES•Read the coordinates forLATITUDE first…. 33o NORTHlatitude•Read LONGITUDE next….97oWEST longitude•Which means that coordinatesfor Dallas, Texas would look likethis: 33oN, 97oW
READING COORDINATES•What is the LATITUDE for Citrus Heights?•What is the LONGITUDE for Citrus Heights?
GRID MAPS• Grid maps are another way to look at finding location. Instead of latitude and longitude lines, use grid squares to find a specific place on a small area of the earth. Cheddar, England is found in grid square A-9
MAP PROJECTIONS• To find just the right map to use, ask yourself “What am I trying to show on my map?”• Usually you ask the question for one of the following four map topics: » AREA » DIRECTION » DISTANCE » SHAPE
TYPES OF MAP PROJECTIONS•Mercator•Eckert IV•Lambert
MERCATOR• Mercator Map Projection: Shows accurate direction, but area & shapes are severely distorted at the poles.• ***Sailors use these for true direction
Eckert IV• Eckert IV Map Projection: Shows accurate shape & size of continents, but water areas are expanded to fill in area.• ***These maps are good for data collections like in a classroom or lab.
Lambert• Polar Map Projection: Used for mapping hemispheres. Shows accurate distance & direction but shape and size are distorted at the edges. Just call me “polar” since I only show one pole at a time.
MANY USES FOR MAPS• You MUST be familiar with maps for many different reasons…• Driving (Road Maps)• Locating places (Political Maps)• Traveling (Political or Physical Maps)• Researching (Thematic Maps)• Building (Topographic Maps)• And just knowing where you are in relation to your surroundings!!!!
Geography and NationsWhy is geography important to nations?
5 Themes of Geography1. Location2. Place3. Human-Environmental Interactions4. Movement5. Regions
Location• Relative Location – North of … – South of … – In between … and ….• Absolute Location – EXACTLY where. Written as: – 21°N 158°W
Place• Human Characteristics• Physical Characteristics
Human-Environmental Interactions• Humans adapt to the environment.• Humans modify the environment.• Humans depend on the environment.
Continents• Asia• Africa• Europe• Australia• Antarctica• South America• North America
Oceans & Seas• North Atlantic Ocean• North Pacific Ocean• South Pacific Ocean• Indian Ocean• Mediterranean Sea• Baltic Sea
The Compass rose• What are the points of the compass?
Regions• Northern Hemisphere• Southern Hemisphere• Western Hemisphere• Eastern Hemisphere• Tropic of Cancer• Equator This is an entire sphere.
THE GLOBAL GRIDThe Earth is divided by latitude and longitude lines. There areseveral important lines to know on the earths surface: #1 is the ARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #2 is the TROPIC OF CANCER found at 23 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #3 is the EQUATOR which splits the earth into two hemispheres at 0o Latitude #4 is the TROPIC OF CAPRICORN found 23 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator. #5 is the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE 6 #6 is the PRIME MERIDIAN which runs north to south at 0o LONGITUDE
Why geography matters:• 90% of the world lives north of the equator.• Most of the world’s dry land is north of the equator.• The area between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer is temperate. It has seasons. (Good for agriculture)
Weather Zones• Polar – Too cold• Tropical – Too hot• Temperate – Just right• How might weather conditions be helpful to a country?
Natural Resources• Coal• Iron• Water• Oil• Diamonds• Coltan• What can a country do if it doesn’t have the resources it needs?
Settlement Patterns• Where do people want to be?• What would make people move?• Migration: Moving• Immigration: Moving INTO a country.• Emigration: Moving OUT of a country.