Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Sociology Chapter 2 Cultural Diversity Preview Section 1: The Meaning of Culture Section 2: Cultural Variation Chapter Wrap-Up
  2. 2. Sociology Chapter 2 Read to Discover • What is the meaning of the term culture, and how do material culture and nonmaterial culture differ? • What are the basic components of culture? Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  3. 3. Sociology Chapter 2 Culture consists of all the shared products of human groups which include physical objects, beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group. Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  4. 4. Sociology Chapter 2 Question How do material culture and nonmaterial culture differ? Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  5. 5. Sociology Chapter 2 CULTURE MATERIAL CULTURE NONMATERIAL CULTURE Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  6. 6. Sociology Chapter 2 CULTURE All the shared products of human groups MATERIAL CULTURE Physical objects that people create and use Examples Automobiles, books, buildings, clothing, computers Examples Beliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems, rules NONMATERIAL CULTURE Abstract human creations Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  7. 7. Sociology Chapter 2 Question What are the basic components of culture? Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  8. 8. Sociology Chapter 2 Basic Components of Culture • Technology— physical objects and rules for using them • Symbols—anything that represents something else and has a shared meaning Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  9. 9. Sociology Chapter 2 Basic Components of Culture • Language—the organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  10. 10. Sociology Chapter 2 Basic Components of Culture • Values— shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong
  11. 11. Sociology Chapter 2 Basic Components of Culture • Norms—shared rules of conduct
  12. 12. Sociology Chapter 2 Levels of Culture • Culture trait—individual tool, act, or belief that is related to a particular situation or need • Culture complex—cluster of interrelated traits • Culture pattern—combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
  13. 13. Sociology Chapter 2 Read to Discover • What are cultural universals, and why do they exist? • What do the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean? • What factors account for variations among and within cultures? Section 2: Cultural Variation
  14. 14. Sociology Chapter 2 • Cultural universals—general features common to all cultures, such as cooking, dancing, and medicine • ALL societies must develop certain features to ensure their fulfillment. Section 2: Cultural Variation
  15. 15. Sociology Chapter 2 Question What do the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean? Section 2: Cultural Variation
  16. 16. Sociology Chapter 2 • Ethnocentrism—tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to other different cultures Section 2: Cultural Variation Ethno= people, ethnic group centrism= centered
  17. 17. Sociology Chapter 2 • Ethnocentrism Section 2: Cultural Variation
  18. 18. Sociology Chapter 2 • Cultural Relativism—belief that a culture should be judged by its own standards rather than by those of another culture Section 2: Cultural Variation
  19. 19. Sociology Chapter 2 Cultural Relativism Section 2: Cultural Variation
  20. 20. Sociology Chapter 2 Cultural Relativism Section 2: Cultural Variation
  21. 21. Sociology Chapter 2 Question What factors account for variations among and within cultures? Section 2: Cultural Variation
  22. 22. Sociology Chapter 2 • Subculture—group within a society which shares values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population Section 2: Cultural Variation
  23. 23. Sociology Chapter 2 • Counterculture— subculture which rejects the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural values Section 2: Cultural Variation
  24. 24. Sociology Chapter 2 1. List five examples of material culture and five examples of nonmaterial culture. 2. What is language, and why is it such an important part of culture? 3. How do folkways, mores, and laws differ? List three examples of each type of norm. 4. How do cultural traits, cultural complexes, and cultural patterns differ? 5. How did Margaret Mead contribute to the study of cultures? 6. What is ethnocentrism? How does it differ from cultural relativism? 7. How are subcultures and countercultures related? Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding Main Ideas

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