What are some reasons for the USSR to dislike the US?• The US did not join WWI until after Russia had to quit.• The US did not join WWII until after USSR had lost millions of lives.
What are some reasons for the US to dislike the USSR?• The USSR signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler.• The USSR was communist.
The biggest reason for the Cold War:Communism versus Capitalism
Capitalism vs. Communism• Free elections • One-party state• Multiple political • Businesses owned parties by the state• Businesses owned • No different social classes by individuals • Government• Different social controls people’s classes lives• Freedom of speech • Strong censorship
Capitalism vs. Communism• You can create a • No matter how hard business, make lots your neighbor of money, and have works, he will never more things than make more money than you. other people. • It’s not fair for some• Some people get people to be rich. It could be you! wealthy, while others starve.
Which country was communist?Which countries were capitalist? and many more.
The Cold War begins … Yalta Conference 1945WWII Yes, butisn’t over we needyet. to plan ahead. Germany did not surrender until May 1945, but the Allies met at Yalta in February 1945 to discuss the end of the war.
Yalta Conference 1945 How will we rebuild How will weHow will punishwe keep Europe? Germany?worldpeace?
Yalta Conference 1945The three major results of this conference were: • United Nations • Dismemberment of Germany • Reparations
United Nations• The League of Nations failed• The United Nations was the new and improved version• Differences: – More members worldwide – More military force to keep peace
How to deal with Germany:Two main goals:• Keep Germany weak• Make sure it can pay for the damage
Keep Germany Weak• Germany cannot be trusted• Dismember* it so it is remains weak• The Allies will divide Germany into four parts and keep military control over it. * Dismember: to take apart
Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.
Reparations• After WWI, Germany had to pay 32 billion marks.• What was the result? * Reparations: payment for damages
Reparations• After WWII, the Allies would get “paid” by whatever their portion of Germany produced.• Factories, mines, labor, etc.
The Marshall Plan• US Secretary of • The US would loan State George them money to help Marshall, 1947 them rebuild.• He proposed financial aid for all of • This money would the needy European be spent on countries. American products, so it was profitable, to the US.
Keep my neighborsSoviet opposition communist!• The Soviet Union did not want countries in Eastern Europe to accept this money.• Economic involvement with the United States was dangerous to communism.
Soviet Fear• The Soviet Union did not want Germany to rebuild.• Why wouldn’t they want that?
Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparation of communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.
Two sides of Cold War• NATO – North • Warsaw Pact – Atlantic Treaty pro Soviet Organization countries –• USA, France, USSR, and all Great Britain, countries West Germany controlled by the• CAPITALISM USSR. • COMMUNISM
Cold War goals• the United States • the Soviet Union wanted countries to wanted countries to be capitalist and be communist democratic
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization US alliance with Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland
Warsaw PactUSSR alliance with East Germany,Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary,Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania
Containment• This was the foreign Contain policy of US Communism! President Harry Truman. Keep communism from spreading to other countries.
Brinkmanship*• Going to the edge of war, without actually starting any fighting.• How far can you push it, before someone calls your bluff? *Brink: the edge of something
Why Brinkmanship?• War between theThe superpowers want to avoid superpowers would almostdirect war between them. certainly involve nuclear weapons.• Millions would be killed.• No one wins a nuclear war
Why Brinkmanship?Mutually Assured Destruction• The USSR eventually had the same nuclear weapons power as the US.• Both sides could destroy the other many times. No one wins.