Circassia, Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing - Part 1Presentation Transcript
Circassia Ethnic Cleansing & Genocide Walid Hakouz Part I Toronto - Canada 2011
1763 - Russians invaded the city of Mozdok , in the eastern Circassia , which was the beginning of the Russian-Circassian War .
1774 - As a result to the Russian-Turkish War , the Kaynarca Kuchuk treaty, attached Kabarda , the eastern part of Circassia , under the Russian rule.
1787 - After the Russian-Turkish War , the northern Circassia was occupied, and Anapa city was attacked.
1796 – After the Russian-Persian War, Astrakhan was invaded, and Derbant was occupied.
1801 – Russians invaded Georgia, and as a result of Turkmenchia treaty, Georgia was occupied in 1828 .
1829 - After the Russian-Turkish War, and as a result of Adrianople, Anapa city was concurred, and Circassian Black Sea coast, was blocked.
Russians forces marched from the occupied territories of Circassia “ Kabarda ” by the end of the Crimean War
Ethnic cleansing and destruction started.
Settling the Kozaks in the Circassian villages.
1856 – Circassian migrating started.
1862 – Circassian deportation started .
Circassian Mass Migration
Published a report dated Feb. 7 th 1860, that, 20,000 Circcassian immigrants had disembarked in Istanbul.
Pointed to a letter dated Aug. 14 th 1860, that, more thousands of Circassian refugees are expected.
Reported, that, hundreds of them drowned in the Black Sea due to the storms.
Headline of the Levant Herald in London – 1860. “Circassian Mass Migration”
According to Hermann Daniel , his estimate of the Circassian depurated to the Ottoman Empire during 1856 – 1878 is: 1,008,000. Among them : 595,000 they were re-settled in the European Ottoman area. “ 1,008,000 ” German Consul General Hermann Daniel
He estimated the number of Circassians depurated :
During 1855 – 1865, the total : 300,000.
During 1864 alone, the total : 700,000.
During this time, 100,000 died, and drowned.
“ 900,000 ”
Italian Consul General A. Ubicini
He estimated the total number of deported Circassians from Circassia are one million, and, that 600,000 had arrived into Turkey, and that, 400,000 were settled in the European parts of Turkey. “ 1,000,000 ” Turkish Historian Salah Deen Bey
According to a French source, the Illustrated News , published a report in it’s winter issue – 1876 , that, the Ottoman Authorities finally admitted set telling 595,000 Circassians in Bulgaria , Albania , and Sirbia . Moreover, a total of 400,000 Circassians were settled in the Anadoul and other areas. “ 995,000 ” The Illustrated News
He estimates the total Circassians deported during: