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PPTs vir die ECON322 module …

PPTs vir die ECON322 module
Nog leereenheid 1, meer oor geografie en ontwikkeling
(kyk saam met MRU video's)

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  • 1. ECON322 Ontwikkelingsekonomie Development Economics Ontwikkelingspatrone Patterns of development Geografie & Ontwikkeling Geography & Development
  • 2. The key questions • Why are some regions / countries rich and others poor? • How persistent are the forces that shape prosperity? • How important is geography? • What are the channels through which geography influences development?
  • 3. Geografie is belangrik • Diamond se storie: landbou, oos-wes, siektes • Verklaar 44% van variasie van BBPpc – 64% as jy net na die ou wêreld kyk.
  • 4. Geography's influence via trade • Ricardo vs. Smith • Market size and density drives trade (second- nature geography) o The silk route vs. trans-Atlantic trade? • Africa's landlockedness…
  • 5. Geografie se invloed via siektes • BBP en afstand vanaf die ewenaar… • Malaria en ander siektes: o Tap energie / produktiwiteit, perk fisieke ontwikkeling in, verminder IK! • Maar goeie gesondheid → produktiwiteit, spare, investering → hoër BBP
  • 6. But geography is not destiny, it is only potential • A head start matters, but first-nature geography is only important up to 1500. • Stories of reversals of fortune o St Domingue → Haiti • How geography influenced institutions: o Geography, history, chance → extractive economic institutions → extractive political institutions  Elite does not want education, innovation, creative destruction. They make policies to maintain power.
  • 7. Ons vraag: • Wat was die rol van geografie in die ekonomiese ontwikkelingspad van Suid- Afrika? • Hoe het geografie Suid-Afrikaanse instellings beïnvloed?