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Study on the Effect of Network Dynamics on Opportunistic Routing
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Study on the Effect of Network Dynamics on Opportunistic Routing

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There has been an efort to employ social similarity inferred from user mobility patterns in opportunistic routing solutions to improve forwarding. However, the dynamics of the networks are still not …

There has been an efort to employ social similarity inferred from user mobility patterns in opportunistic routing solutions to improve forwarding. However, the dynamics of the networks are still not fully considered when devising solutions based on social similarity metrics. To address this issue, we propose two utility functions which consider the daily life routines of users and the intensity of their social interactions to take forwarding decisions: Time-Evolving Contact Duration (TECD) that weights social interactions among nodes considering the duration of contacts; and TECD Importance (TECDi) which estimates the importance of nodes. We compare our utility functions against contact- and social-based solutions, and we show that the use of daily life routines information (i.e., using TECD and TECDi ) has a positive effect on opportunistic routing.

This presentation was given in the 11th International Conference on Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless (ADHOC-NOW 2012), July 9th, 2012 in Belgrade, Serbia.

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. Study on the Effect of Network Dynamics onOpportunistic RoutingWaldir Moreira, Manuel de Souza, Paulo Mendes, and Susana Sargento waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt July 9th, 2012 11th International Conference on Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless (ADHOC-NOW 2012) Belgrade, Serbia
  • 2. Agenda• Introduction• Motivation• Our Approach• Evaluation• Results• Conclusions and Future Work 2
  • 3. Introduction• Powerful devices• Spontaneous networks• Opportunistic contacts - Intermittent connectivity 3
  • 4. Motivation• Many routing solutions - epidemic, encounter history, social aspects ...• Resulting proximity graphs are unstable• Dynamism of users’ daily life routines• Study the effect of network dynamics 4
  • 5. Our Approach• To consider the oscillations of social interactions (influenced by daily routines)• Two utility functions - Time-Evolving Contact Duration (TECD) - TECD Importance (TECDi) 5
  • 6. Our Approach 6
  • 7. Our Approach: TECD(1) A w(B,x) B If Mx Buffer(B) and w(B,x) > w(A,x)(2) Mx A B 7
  • 8. Our Approach: TECDi(1) A I(B) B If Mx Buffer(B) and I(B) > I(A) Mx(2) A B 8
  • 9. EvaluationParameters ValuesSimulator Opportunistic Network Environment (ONE) Contact-based vs Social-based PRoPHET, Epidemic, TECD Bubble Rap, Rank, TECDi Heterogeneous Mobility 1036800 sec 150 (people/vehicles) Working Day, Bus, Shortest Path Map BasedRouting Proposals Bluetooth (250 kbps / 10 m) Wi-Fi (Bus: 11 Mbps / 250 m) 2 MB 24 hours and Unlimited 1 – 100 kB 6000 5 (Bubble Rap) 700 sec (Bubble Rap) 0.8 (Rank) 9
  • 10. Results- TECD has a gain of: - TECDi has a gain of: PROPHET: 16.17% (24) and 18.41% (Un) Rank: 6.06% (24) and 4.88% (Un) Epidemic: 23.77% (24) and 23.26% (Un) Bubble Rap: 12% (24) and -9% (Un)- PROPHET suffers occasional finite loops - Bubble Rap has more time for communities => use transmission opportunities => increased delivery capability- Epidemic quickly exhausts buffer space - Rank doesnt consider social levels=> 2 MB per node => important nodes, weak ties 10
  • 11. Results- TECD with less replicas (57.37 and 121.30): - TECDi with less replicas (266.12 and 363.02): PROPHET: 272.35 (24) and 247.11 (Un) Rank: 302.05 (24) and 418.21 (Un) Epidemic: 454.12 (24) and 535.04 (Un) Bubble Rap: 559.69 (24) and 495.69 (Un)- TECD advantage decreases with unlimited - TECDi reduces the potential next hops => messages live longer in the system => important nodes, strong ties- PROPHET and Epidemic - Bubble Rap has the highest costs => buffer limitations => global centrality 11
  • 12. Results- Latency increases with TTL - TECDi replicates based on importance => top-ranked nodes, more time to reach- Lack of a stale data removal mechanism destination => affects all solutions - Bubble Rap high latency with 24-hour TTL- Unlimited TTL => formation of communities => more messages, increase in delivery => finding higher centrality nodes influencesprobability overall latency 12
  • 13. Conclusions andFuture Work• Dynamism positive affects forwarding decisions• TECD performs better than TECDi => node importance• "Opportunistic Routing Based on Daily Routines," in Proc. of the 6th IEEE WoWMoM Workshop AOC, SFO, USA, June, 2012• Internet-Draft (draft-moreira-dlife-00) DTNRG Meeting, Vancouver, July 2012• Next steps Information-Centric version of dLife 13
  • 14. AcknowledgementsTo FCT for financial support via PhD grant (SFRH/BD/62761/2009) and UCR project (PTDC/EEA-TEL/103637/2008) 14
  • 15. Study on the Effect of Network Dynamics onOpportunistic RoutingWaldir Moreira, Manuel de Souza, Paulo Mendes, and Susana Sargento waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt July 9th, 2012 11th International Conference on Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless (ADHOC-NOW 2012) Belgrade, Serbia