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Opportunistic Routing Based on Daily Routines

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Opportunistic routing is being investigated to enable …

Opportunistic routing is being investigated to enable
the proliferation of low-cost wireless applications. A recent trend is looking at social structures, inferred from the social nature of human mobility, to bring messages close to a destination. To have a better picture of social structures, social-based opportunistic routing solutions should consider the dynamism of users’ behavior resulting from their daily routines. We address this challenge by presenting dLife, a routing algorithm able to capture thedynamics of the network represented by time-evolving social ties between pair of nodes. Experimental results based on synthetic mobility models and real human traces show that dLife has better delivery probability, latency, and cost than proposals based on social structures.

This presentation was given in the 6th IEEE WoWMoM Workshop on Autonomic and Opportunistic Communications (AOC 2012), on June 25th, 2012 in San Francisco, USA.

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  • 1. Opportunistic Routing Based on Daily Routines Waldir Moreira, Paulo Mendes, and Susana Sargento waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt June 25th, 2012 6th IEEE WoWMoM Workshop on Autonomic and Opportunistic Communications (AOC 2012) San Francisco, USA
  • 2. Agenda• Introduction• Motivation• Our Proposal: dLife• Evaluation• Results• Conclusions and Future Work 2
  • 3. Introduction• Powerful devices• Spontaneous networks• Opportunistic contacts - Intermittent connectivity 3
  • 4. Motivation• Many routing solutions - epidemic, encounter history, social aspects ...• Instability of the created proximity graphs• Dynamism of users’ behavior• Daily life routines 4
  • 5. Our Proposal: dLife• To capture the dynamics of the network represented by time-evolving social ties between pair of nodes• Two utility functions - Time-Evolving Contact Duration (TECD) - TECD Importance (TECDi) 5
  • 6. Our Proposal: dLife 6
  • 7. Our Proposal: dLife(1) A w(B,x) B If Mx Buffer(B) and w(B,x) > w(A,x)(2) Mx A B Otherwise I(B)(3) A B If I(B) > I(A) Mx(4) A B 7
  • 8. Our Proposal: dLifeComm(1) A w(B,x) B If Mx Buffer(B) and B.sameComm(x) and w(B,x) > w(A,x)(2) Mx A B Otherwise I(B)(3) A B If I(B) > I(A) Mx(4) A B 8
  • 9. EvaluationParameters ValuesSimulator Opportunistic Network Environment (ONE)Routing Proposals Bubble Rap, dLife and dLifeCommScenarios Heterogeneous Mobility Trace Cambridge (CRAWDAD)Simulation Time 1036800 sec 1000000 sec# of Nodes 150 (people/vehicles) 36 (people)Mobility Models Working Day, Bus, Shortest Path Map Based HumanNode Interface Wi-Fi (Rate: 11 Mbps / Range: 100 m) BluetoothNode Buffer 2 MBMessage TTL 1, 2, 4 days, 1 and 3 weeksMessage Size 1 – 100 kBGenerated Messages 6000K-Clique, k 5 (Bubble Rap and dLifeComm)K-Clique, familiarThreshold 700 sec (Bubble Rap and dLifeComm)Daily Samples 24 (dLife and dLifeComm) 9
  • 10. ResultsHeterogenous scenario Cambridge traces- dLife up to 39.5% - dLife up to 31.5%- dLifeComm up to 31.2% - dLifeComm up to 31.3%- Bubble Rap (Global centrality) - Network dynamics (daily routines)- Few nodes (~17%) high centrality - Local centrality 10
  • 11. ResultsHeterogenous scenario Cambridge traces- dLife up to 78% less - dLife up to 55% less- dLifeComm up to 68% less - dLifeComm up to 50.5% less- High social strength/importance - Variable patterns of contacts- Bubble rap further replicates - Forwarders not often available 11
  • 12. ResultsHeterogenous scenario Cambridge traces- dLife up to 48.3% less - dLife up to 83.7% less- dLifeComm up to 46.1% less - dLifeComm up to 84.7% less- Smarter forwarding decisions - Smaller, well connected groups- Bubble Rap (weak ties to destin.) - Bubble Rap (Centrality not real) 12
  • 13. Conclusions andFuture Work• Dynamism of users’ social daily behavior => wiser forwarding decisions• Centrality presented higher impact => does not capture reality• Next steps Internet-Draft Information-Centric DTNRG Meeting version of dLife Vancouver, July 2012 13
  • 14. AcknowledgementsTo FCT for financial support via PhD grant (SFRH/BD/62761/2009) and UCR project (PTDC/EEA-TEL/103637/2008) 14
  • 15. Opportunistic Routing Based on Daily Routines Waldir Moreira, Paulo Mendes, and Susana Sargento waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt June 25th, 2012 6th IEEE WoWMoM Workshop on Autonomic and Opportunistic Communications (AOC 2012) San Francisco, USA

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