Walden faculty presents at UN Conference

425 views

Published on

Walden factuly, member Dr. M

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
425
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Walden faculty presents at UN Conference

  1. 1. Globalization of Science and Technology: The “Asian Drama” <br />Keynote address byAqueil Ahmad, Ph.D.School of Management, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN, USA<br /> International Conference on Asian rise in ICT R&D organized by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Joint Research Centre of the European Commission<br />February 16 and 17, 2011Brussels, Belgium <br />
  2. 2. The Context<br />The totality of globalization - six interconnected dimensions:<br />Demographic globalization<br />Political globalization<br />Environmental globalization<br />Globalization of soft culture<br />Economic globalization<br />Globalization of science and technology<br />This presentation focuses on globalization of science and <br />technology in the Asian context to show the transition from <br />unilateral to multilateral knowledge generation and transfer.<br />
  3. 3. Changing Patterns of Knowledge Generation and Transfer<br />change<br />
  4. 4. From Borrowing and Imitation to Adaptation and Invention<br />Invention / Innovation<br />
  5. 5. From borrowing and imitating to innovating: An example<br />
  6. 6. Comparative Industrial R&D/ICT Input Indicators<br /> The United States and the EU countries still have the largest share of global ICT/R&D capacity.<br /> But the share is declining. Others like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and of late, India and China are catching up fast.<br /> Japan’s R&D expenditure is 3+% of GDP vs. US’s 2+%. South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore spend as much of their GDP percentage on R&D as the US and more than most EU nations.<br /> Japan’s industry R&D intensity is the second after Sweden in the OECD region<br />
  7. 7. Input Indicators - continued<br /> Chinese R&D expenditure = 1.5 % of GDP, still more than most EU countries; researchers per million of population = 3000 (total = 1.4 million); ICT expenditure = 6% of GD (next to India’s 4%)<br /> China’s R&D expenditure for the first time exceeds Japan’s: $154 billion vs. $144 billion<br /> China is the world’s second highest R&D investor, behind the U. S. <br /> This magnitude of input may not correspond well with the output in terms of patents, publications, and inventions. <br />
  8. 8. R&D annual expenditure growth: 1996-2007<br /> N. America = 5%-6% (declined from 40% of global expenditure to 36%)<br /> EU – declined from 31% of global expenditure to 28%<br /> Asia-8 = 10+% (Japan, India, S. Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, China)- Increased from 25% to 30% of the global total<br />India = 8% growth<br />China = 22% growth<br /> Together, China and India account for roughly half of global R&D growth.<br />
  9. 9. Input Indicators - continued<br /> R&D/GDP ratios over the past 10 years:<br /> Increased substantially in Japan, S. Korea & China<br /> were the highest in Japan & S. Korea at 3.4%-3.5% respectively; only 1.5% in China<br /> American MNC affiliates’ share of global R&D spending in China, Singapore, and S. Korea rose from 5% in 1994 to 13% in 2006<br /> It declined in Europe, Canada, and Japan from 90% in 1994 to 80% in 2006<br /> US-MNC affiliates spent $840 million and $310 million respectively in In China and India in 2006 compared to less than $10 million in each country in 1994 <br />
  10. 10. Input Indicators – continued<br /> R&D collaboration in the ASEAN region was robust – between China and Japan; and between S. Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan<br /> But despite increasing industrial collaboration, R&D collaboration between India and China remains insignificant<br /> India has more regional collaborative R&D with Japan, S. Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan than with China. <br /> Intra-Asian scientific collaboration is accompanied by enhanced regional technology-intensive activities.<br />
  11. 11. Science and Engineering Education Inputs/Outputs<br /> Chinese earned 800,5000 or 21% of 4+ million first (bachelor’s) S&E degrees in 2006 – next to19% in EU and 11% in the U.S. <br /> In Asia about 20% of all bachelor’s degrees are in engineering. In China, almost one-third are.<br /> The United States awarded the largest number of S&E doctoral degrees of any country (30,000),followed by China (23,000) and Russia (20,000)<br /> About half of all foreign born scientists and engineers in the U.S. are from Asia: India – 16%; China – 11%; Philippines, S. Korea, and Taiwan – 45%-6%. <br />
  12. 12. S&T/R&D Output Indicators<br /> Global value added of high tech manufacturing: <br /> The US = 36% in 1988; 30% in 2007. <br /> EU remained stable, while Japan’s plunged to 10% during this period <br /> China’s moved up from less then 5% in 1995 to 13% 2008<br /> High tech exports remained stable in Asia at 27% of the global exports, but China’s share declined from 21% to less than 15%<br /> But China’s share of global HT/ICT goods exports rose from 6% in 1995 to 20% in 2008.<br /> Asia-9 also made substantial gains in ICT good exports, from $50 billion to $220 billion <br /> during the past one and half decades, China being the major exporter in the group.<br />
  13. 13. Output indicators -continued<br /> Asia-9 import 70% of their ICT goods from China<br /> China is today the world’s major assembler of ICT goods today<br /> Its HT exports increased from 6% of the world total in 1995 20% in 2008 – the largest single country global exporter; while the U.S. and Japanese shares declined considerably. <br /> The EU ‘s share remained table at about 17% <br /> Intra-Asia technology transfer and trade is increasing substantially<br />
  14. 14. Science and engineering publications- A comparative view<br /> EU: 1995 = 200,000; 2007 = 250,000 <br /> US: 1995 = 200,000; 2007 = 202,000<br /> PRC:1995 = 5,00; 2007 = 51,000<br /> India:1995 = 5,00; 2007 = 10,000<br /> Asia: 1995 = 80,00; 2007 = 165,000<br />Intra-regional citations in Asia increased from 37% <br />in 1992 to 41% in 2007<br />Japan’s share dropped from 31% to 17%; China’s <br />Increased from 2% to 12%. <br />Output indicators -continued<br />
  15. 15. Nine Asian Nations Among the Top 20 Countries with Highest Number of Internet Users<br /> internet users % of population % of world users broadband users <br />China 162,000,000 12.7% 13.8 % 35,300,000<br />Japan 86,300,000 67.1 % 7.4 % 25,755,080<br />India 42,000,000 3.7 % 3.6 % 2,100,000<br />Korea 34,120,000 66.5 % 2.9 % 14,042,728<br />Russia 28,000,000 19.5 % 2.4 % 1,200,000<br />Indonesia 20,000,000 8.9 % 1.7 % n/a<br />Vietnam 16,511,849 19.4 % 1.4 % n/a<br />Taiwan 14,500,000 63.0 % 1.2 % n/a <br />Philippines 14,000,000 16.0 % 1.2 % n/a<br />
  16. 16. Lenovo is the fourth largest vendor of personal computers in the world and the largest seller of PCs in China, with a 28.6% market share. <br />Huawei Technologies, a privately owned ICT company spends 10% of annual revenues on its worldwide R&D facilities. <br />Its manufacturing, and marketing operations are located in cities like Stockholm, Dallas, Silicon Valley, Bangalore, Moscow, Jakarta, and Wijchen. <br />Huawei and other Chinese companies are moving towards software development to compete with the Asian software giant, India.<br />Shanghai Electric Company recently signed a $10 billion deal to sell power generating equipment to the Indian conglomerate Reliance. <br />
  17. 17. From Technology to Industrial Development<br /> Asian giants’ ICT/R&D policy = “technology and industry first, science later” approach. <br /> Encouraged by MITI/METI, Japan was the leading foreign nation in 2008 to have issued 80-85 thousands patents in the United States.<br /> Following the Japanese example, the Chinese Academy of<br /> Sciences has created over 430 S&T/ICT-based enterprises in<br /> 11 industrial sectors-<br /> 8 of them are listed on world stock exchanges. Lenovo, the fourth largest computer company in the world is the most notable example. <br />
  18. 18. Dramatic Rise of Asia: Opportunities or Threats<br /> From Japan, Taiwan, etc. to India, and China.<br /> Japan – first Asian nation to join the ranks of G8<br /> China – from a basket case of communism to the second largest economy in less then three decades.<br /> India – from the “Hindu” annual growth rate of 3% to an average growth rate 8-9% in less than a decade.<br /> 21st century is likely to be the “Asian Century.”<br /> What lessons, opportunities or threats these developments suggest? This is the question.<br />
  19. 19. Historical Science and Tech Diffusions from Asia-<br />History Repeats<br />Domestication of Chickens<br />Thailand~6,000 BC<br />Pottery<br />China ~7,900 BC<br />Ink<br />China ~2,500 BC<br />Rice Farming<br />China ~5,000 BC<br />Silk Production<br />China ~4,000 BC<br />Ice Cream<br />Persia~400 BC<br />
  20. 20. Historical Science and Tech Diffusions from Asia- <br />History Repeats<br />Wheelbarrow<br />China ~118 AD<br />Abacus<br />China ~190 AD<br />Modern Number System<br />India ~500 AD<br />Saddle w Stirrups<br />Central Asia ~200 AD<br />Magnetic Needle Compass<br />China~ 8th Century<br />Distilled Perfume<br />Arabia ~7th Century<br />
  21. 21. Historical Science and Tech Diffusions from Asia- <br />History Repeats<br />Vertical Sail Windmill<br />Persia ~ 9th Century<br />Gunpowder<br />China ~9th Century<br />Wide Use of Paper Currency<br />China~ 1165<br />Canal Locks<br />China ~ 983 AD<br />Medical Syringe<br />Iraq ~ 1,000 AD<br />Landmines<br />China~ 1287<br />

×