Introduction to Embedded Systems

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Introduction to Embedded Systems

  1. 1. Introduction to Embedded Systems By: Walaa Mohamed Khalil
  2. 2. Agenda • Embedded Systems Vs. General purpose Systems • Examples of Embedded Systems • What is a microcontroller? • Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller • Trade off between HW and SW • Software characteristics Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 2 • Software characteristics • Hardware characteristics • System on chip and system on board • HW/SW Partitioning • Advanced Embedded System • Most Microcontroller Families used in ES • Difference between Emulator and Simulator • Languages used in embedded systems programming
  3. 3. Embedded Systems Vs. General Purpose Systems ?? • Embedded system is a special -purpose system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions. • It is usually Embedded as Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 3 • It is usually Embedded as a part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. • A general-purpose system can do many different tasks depending on programming. For ex.; microprocessors in PC’s.
  4. 4. Example of Embedded Systems • Embedded systems control many of the common devices in use today Digital watches Traffic lights Printers Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 4 Printers Medical equipments Robots DSP processing: MP3 player Digital Camera Communication: Routers Telephone switches Automotive: Motor Engines Climate Control
  5. 5. What is Microcontroller? • A microcontroller is a single chip devices or single chip computers in a small size that its resources are far more limited than those of a desktop personal computer • It is designed for standalone operation. Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 5 • It is designed for standalone operation. • It is includes: – Processing Unit. – RAM and ROM. – I/O. – Buses. – Peripherals (SPI, PWM,..).
  6. 6. Difference Between MC and MP Microprocessor Is a general purpose CPU Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 6 Is a general purpose CPU Microcontroller Is a CPU with peripherals
  7. 7. Tradeoff between HW & SW • For a certain application Which functional blocks should be performed in Hardware?? Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 7 in Hardware?? Which functional blocks should be performed in software??
  8. 8. Software Characteristics • Highly configurable • Shorter development cycle • Easier in versions updates • Cheaper Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 8 • Cheaper • Constrained with processor speed which may satisfy real time application and may not
  9. 9. Hardware Characteristics • Longer development cycle • Customized for specific application • Better performance in Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 9 • Better performance in high speed real time application
  10. 10. System on Board CPU Shared memory Board A/D Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 10 Actuator Sensors Customized Hardware A/D
  11. 11. System on Chip • System-on-a-chip (SOC): – Integrating all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single integrated circuit (chip). – It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions – all on one chip. – Typical application is in the area of embedded systems. Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 11 – Typical application is in the area of embedded systems. • An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use. For example, a chip designed solely to run a cell phone is an ASIC.
  12. 12. System on Chip Keyboard controller USB interface Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 12 LCD controller Customized hardware MemoriesCPU
  13. 13. HW/SW Partitioning • In complicated systems functional blocks could be: – Level I: external discrete hardware component on board Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 13 – Level II: hardware integrated with CPU on chip (SoC) – Level III: done by software running on CPU
  14. 14. Advanced Embedded Systems • Multi-core system on chip Like mobile handset which has one chip contains: DSP processor Embedded processors like ARM Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 14 Embedded processors like ARM Custom hardware for GSM Custom peripherals for board interface (keyboard, touch screen, memory card interface)
  15. 15. Advanced Embedded systems • Network of embedded microcontrollers on board : Many microcontrollers on one / Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 15 Many microcontrollers on one / many board(s) communicated together through specific bus protocol like LIN bus, CAN bus in automotive application.
  16. 16. Most Microcontroller Families used in ES • 8051, AVR and Atmega • PIC – Very general purpose microcontroller that can comemicrocontroller that can come with many different options – Used in constructing clocks, very simple video games, robots, servo controllers. Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 16
  17. 17. Most Microcontroller Families used in ES • HC12 – Real time and Automotive applications • ARM – Used in electronic devices – Mobiles, Digital cameras DVD players, Robots and Automotive applications Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 17
  18. 18. Emulators & Simulators • An emulator duplicates the functions of one system using a different system, so that the second system behaves like (and appears to be) the first system. • This focus on exact reproduction of Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 18 • This focus on exact reproduction of external behavior is in contrast to some other forms of computer simulation, which can concern an abstract model of the system being simulated.
  19. 19. Emulators & Simulators • Simulation is the imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. • The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 19 something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviors of a selected physical or abstract system.
  20. 20. Languages used in ES • Assembly Language: Lowest-level human-readable method for programming. Platform specific No need for compilation Used by some compilers, such as Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 20 Used by some compilers, such as GCC, to convert high-level languages (such as C) into platform-dependent assembly language before assembling into machine language.
  21. 21. Languages used in ES • Assembly Disadvantages: Platform Specific. Operate by acting on specific instructions. Can perform no other actions besides those specifically Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 21 besides those specifically listed. Instructions are highly atomic: each instruction performs a single, small instruction. Too difficult to program large applications.
  22. 22. Languages used in ES • C Language: Source files 'linked' together Ability to program in assembly right inside the C-code Easy to write and portable. Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 22 Easy to write and portable. Knowledge of C enables freedom.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2009 Embedded Systems Committee 23
  24. 24. info@escommittee.com education@escommittee.com walaa.mohamed@escommittee.com

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