However > 50% do not demonstrate a favourable outcome
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 1995 European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) 2008 The Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism (PROACT) trial 1998 Mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia. 2008
BACKGROUNDThrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke has been approached cautiously because there were high rates of intracerebral hemorrhage in early clinical trials. We performed a randomized, double-blind trial of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for ischemic stroke after recent pilot studies suggested that t-PA was beneficial when treatment was begun within three hours of the onset of stroke.Full Text of Background...METHODSThe trial had two parts. Part 1 (in which 291 patients were enrolled) tested whether t-PA had clinical activity, as indicated by an improvement of 4 points over base-line values in the score of the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) or the resolution of the neurologic deficit within 24 hours of the onset of stroke. Part 2 (in which 333 patients were enrolled) used a global test statistic to assess clinical outcome at three months, according to scores on the Barthel index, modified Rankin scale, Glasgow outcome scale, and NIHSS.Full Text of Methods...RESULTSIn part 1, there was no significant difference between the group given t-PA and that given placebo in the percentages of patients with neurologic improvement at 24 hours, although a benefit was observed for the t-PA group at three months for all four outcome measures. In part 2, the long-term clinical benefit of t-PA predicted by the results of part 1 was confirmed (global odds ratio for a favorable outcome, 1.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6). As compared with patients given placebo, patients treated with t-PA were at least 30 percent more likely to have minimal or no disability at three months on the assessment scales. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours after the onset of stroke occurred in 6.4 percent of patients given t-PA but only 0.6 percent of patients given placebo (P<0.001). Mortality at three months was 17 percent in the t-PA group and 21 percent in the placebo group (P = 0.30).
BACKGROUNDIntravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its efficacy and safety when administered more than 3 hours after the onset of symptoms have not been established. We tested the efficacy and safety of alteplase administered between 3 and 4.5 hours after the onset of a stroke.Full Text of Background...METHODSAfter exclusion of patients with a brain hemorrhage or major infarction, as detected on a computed tomographic scan, we randomly assigned patients with acute ischemic stroke in a 1:1 double-blind fashion to receive treatment with intravenous alteplase (0.9 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The primary end point was disability at 90 days, dichotomized as a favorable outcome (a score of 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin scale, which has a range of 0 to 6, with 0 indicating no symptoms at all and 6 indicating death) or an unfavorable outcome (a score of 2 to 6 on the modified Rankin scale). The secondary end point was a global outcome analysis of four neurologic and disability scores combined. Safety end points included death, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and other serious adverse events.Full Text of Methods...RESULTSWe enrolled a total of 821 patients in the study and randomly assigned 418 to the alteplase group and 403 to the placebo group. The median time for the administration of alteplase was 3 hours 59 minutes. More patients had a favorable outcome with alteplase than with placebo (52.4% vs. 45.2%; odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.76; P=0.04). In the global analysis, the outcome was also improved with alteplase as compared with placebo (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.65; P<0.05). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was higher with alteplase than with placebo (for any intracranial hemorrhage, 27.0% vs. 17.6%; P=0.001; for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, 2.4% vs. 0.2%; P=0.008). Mortality did not differ significantly between the alteplase and placebo groups (7.7% and 8.4%, respectively; P=0.68). There was no significant difference in the rate of other serious adverse events
Background and Purpose—To test the safety and recanalization efficacy of intra-arterial local delivery of plasminogen activators in acute ischemic stroke, a randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase (rpro-UK) versus placebo was undertaken in patients with angiographically documented proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion.Methods—After exclusion of intracranial hemorrhage by CT scan, patients with abrupt onset of symptoms of focal ischemia likely to receive treatment within 6 hours who satisfied all clinical eligibility criteria underwent carotid angiography. Patients displaying Thrombolysis in Acute Myocardial Infarction grade 0 or 1 occlusion of the M1 or M2 middle cerebral artery were randomized 2:1 to receive rpro-UK (6 mg) or placebo over 120 minutes into the proximal thrombus face. All patients received intravenous heparin. Recanalization efficacy was assessed at the end of the 2-hour infusion, and intracerebral hemorrhage causing neurological deterioration was assessed at 24 hours.Results—Of 105 patients who underwent angiography, 59 were excluded from randomization. Among the 46 patients randomized, 40 were treated with rpro-UK (n=26) or placebo (n=14) a median of 5.5 hours from symptom onset. Recanalization was significantly associated with rpro-UK (2P=.017). Hemorrhagic transformation causing neurological deterioration within 24 hours of treatment occurred in 15.4% of the rpro-UK–treated patients and 7.1% of the placebo-treated patients (2P=.64). Both recanalization and hemorrhage frequencies were influenced by heparin dose.
Merci Mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia Background and Purpose— Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy may be used during acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel intracranial occlusion. First-generation MERCI devices achieved recanalization rates of 48% and, when coupled with intraarterial thrombolytic drugs, recanalization rates of 60% have been reported. Enhancements in embolectomy device design may improve recanalization rates.Methods— Multi MERCI was an international, multicenter, prospective, single-arm trial of thrombectomy in patients with large vessel stroke treated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Patients with persistent large vessel occlusion after IV tissue plasminogen activator treatment were included. Once the newer generation (L5 Retriever) device became available, investigators were instructed to use the L5 Retriever to open vessels and could subsequently use older generation devices and/or intraarterial tissue plasminogen activator. Primary outcome was recanalization of the target vessel.Results— One hundred sixty-four patients received thrombectomy and 131 were initially treated with the L5 Retriever. Mean age±SD was 68±16 years, and baseline median (interquartile range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 19 (15 to 23). Treatment with the L5 Retriever resulted in successful recanalization in 75 of 131 (57.3%) treatable vessels and in 91 of 131 (69.5%) after adjunctive therapy (intraarterial tissue plasminogen activator, mechanical). Overall, favorable clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2) occurred in 36% and mortality was 34%; both outcomes were significantly related to vascular recanalization. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 16 patients (9.8%); 4 (2.4%) of these were parenchymal hematoma type II. Clinically significant procedural complications occurred in 9 (5.5%) patients.
Background: Studies of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke have identified general anesthesia as a predictor for poor outcome in comparison with local anesthesia/ sedation. This retrospective study attempts to identify modifiable factors associated with poor outcome, while adjusting for baseline stroke severity, in patients receiving general anesthesia. Methods: We reviewed charts of 129 patients treated between January 2003 and September 2009. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Score of 0–2 for 3 months poststroke. Predictors of neurologic outcome included baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, blood glucose concentration, and age. Additional risk factors evaluated were prolonged stroke onset-treatment interval and systolic blood pressure less than 140 mmHg. Choice of local anesthesia or general anesthesia was recorded. Results: The study group was 96 out of 129 patients for whom modified Rankin Scale scores were available; 48 patients received general anesthesia and 48 local anesthesia. The proportion of patients with “good” outcomes were 15% and 60% in the general anesthesia group and local anesthesia group, respectively (P 0.001). Lowest systolic blood pressure and general anesthesia were correlated (r0.7, P 0.001). Independent predictors for good neurologic outcome were local anesthesia, systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg, and low baseline stroke scores. Conclusions: Adjusted for stroke severity, patients who received general anesthesia for treatment are less likely to have a good outcome than those managed with local anesthesia. This may be due to preintervention risk not included in the stroke severity measures. Hypotension, more frequent in the general anesthesia patients, may also contribute
Background and Purpose—Baseline hyperglycemia has been considered an independent predictor of stroke outcome. The present study analyzes the dynamics of serum glucose levels within the first 24 hours and its impact on stroke outcome. Methods—We studied 748 patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke in the second European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS-II). The patients had 2 serum glucose measurements, at baseline and at 24 hours. Four dynamic patterns were defined as baseline hyperglycemia present only at baseline, 24-hour hyperglycemia present only at 24 hours, persistent hyperglycemia, ie, hyperglycemia at baseline and at 24 hours, and persistent normoglycemia, ie, normoglycemia at baseline and at 24 hours. The end points were 7-day neurological improvement on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 30-day favorable functional outcome (Barthel Index 95 or 100), 90-day negligible dependence (modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2), all-cause mortality within 90 days, and hemorrhagic transformation on CT within the first 7 days. Results—In nondiabetic patients, persistent hyperglycemia was inversely associated with neurological improvement (OR0.31; 95% CI0.16 to 0.60), 30-day favorable functional outcome (OR0.27; 95% CI0.12 to 0.62), and 90-day negligible dependence (OR0.36; 95% CI0.17 to 0.73); it was associated with an increased risk of mortality within 90 days (OR7.61; 95% CI3.23 to 17.90) and for parenchymal hemorrhage (OR6.64; 95% CI2.63 to 16.78), whereas it was inversely associated with hemorrhagic infarction (OR0.30; 95% CI0.13 to 0.71). Delayed hyperglycemia at 24 hours was associated with the risks of death (OR5.99; 95% CI2.51 to 14.2) and parenchymal hemorrhage (OR5.69; 95% CI-2.05 to 15.8) and inversely associated with no and negligible dependency (OR0.40; 95% CI0.20 to 0.78). Hyperglycemia at baseline only was not associated with any parameter of worse outcome. In patients with diabetes, the dynamic patterns of hyperglycemia did not suggest an association with stroke outcome. Conclusions—Persistent hyperglycemia was associated with all bad outcome end points studied. In addition to a single glucose measurement, the pattern of change should be considered in the prediction of stroke outcome. ( Stroke. 2008; 39:2749-2755.)
Thrombectomy for ischemic stroke and anaesthesia
Dr Wahid Altaf
Dr Sinead Galvin
• Sudden death of cells
due to lack of oxygen.
• Manifesting as focal or global disturbance of
cerebral function lasting for more than twenty
four hours or leading to death.
• Survival of brain cells depends on time since
lack of oxygen.
Stroke in Ireland
• Annual number of stroke patients in Ireland is
around 10,000.87% ischemic stroke.
• Annual number of deaths from stroke is 2000.
• Number of disabled patients secondary to
stroke around 30,000.
Risk factors for Ischemic stroke
Cardiac disease (AF)
Diagnosis and treatment
• Its early diagnosis is important as its treatment is dependent on
the time elapsed since the onset of the symptoms. Delay in
diagnosis and treatment translates into increased neuronal loss
and thereby increased morbidity.
• Reperfusion remains the mainstay of acute ischemic stroke
Time is Brain!!!!
• The average duration of
non-lacunar stroke evolution
is 10 hours (range 6 to 18
hours), and the average number of neurons in the
human forebrain is 22 billion.
• In each minute, 1.9 million neurons, 14 billion
synapses, and 12 km (7.5 miles) of myelinated fibers
• Compared with the normal rate of neuron loss in
brain aging, the ischemic brain ages 3.6 years each
hour without treatment.
• Recanalization by mechanical thrombectomy
may occur due to combination of thrombus
fragmentation, thrombus retrieval, and
enhancement of fibrinolytic penetration.
• FDA cleared many devices for recanalization
of arterial occlusion in patients with ischemic
The Evidence ????
iv tpa <3hours.
• ECASS III
iv alteplase 3-4.5 hours.
• PROACT II ia pro uk <6hours.
General anesthesia for Intervention in
Stroke- Intra-arterial thrombolyis and
Mechanical thrombectomy in
• Avoid anesthesia
Speed of whole process
Avoid anesthetic drug effectshypotension or effect on cerebral activity
• Need for anesthesia can’t be ignored.
• Retrospective review on type and number of
patients who got general anesthesia during last
three years for clot retrieval in radio-intervention
suite of Beaumont hospital.
• Identify demand, issues and future.
Clot retrieval in Beaumont Hospital
from April 2010 to Sept 2013.
• Total number of cases done 107.
Prognosis with intra-op
Mean Arterial BP
< or= 80
Issues important to us.
Increasing demand over the years.
Out of hours service needed.
High ASA grade of these patients.
Failed IV thrombolysis before clot retrieval and
• Internal carotid and middle cerebral artery
involvement in majority.
• Hemodynamic parameters to target/Blood glucose
control and means to achieve the same/maintaining
• Need for ICU/Ventilation post procedure.
• Our demand to provide anesthesia for sick
patients may increase with time.
• Develop standard procedures and protocols.
• Canadian multi-centric trial for outcome from
• Clot retrieval in interventional cardiology.
Quality improvement maneuver
• Safer and standard anesthetic practice
Standard monitoring as per AAGBI.
IV canula with IV fluids running via 3 way
Anesthetic machine checked every day and
ready in high risk patients.
Emergency drugs/Airway tray ready to use.