Cardiovascular systemAnatomy: I - Heart:- Fist sized organ situated in the center of the chest, betweenthe sternum and the spine and above the diaphragm.Surrounded by the lungs except in a small area in front.(bare area) and the area against the spine.
- Has a hollow tough muscular wall surrounded by thepericardium.- It is divided into right and left sides, each has anatrium & a ventricle.
II - Vascular system Arteries: Thick walled, carrying blood from the heart under high pressure. Capillaries: Thin walled network of one cell layer. Veins: Thin walled vessels carrying blood under low pressure back to the heart. Two coronary arteries originate from the aorta encircling the heart to supply the myocardium.
Physiology of the heartRight ventricle Left ventricle ↓ ↓Pulmonary artery Aortic artery ↓ ↓ Lungs all the body ↓ ↓Lt atrium Rt atrium
Functions of cardiovascular system 1 – purify the blood through the pulmonary capillarysystem.2 – provide oxygenated blood to all tissues through thesystemic capillary system.THE HEART beats 60-90 beats per minute during rest .
2 – Neuromuscular system:A) Respiratory center in the brain.B) Nerves.C) Muscles of respiration.( Diaphragm , intercostalmuscles)D) Chest cage
Cont…3 – Alveoli:Millions of minute air sacs made of very delicate thinmembrane of one cell layer. Capillaries are on outer side(exchange of gases).4 – Pulmonary vessels:Heart (Rt ventricle)→pulmonary arteries –dark blood→ finecapillary network – pick up O2 & expel CO2 in alveoli→pulmonary veins → heart (Lt ventricle).
Physiology of respiration- Inspiration is an active process.- Expiration is a passive process.- Function is to pick up oxygen and expelCO2.
Cont. ↑CO2 in arterial blood →Brain →respiratory center→ signals →respiratory nerves → respiratory muscles → ↑respiratory rate and depth till normal CO2 →normal respiration.
Skeletal systemMajor functions:I – Support, body form.II – Protection of vital organs.III – Movement (muscles, bones, joints).IV – Blood cell production in bone marrow.V – Storage of essential minerals.
Major divisionsI – Axial skeleton:Skull, vertebral column, rib cage, sternum.II – Appendicular skeleton:Upper extremities,lower extremities, the shoulder girdle,pelvic girdle.
Classification of bonesI – Long bones:Arm: humerus, ulna, radius.Lower limb: femur, tibia, fibula.II – Short bones:Bones in the hands and feet.III – Flat bones:Sternum, shoulder blades, and ribs.IV – Irregular bones:Vertebrae of spinal column
The nervous systemAnatomical division:I – Central nervous system:Includes brain and spinal cord.II – Peripheral nervous system:Includes peripheral sensorynerves, peripheral motornerves, combination of sensory motornerves.
Brain 1 – Cerebral cortexConsists of grey and white matter.Controls higher functions: sensory reception, voluntarymotor activity, reasoning, emotions, memory.
2 – Cerebellum:Concerned with maintenance of posture andequilibrium as well as coordination of skilledmovements.Cerebellum
3 – Brain stem:Subdivided to midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata.Contains important centers maintaining vital functions.
Functional divisions of nervous systemI – Autonomic nervous system (involuntary):A – Parasympathetic:Causes dilatation of blood vessels, increases tone andcontractility of smooth muscles, and induces secretions.B – Sympathetic:Controls many automatic functions: constriction of bloodvessels, and increases heart rate.II – Voluntary:Under direct control of the brain.
Sympathetic CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SYMPATHETIC Brain“ Fight or flight” Dilates pupilresponse Stimulates salivation Salivary glands Relaxes bronchiRelease adrenaline and Spinal Lungs cordnoradrenalin Accelerates heartbeatIncreases heart rate and Heartblood pressure Inhibits activity StomachIncreases blood flow to Pancrea s Stimulates glucose Liverskeletal muscles Adrenal Secretion of adrenaline, glandInhibits digestive no adrenaline Kidneyfunctions Relaxes bladder Sympathetic Stimulates ejaculation ganglia in male
Parasympathetic CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PARASYMPATHETIC Brain Contracts pupil“ Rest and digest ” Stimulates salivationsystem Spinal Constricts bronchi cordCalms body to conserveand maintain energy Slows heartbeatLowers Stimulates activityheartbeat, breathingrate, blood pressure Stimulates gallbladder Gallbladder Contracts bladder Stimulates erection of sex organs
Cranial nervesI – Olfactory: smellII – Optic: visionIII – Oculomotor: eye lid, pupil, eyeball.IV – Trochlear: turn the eye down and laterally.V – Trigeminal: ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular.VI – Abducens: turns the eye laterally.VII – Facial: muscles of expression.VIII – Vestibulocochlear: hearing and equilibrium.IX – Glosso-pharyngeal: tasteX – Vagus: parasympathetic for viscera.XI – Spinal accessory: trapezious and sternomastoidmuscles.XII – Hypoglossal: motor fibers to the tongue.
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