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PMI-ACP - Agile Framework

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Training materils for PMI-ACP exam

Training materils for PMI-ACP exam

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  • While the Agile Manifestois simple in structureand sparse in words, there is a lot of good stuff in the four values stated here. Understandingthe ideas that are being conveyed is important not just for the exam, but also for the applicationof any agile methodologyon real-world knowledge worker projects,evenif theyarenot software development projects.First, the format of "A over B” such as "Individuals and interactions over processes and tools”, addresses intention, focus, and effort. It is not as black and white or as simple as "Do A instead of B," Instead, it is acknowledging that A and B will likely both exist on projects, but that we should apply our focus, emphasis, and intention to A more than B.Although the Agile Manifesto uses software development terms, think about how the concepts also apply to other types of projects
  • Will discuss all of the mentioned above
  • Transparency: This pillar involves giving visibility to those responsible for the outcome. An example of transparency would be creating a common definition of what "done" means, to ensure that all stakeholders are in agreement.Inspection: This pillar involves timely checks on how well a project is progressing toward its goals, looking for problematic deviations or differences from the goals.Adaptation: This pillar involves adjusting a process to minimize further issues if an inspection shows a problem or undesirable trend.These three pillars guide all aspects of Scrum projects, but there are also four planned opportunities for Inspection and Adaptation within the Scrum framework:Sprint RetrospectiveDaily Scrum MeetingSprint Review MeetingSprint Planning Meeting
  • Now let's discuss the Scrum methodology in terms of the different roles on a Serum team, the activities or events that occur within this methodology, and its deliverables or artifacts.
  • Meetings known as WHAT- HOW Meetings.
  • Team members that are not allowed to talk during the meeting are called Chickens or Pigs.Pigs are from the Scrum team (Developers, ScrumMaster, Product Owner).Chicken from the stakeholders (Management, Customer, Users)
  • The Product Owner own’s the Scrum Product Backlog, he/she is responsible of maintaining it.The Product Owner uses the Scrum Product Backlog during the Sprint Planning Meeting to discuss with the team the highest priority items.The Team then determines which items they can complete during the coming sprint. Here are some characteristics that differentiate the Product Backlog from any To-Do list:All items in the Product Backlog should add value to the customer.All items are estimated.All items are prioritized and ordered.The Product Backlog is a living document.The Product Backlog does not contain any low level tasks.
  • When a backlog item is described as done, everyone must be in agreement about what "done" means. To remove any ambiguity, the team should collectively create the definition of done for the items before they begin work on them.For completeness and integrity you would have 3 different definitions of done: for a User Story (a feature), for a Sprint and for a Release
  • Simplicity: This value focuses on reducing complexity, extra features, and waste. The team should keep the phrase "Find the simplest thing that could possibly work" in mind and build that solution first.Communication: This value focuses on making sure all the team members know what is expected of them and what other people are working on. The daily stand-up meeting is a key communication component.Feedback: The team should get impressions of suitability early. Failing fast can be useful, especially if in doing so we get new information while we still have time to improve the product.Courage: It takes courage to allow our work to be entirely visible to others. In pair programming, team members share code and often need to make bold simplifications and changes to that code. Backed up by automated builds and unit tests, developers need to have the confidence to make important changes.Respect: Respect is essential on XP projects where people work together as a team and everyone is accountable for the success or failure of the project. This value also relates to pair programming: team members need to recognize that people work differently, and respect those differences.
  • QA and BA roles may be fulfilled by developers if they have the required skills
  • XP has two primary planning activities, or planning games, release planning and iteration planning. 
  • Feature-Driven Development is the agile methodology that popularized cumulative flow, and parking lot diagrams (one-page summaries of project progress). Both are useful tracking and diagnostic tools that are now used by other agile approaches.
  • In the figure, team size is represented on the X (horizontal) axis and the level of project criticality is indicated on the Y (vertical) axis.Crystal Clear is aimed at small projects with core team sizes of one to six people. As projects engage more people and develop increasingly critical applications, we need to scale the processes beyond face-to-face communications and introduce additional validation and traceability measures.
  • Lean gives us techniques and concepts such as value stream mapping, the seven forms of waste, pull systems, and work in progress (WIP)
  • As shown in the figure the first column is the backlog.The second column “TODO” has two items in it, which is the limit “2”, you can’t add extra item to the “TODO”, unless you moved one of the existing to the next stage “Limit the WIP”The same applies on other columns “Development”, “Testing”,..The WIP limit is the maximum number of items that may be in that column, or state of progress.If the limit is reached, no new items may be moved into the column until other items are moved out
  • The Kanban development methodology has helped popularize task boards with WIP limits and pull systems created by limiting WIP.It also gives permission and encourages team members to try new approaches and change processes.With a continuous pull model, iterations may not be required, and activities like creating estimates can be considered waste and reduced or eliminated entirely.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PMI-ACP® Course Exam PreparationD E L I V E R E D B Y:W A F I M O H TA S E BS O F T WA R E D E V E LO P M E N T M A N AG E RP M P, P M I - A C P, P M I - S P, C E R T I F I E D S C R U M M A S T E R
    • 2. Course Agenda Introduction Agile Framework Value-Driven Development Stakeholder Engagement Boosting Team Performance Practices Adaptive Planning Problem Detection and Resolution Continuous Improvement Professional Responsibility and Ethics
    • 3. Introduction About PMI® PMI® Credentials About PMI-ACP® Certification  Eligibility Requirements  Exam Structure and Content
    • 4. About PMI® Founded in 1969. 600,000 members and credential holders. 11 standards. 250 chapters in 70 countries.
    • 5. PMI® Credentials Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)® PMI Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP)® PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)® PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP )® Project Management Professional (PMP)® Program Management Professional (PgMP)®
    • 6. About PMI-ACP® Certification Eligibility Requirements Education General Project Agile Project Agile Project Management Management Management Experience Experience Training High school 2000 hours (about 1500 hours (about 21 hours diploma or 12 months) of 8 months) of agile equivalent project team project team experience within experience within the last five years the last two years
    • 7. About PMI-ACP® Certification Questions Distribution Area Percentage of Questions Agile tool and techniques 50% Agile knowledge and skills 50% 120 multiple choice questions (only 100 will be scored) 3 hours
    • 8. About PMI-ACP® Certification Exam Score Breakdown Tools & 12% 5% Techniques 50% Level 1 K & S 33% Level 2 K & S Level 3 K & S
    • 9. About PMI-ACP® CertificationLevel Knowledge and SkillsLevel 1 » Active listening » Knowledge sharing » Agile Manifesto values and principles » Leadership » Assessing and incorporating community » Prioritization and stakeholder values » Problem solving » Brainstorming techniques » Project and quality standards for agile » Building empowered teams projects » Coaching and mentoring within teams » Stakeholder management » Communications management » Team motivation » Feedback techniques for product » Time, budget, and cost estimation » Incremental delivery » Value-based decomposition andLevel 2 » Agile frameworks and terminology » Facilitation methods » Building high-performance teams » Participatory decision models » Business case development » PMIs Code of Ethics and Professional » Co-location and geographically dispersed Conduct teams » Process analysis » Continuous improvement processes » Self-assessment » Elements of a project charter for an agile » Value-based analysis projectLevel 3 » Agile contracting methods » Agile games » Agile project accounting principles » Principles of systems thinking » Applying new agile practices » Regulatory compliance » Compliance (organization) » Variance and trend analysis » Control limits for agile projects » Variation in agile methods and approaches » Failure modes and alternatives » Vendor management » Globalization, culture, and team diversity
    • 10. Agile Framework Why Agile Methods? The Agile Manifesto The Declaration of Interdependence Agile Methods Practice Exam
    • 11. Why Agile Methods? Why do we need another approach to managing project?  The answer is simple: different types of projects require different methods.  We don’t resolve every issue the exact same way, instead we adjust our approach to be effective for unique situation.  In our everyday lives, we see the value of customizing our approach to different situations, often in small ways.  This same concept applies to how we manage our projects
    • 12. The Agile Manifesto The Agile Manifesto came about as the result of a meeting in Feb 2001 that brought together a number of software and methodology experts, who then defined the Agile Manifesto and Agile Principles. The Agile Manifesto reads as follow:  We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to:  Individuals and Interactions over processes and tools.  Working Software over comprehensive documentation.  Customer collaboration over contract negotiation.  Responding to change over following a plan.
    • 13. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools The message here is that while processes and tools will likely be necessary on our projects, we should try to focus the teams attention on the individuals and interactions involved. This is because projects are undertaken by people, not tools, and problems get solved by people, not processes. Likewise, projects are accepted by people, scope is debated by people, and the definition of a successfully "done" project is negotiated by people. Focusing early on developing the individuals involved in the project and emphasizing productive and effective interactions help set up a project for success. This is not to say that processes and tools cannot help in successfully completing a project. They are certainly important assets, and for those of us who have an engineering background, we may naturally tend toward the logic and predictability of processes and tools. Yet projects are ultimately about people, so to be successful, we need to spend the majority of our time in what may be the less comfortable, messy, and unpredictable world of people. If you tend toward processes rather than people, the first value of "individuals and interactions over processes and tools" is a great reminder of where to focus your time, energy, and passion.
    • 14. Working software over comprehensive documentation This value speaks to the need to deliver. Software projects are typically initiated with the goal of creating valuable, high-quality software, yet they often get caught up on interim deliverables such as extensive documentation that does not support the ultimate goal of working software. Software without documentation is certainly problematic and hampers support and maintenance. But comprehensive documentation without software is next to valueless to most organizations.
    • 15. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation This value reminds us to be flexible and accommodating, rather than fixed and uncooperative. It is similar to the difference between "being right" and "doing the right thing: We could build the product exactly as originally specified, but if the customer changes their mind or priority, it would be better to be flexible and work toward the new goal, as opposed to the goal that was originally stated. It is notoriously difficult to define an upfront, unchanging view of what should be built. This challenge stems from the dynamic nature of knowledge worker products, especially software systems, software is intangible and difficult to reference, companies rarely build the same systems twice, business needs change quickly, and technology changes rapidly. Rather than beat up the client with a change management process that is really more of a change suppression process, we should recognize at the start that things are going to change, and we should work with the customer throughout the project toward a shared definition of "done: This requires a more trusting relationship and more flexible contract models than we often see on projects, but it again moves the emphasis from non value-adding activities (like arguing about scope) to productive work.
    • 16. Responding to change over following a plan As we just discussed, initial plans are sometimes inadequate. Instead of investing effort in trying to bring the project back in line with the original plan, we should spend more of our effort and energy responding to the inevitable changes on the project. But this doesnt mean the Agile Manifesto is suggesting we abandon planning and just react to changes. We still need to plan, but we also need to acknowledge that the initial plans were made when we knew least about the project (at the beginning), and as the work progresses, we will need to update the plan. The importance of responding to change over following a plan is particularly true for software projects, where high rates of change are common. Again, instead of suppressing changes and spending a lot of time managing and tracking a largely static plan, we need to acknowledge that things will change. Agile projects have highly visible queues of work and plans in the form of backlogs and task boards. The intent of this agile value is to broaden the number of people who can be readily engaged in the planning process, adjust plans, and discuss the impacts of changes.
    • 17. Agile Manifesto Principles1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customers competitive advantage.3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers)and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.10. Simplicity-the art of maximizing the amount of work not done-is essential.11. The best architectures, requirements and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective)then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
    • 18. The Declaration of Interdependence In 2005, the cofounders of the Agile Project Leadership Network (APLN), now known as the Agile Leadership Network (ALN), created the Declaration of Interdependence for agile project management. This declaration reads: Declaration of Interdependence Agile and adaptive approaches for linking people, projects and value We are a community of project leaders that are highly successful at delivering results. To achieve these results:  We increase return on investment by making continuous flow of value our focus.  We deliver reliable results by engaging customers infrequent interactions and shared ownership.  We expect uncertainty and manage for it through iterations, anticipation, and adaptation.  We unleash creativity and innovation by recognizing that individuals are the ultimate source of value, and creating an environment where they can make a difference.  We boost performance through group accountability for results and shared responsibility for team effectiveness.  We improve effectiveness and reliability through situationally specific strategies, processes and practices.
    • 19. Agile Methods There are a lot of actively used agile methodologies, the common ones are:  Scrum.  Extreme Programming (XP).  Feature-Driven Development (FDD).  Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM).  Crystal Clear Family.  Lean Software Development  Kanban Development.
    • 20. Scrum Scrum is a popular agile model that is lightweight and easy to understand. The methodology documented in the “Scrum framework" is a set of team guidance practices, roles, events, artifacts, and rules to execute projects by. The theory behind Scrum is based on the three pillars of Transparency, Inspection, and Adaptation:  Transparency: This pillar involves giving visibility to those responsible for the outcome. An example of transparency would be creating a common definition of what "done" means, to ensure that all stakeholders are in agreement.  Inspection: This pillar involves timely checks on how well a project is progressing toward its goals, looking for problematic deviations or differences from the goals.  Adaptation: This pillar involves adjusting a process to minimize further issues if an inspection shows a problem or undesirable trend. These three pillars guide all aspects of Scrum projects, but there are also four planned opportunities for Inspection and Adaptation within the Scrum framework:  Sprint Retrospective  Daily Scrum Meeting  Sprint Review Meeting  Sprint Planning Meeting
    • 21. Scrum Process
    • 22. Scrum Teams
    • 23. Scrum TeamsScrum teams are made up of the development team, a product owner, and a ScrumMaster. Development Team:  The development team is the group of professionals who build the product increments in each iteration, or "sprint" as it is termed in the Scrum methodology.  The development team is empowered to manage its own work, and its members are self-organizing and cross-functional. In other words, the development team consists of people who can fulfill all the roles needed to complete the work (e.g., analysis, build, and test). Product Owner:  The product owner is responsible for maximizing the value of the product.  This person has the sole responsibility for managing the product backlog, including its prioritization, accuracy, shared understanding, value, and visibility. ScrumMaster:  The ScrumMaster is responsible for ensuring that Scrum is understood and used.  The ScrumMaster is a servant leader to the development team, removing impediments to progress, facilitating events as needed, and providing coaching.  The ScrumMaster also assists the product owner with managing the backlog and communicating the vision, goals, and backlog items to the development team.
    • 24. Scrum EventsThe Scrum methodology refers to several different types of activities or events, sprints, sprintplanning meetings, daily stand-up meeting, sprint review meetings, and sprint retrospectives. Sprints:  A sprint is a timeboxed (time-limited) iteration of one month or less to build a potentially releasable product.  Most Scrum sprints are either two weeks or one month long.  Each sprint includes a sprint planning meeting, daily Scrum, the development work, a sprint review meeting, and the sprint retrospective.  Each sprint is like a mini project.  During the sprint, no changes are made that would affect the sprint goal, although the scope may be clarified or renegotiated as new information becomes available.  The development team members are kept the same throughout the sprint. Sprint Planning Meeting:  A sprint planning meeting is used to determine what will be delivered in that sprint and how the work will be achieved.  The product owner presents the backlog items, and the whole team discusses them to create a shared understanding.  The development team forecasts what can be delivered based on estimates, projected capacity, and past performance to define the sprint goal.  The development team then determines how this functionality will be built and how the team will organize to deliver the sprint goal.
    • 25. Scrum Events Daily Stand-up Meeting (Daily Scrum):  The daily Scrum is a 15-minute timeboxed daily meeting. During this meeting, the development team synchronizes activities, communicates, and raises issues. It is held at the same place and time, and each development team member provides answers to the following three questions about the work he or she is doing during the sprint:  1. What has been achieved since the last meeting?  2. What will be done before the next meeting?  3. What obstacles are in the way?  The daily Scrum s used to assess progress toward the sprint goal.  The ScrumMaster makes sure these meetings happen and helps remove any identified obstacles. Sprint Review Meeting:  A sprint review is a meeting held at the end of the sprint to inspect the increment, or evolving product, that was built and to change the backlog if necessary.  The development team demonstrates the work that is "done" and answers any questions about the increment..  The product owner decides what is done and what is not yet done.  The product owner and the team discuss the remaining product backlog and determine what to do next.
    • 26. Scrum Events Sprint Retrospective:  At the end of the sprint, the team holds a sprint retrospective to reflect on the process and look for opportunities for improvement.  The retrospective occurs after the sprint review and before the next sprint planning meeting.  This timing allows the team to incorporate the product owner’s feedback from the sprint review and also allows them to factor improvements identified during the retrospective into the next plan. The team focuses their inspection on people, relationships, processes, and tools.  They explore what went well, in addition to identifying opportunities for improvement that they can implement in the next sprint.
    • 27. Scrum Artifacts Product Backlog Sprint Backlog Definition of Done (DoD)
    • 28. Product Backlog The product backlog is the ordered list of everything that might be needed for the product. It serves as the single source for requirements. This backlog is dynamic and evolves as the product evolves. It contains features to be built, functions, requirements, quality attributes (often referred to as nonfunctional requirements), enhancements, and fixes, and they are represented in the form of user stories. Higher-ranked items are more detailed, and therefore, the estimates for these items are more precise. Low-priority items may not get developed, or they may be deferred in favor of higher-priority work. "Grooming" the product backlog is the process of adding more detail and order to the backlog and refining the estimates of the backlog items, this effort is done by the development team and the product owner.
    • 29. Sprint Backlog The sprint backlog is the set of items from the product backlog that were selected for a specific sprint. The sprint backlog is accompanied by a plan of how to achieve the sprint goal, so it serves as the development teams forecast for the functionality that will be part of the sprint. It is a highly visible view of the work being undertaken and may only be updated by the development team.
    • 30. Definition of Done (DoD) Definition of Done (DoD) is a shared understanding of what it means when work is considered done, it should be defined at the beginning of the project, and it applies globally to the project. Definition of Done (DoD) is a crucial element of a successful scrum software development Might include things such as:  DoD for Unit & functional tests.  DoD Documentation.  DoD for a Writing code.
    • 31. Exercise: Scrum Ownership/Responsibility Who does what Item Development Product Owner ScurmMaster Team Estimates Backlog priorities Agile coaching Velocity predications The definition of done Process adherence Technical decisions Sprint planning
    • 32. Extreme Programming (XP) Extreme Programming is a software-development-centric agile method. While Scrum at the project management level focuses on prioritizing work and getting feedback, XP focuses on software development good practices. The core values of this methodology are simplicity, communication, feedback, courage, and respect (SCFCR), and these values manifest themselves in the practices undertaken throughout the XP life cycle.  Simplicity: This value focuses on reducing complexity, extra features, and waste. The team should keep the phrase "Find the simplest thing that could possibly work" in mind and build that solution first.  Communication: This value focuses on making sure all the team members know what is expected of them and what other people are working on. The daily stand-up meeting is a key communication component.  Feedback: The team should get impressions of suitability early. Failing fast can be useful, especially if in doing so we get new information while we still have time to improve the product.  Courage: It takes courage to allow our work to be entirely visible to others. In pair programming, team members share code and often need to make bold simplifications and changes to that code. Backed up by automated builds and unit tests, developers need to have the confidence to make important changes.  Respect: Respect is essential on XP projects where people work together as a team and everyone is accountable for the success or failure of the project. This value also relates to pair programming: team members need to recognize that people work differently, and respect those differences.
    • 33. XP Practices The XP method exercises a number of simple but powerful core practices, which are indicated in figure, Well discuss these practices in more detail, beginning with the outer ring and working our way in.
    • 34. XP Practices Whole Team  The whole team practice is the idea that all the contributors to an XP project sit together in the same location, as members of a single team.  This team includes a "customer" a business representative who provides the requirements, priorities, and business direction for the project.  The team is also comprised of developers and usually quality assurance (QA) and business analysis (BA) people. In addition, there is sometimes a coach who helps keep the team on track and guides the process, and there may be a manager who facilitates external communications and coordinates the teams activities.  XP emphasizes the notion of generalizing specialists, as opposed to role specialists. In other words, anyone who is qualified for a role can undertake it; the roles are not reserved for people who specialize in just one particular area. This practice helps optimize the use of resources, since people who can perform multiple jobs are able to switch from one role to another as the demand arises. The practice also allows for more efficient sharing of information and helps eliminate circumstances where people in certain roles are idle or overstretched at points in the project.
    • 35. XP Practices Planning Games:  Release Planning:  A release is a push of new functionality all the way to the production user. A project typically has one or more releases, with no more than one or two releases happening in a Single year.  During release planning, the customer outlines the functionality required, and the developers estimate how difficult the functionality will be to build. Armed with these estimates and priorities, the customer lays out the plan for the project delivery. The initial attempts at estimating will likely be imprecise, so this process is revisited frequently and improved as the priorities and estimates evolve.  Iteration Planning:  Iterations are the short development cycles within a release that Scrum calls "sprints.  Iteration planning is done at the start of every iteration, or every two weeks.  The customer explains what functionality they would like to see in the next two weeks, and then the developers break this functionality into tasks and estimate the work.  Based on these estimates (which are more refined than the release planning estimates) and the amount of work accomplished in the previous iteration, the team commits to what work they think they can complete in the two-week period. Small Releases:  Frequent, small releases to test environments are encouraged in XP, both at the iteration level to demonstrate progress and increase visibility for the customer, and at the release level to rapidly deploy working software to the target audience.  Quality is maintained in these short delivery timeframes by rigorous testing and through practices like continuous integration, in which suites of tests are run as frequently as possible.
    • 36. XP Practices Customer Tests:  As part of defining the required functionality, the customer describes one or more tests to show that the software is working. The team then builds automated tests to prove to themselves and the customer that the software is working. Collective Code Ownership:  In XP, any pair of developers can improve or amend any code.  This means multiple people work on all the code, which results in increased visibility and knowledge of the code base.  This practice leads to a higher level of quality; with more people looking at the code, there is a greater chance defects will be discovered.  There is also less of an impact to the project if one of the programmers leaves, since the knowledge is shared. Code Standards:  Although collective code ownership has its advantages, allowing anyone to amend any code can result in issues if the team members take different approaches to coding. To address this risk, XP teams follow a consistent coding standard so that all the code looks as if it has been written by a Single, knowledgeable programmer. The specifics of the standard each team uses are not important; what matters is that the team takes a consistent approach to writing the code. Sustainable Pace:  XP recognizes that the highest level of productivity is achieved by a team operating at a sustainable pace. While periods of overtime might be necessary, repeated long hours of work are unsustainable and counterproductive. The practice of maintaining a sustainable pace of development optimizes the delivery of long-term value.
    • 37. XP Practices Metaphor:  XP uses metaphors and similes to explain designs and create a shared technical vision.  These descriptions establish comparisons that all the stakeholders can understand to help explain how the system should work. For example, "The billing module is an accountant that makes sure transactions are entered into the appropriate accounts and balances are created:‘  Even if the team cannot come up with a Single, poetic metaphor to describe something, they can use a common set of names for different elements to ensure everyone understands where and why changes should be applied. Continuous Integration:  Integration involves bringing the code together and making sure it all compiles and works together.  This practice is critical, because it brings problems to the surface before more code is built on top of faulty or incompatible designs.  XP employs continuous integration, which means every time a programmer checks in code to the code repository (typically several times a day), integration tests are run automatically.  Such tests highlight broken builds or problems with integration, so that the problems can be addressed immediately.
    • 38. XP Practices Test-Driven Development (TDD):  As weve discussed, testing is a critical part of the XP methodology.  To ensure good test coverage so that problems can be highlighted early in development, XP teams often use the practice of test-driven development.  With this approach, the team writes tests prior to developing the new code.  If the tests are working correctly, the initial code that is entered will fail the tests, since the required functionality has not yet been developed.  The code will pass the test once it is written correctly.  The test-driven development process strives to shorten the test-feedback cycle as much as possible to get the benefits of early feedback. Refactoring:  Refactoring is the process of improving the design of existing code without altering the external behavior or adding new functionality.  By keeping the design efficient, changes and new functionality can easily be applied to the code.  Refactoring focuses on removing duplicated code, lowering coupling (dependent connections between code modules), and increasing cohesion.
    • 39. XP Practices Simple Design:  By focusing on keeping the design simple but adequate, XP teams can develop code quickly and adapt it as necessary.  The design is kept appropriate for what the project currently requires. It is then revisited iteratively and incrementally to ensure it remains appropriate.  XP follows a deliberate design philosophy that leans toward, "What is the simplest thing that could work?" as opposed to complex structures that attempt to accommodate possible future flexibility.  Since code bloat and complexity are linked to many failed projects, simple design is also a risk mitigation strategy. Pair Programming:  In XP, production code is written by two developers working as a pair to write and provide real-time reviews of the software as it emerges.  This practice may seem inefficient, but XP advocates assert that it saves time because the pairs catch issues early and there is a benefit in having the larger knowledge base of two people.  Working in pairs also helps spread knowledge about the system through the team.  By taking a disciplined and rigorous approach to applying these practices, XP teams succeed in delivering high-quality software systems.
    • 40. XP Practices – ExerciseItem XP Chunk Made-up JunkSample designSmall revisionsCouragePassionExecution gameComplexityRefactoringRemarketingArchitectural spokeIterationContinuous interpretation
    • 41. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is a simple-to-understand yet powerful approach to building products or solutions. A project team following the FDD method will first develop an overall model for the product, build a feature list, and plan the work. The team then moves through design and build iterations to develop the features.
    • 42. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) FDD recommends a set of good practices, derived from software engineering. These practices include:  Domain object modeling  In this practice, teams explore and explain the domain (or business environment) of the problem to be solved.  Developing by feature  This practice involves breaking functions down into two-week or shorter chunks and calling them features.  Individual class(code) ownership  With this practice, areas of code have a single owner for consistency, performance, and conceptual integrity  Feature teams  These are small, dynamically formed teams that vet designs and allow multiple design options to be evaluated before a design is chosen. Feature teams help mitigate the risks associated with individual ownership.  Inspections  These are reviews that help ensure good-quality design and code.  Configuration management  This practice involves labeling code, tracking changes, and managing the source code.  Regular builds  Through regular builds, the team makes sure the new code integrates with existing code. This practice also allows them to easily create a demo.  Visibility of progress and results  This practice tracks progress based on completed work.
    • 43. Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) DSDM was one of the earlier agile methods, and it started out quite prescriptive and detailed. Its coverage of the project life cycle is broad, encompassing aspects of an agile project ranging from feasibility and the business case to implementation
    • 44. Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) DSDM is centered on eight principles. Although these principles were created before the Agile Manifesto was written, they are closely aligned to the Manifesto. The eight principles are:  Focus on the business need  Deliver on time  Collaborate  Never compromise quality  Build incrementally from firm foundations  Develop iteratively  Communicate continuously and clearly  Demonstrate control DSDM helped to popularize early architectural considerations, agile suitability filters, and agile contracts.
    • 45. Crystal Crystal is a family of methodologies designed for projects ranging from those run by small teams developing low-criticality systems (Crystal Clear) to those run by large teams building high- criticality systems (Crystal Magenta). The Crystal framework provides a great example of how we can tailor a method to match a projects and an organizations characteristics.
    • 46. Crystal
    • 47. Crystal The Crystal methodologies embrace and promote many other agile principles as well, including:  Frequent delivery: Crystal methodologies build increments of a solution and check these incremental builds for acceptance.  Reflective improvement: This practice involves regularly checking for ways to improve and then implementing the new methods.  Osmotic communication: This means team members are co-located to allow them to efficiently share information.  Personal safety: Crystal methods emphasize the need to create an environment where people can safely raise issues or questions.  Focus: This means team members know what to work on and have the time and peace of mind to work on it.  Easy access to expert users: Through such access, the team can get up-to-date requirements and rapid feedback.  Technical environment: Crystal methods rely on automated tests, configuration management, and frequent integration.
    • 48. Lean Software Development Strictly speaking, lean software development is not an agile methodology, but lean and agile values are closely aligned. Lean is a set of principles that have been taken from lean manufacturing approaches and applied to software development Eliminate Waste Amplify Empower Learning the team Lean Defer Deliver Decisions Fast Optimize Build the Quality In Whole
    • 49. Lean Software Development Eliminate waste:  To maximize value, we must minimize waste. For software systems, waste can take the form of partially done work, delays, handoffs, unnecessary features, etc. Therefore, to increase the value we are getting from projects, we must develop ways to identify and then remove waste. Empower the team:  Rather than taking a micro-management approach, we should respect team member’s superior knowledge of the technical steps required on the project and let them Deliver fast:  We can maximize the projects return on investment (ROI) by quickly delivering valuable software and iterating through designs. We find the best solution through the rapid evolution of options. Optimize the whole:  We aim to see the system as more than the sum of its parts. We go beyond the pieces of the project and look for how it aligns with the organization. As part of optimizing the whole, we also focus on forming better intergroup relations. Build quality in:  Lean development doesnt try to "test-in quality at the end; instead, we build quality into the product and continually assure quality throughout the development process, using techniques like refactor ring, continuous integration, and unit testing. Defer decisions:  We balance early planning with making decisions and committing to things as late as possible. For example, this may mean reprioritizing the backlog right up until it is time to plan an iteration, or avoiding being tied to an early technology-bounded solution. Amplify learning:  This concept involves facilitating communication early and often, getting feedback as soon as possible, and building on what we learn. Software projects are business and technology learning experiences, so we should start soon and keep learning.
    • 50. Exercise: Match Agile Practices to Lean Principles Agile Practices Lean Principles Eliminate Empoer Deliver Optimize Build Defer Amplify waste the team fast the whole quality in decisions learning Teams make their own decisions Just-in-time iteration planning Team retrospective Two-week iterations Unit test as we go Shadow the business to learn what they do The evolving prototype is the specification
    • 51. Kanban Development Kanban development is derived from the lean production system used at Toyota. "Kanban" is a Japanese word meaning "signboard." The signboard, or Kanban task board as it is also called, plays an important role in the Kanban development methodology. The Kanban development methodology limits work in progress (WIP) to help identify issues and minimize the waste and cost associated with changes during development. It uses a pull system to take work, within the WIP limits, through the stages of development.
    • 52. Kanban DevelopmentKanban development operates on five core principles: Visualize the workflow:  Software projects, by definition, manipulate knowledge, which is intangible and invisible. Therefore, having some way to visualize the workflow is very important for organizing, optimizing, and tracking it. Limit WIP:  Keeping the amount of work in progress low increases the visibility of issues and bottlenecks and in turn facilitates continuous improvement. It creates a pull system of work through the development effort, reduces costs associated with changes, and minimizes sunk costs. Manage flow:  By tracking the flow of work through a system, issues can be identified and changes can be measured for effectiveness Make process policies explicit:  It is important to clearly explain how things work so the team can have open discussions about improvements in an objective, rather than an emotional or subjective, way. Improve collaboratively:  Through scientific measurement and experimentation, the team should collectively own and improve the processes it uses.

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