The 1918-1920 'Spanish' Influenza Pandemic

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This resource pack supports the Spanish Flu simulator at http://resources.modelling4all.org/spanish-flu/teacher-guide-to-spanish-flu-simulation.
More people died from the 1918-1920 Spanish Influenza pandemic than there were casulties as a result of the First World War. This world-wide epidemic caused by influenza viruses led to between 50 and 100 million deaths in 1918 and 1919 (as much as 1 of every 18 people).

Many researchers have suggested that the conditions of the war significantly aided the spread of the disease. And others have argued that the course of the war (and subsequent peace treaty) was influenced by the pandemic.

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The 1918-1920 'Spanish' Influenza Pandemic

  1. 1. Resource Pack The 1918-1920 ‘Spanish’ Influenza PandemicDeveloped for World War One Centenary: Continuations and Beginnings by Ken Khan, KateLindsay & Richard Marshall, University of Oxford (August 2012). Free, high quality educationalresources on new perspectives of the First World War. http://ww1centenary.oucs.ox.ac.uk.
  2. 2. IntroductionMore people dies from the 1918-1920 Spanish Influenzapandemic than there were casulties as a result of the FirstWorld War. This world-wide epidemic caused by influenzaviruses led to between 50 and 100 million deaths in 1918and 1919 (as much as 1 of every 18 people).Many researchers have suggested that the conditions ofthe war significantly aided the spread of the disease. Andothers have argued that the course of the war (andsubsequent peace treaty) was influenced by thepandemic.
  3. 3. All the following resources are brought togetherto support the Spanish Flu Simulator – acomputer model to help explore this pandemic.http://resources.modelling4all.org/spanish-flu/teacher-guide-to-spanish-flu-simulation
  4. 4. LectureProf Frank Snowden, Pandemic Influenza, Ch. 4. Lecture 20 from the seriesEpidemics in Western Society since 1920 from Open Yale. Available under CCBY-NC-SA. Available as video, audio and text.http://resources.modelling4all.org/spanish-flu/teacher-guide-to-spanish-flu-simulation
  5. 5. ArticleBarry. J. M. (2004)The site of origin of the 1918 influenza pandemic and itspublic health implications. Journal of Transatlantic Medicine. 20 January2004. (2.3). Available under CC BY.http://www.translational-medicine.com/content/2/1/3
  6. 6. InterviewDeath on the eve of Armistice. Michael Palin interviews Professor JohnOxford, exploring conditions at the end of the Great War and the impact ofinfluenza on the Armistice. Available via OpenLearn, Open University as CCBY-NC-SA. Also available as audio and text.Questions discussed:• How significant was the influenza outbreak on the casualties at the end of the First World War?• How did [the outbreak] begin?• What did they know about the epidemic at the time and […] were they able to contain it successfully?• What measures could they take or did they try to take to contain it?• At that stage was there anything they could do, do they have any vaccine?http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/world-history/death-on-the-eve-armistice
  7. 7. Images and Photographs
  8. 8. A monster representing an influenza virus hitting a man over the head as he sits in his armchair.Available via the Welcome Library, London, as CC-BY-NC-SA‘A-TICH-OO!! Good evening I’m the new Influenza’.Pen and ink drawing by E. Noble, c. 1918.
  9. 9. Original caption: ‘Emergency hospital during influenza epidemic, Camp Funston, Kansas.’ Available via OtisHistorical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SACamp Funston experienced the first significant outbreak of the disease in the United States. In March 1918,1100 men became ill, of whom 38 died. The flu returned in November, probably when this photograph wastaken: at the height of this second wave, around 6-7000 men were ill, swamping the Base Hospital andnecessitating the setting up of emergency wards such as the one pictured.
  10. 10. Original caption: ‘Cleaning up after the flu’. Available via Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health andMedicine as CC-BY-NC-SADisinfection of hospital blankets following outbreak of Spanish Influenza. From a scrapbook created by GertrudeSmith documenting her service as a nurse from 1918 to 1921 at Camp Mills, Long Island; Camp Pike, Arkansas;Walter Reed; and Camp Eustis, Virginia. Mostly photographs of nurses, hospitals, and patients, including imagesof the 1918 influenza epidemic.
  11. 11. Enlisted Mens Tents. X Section. Base Hospital, Camp Jackson, Columbia, South Carolina. Available via OtisHistorical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SAEmergency Hospital during Influenza Epidemic, September and October 1918. The flu arrived at Camp Jacksonin mid-September, shortly after outbreaks of measles and meningitis. The Base Hospital was soon filled tocapacity, and large areas of the camp had to be turned into an extension of the hospital. Over 5,000 patientswere eventually treated, of whom at least 300 died.
  12. 12. Original caption: ‘Influenza Avenue’. Available via Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health andMedicine as CC-BY-NC-SAEmergency tented accommodation for Spanish Influenza patients at a military hospital in America. From ascrapbook created by Gertrude Smith documenting her service as a nurse from 1918 to 1921 at Camp Mills,Long Island; Camp Pike, Arkansas; Walter Reed; and Camp Eustis, Virginia. Mostly photographs of nurses,hospitals, and patients, including images of the 1918 influenza epidemic.
  13. 13. Original caption: ‘Tent settlement during the influenza epidemic, mess time.’ Available Available via OtisHistorical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SAEmergency tented accommodation for Spanish Influenza patients at a military hospital in America. From ascrapbook created by Gertrude Smith documenting her service as a nurse from 1918 to 1921 at Camp Mills,Long Island; Camp Pike, Arkansas; Walter Reed; and Camp Eustis, Virginia. Mostly photographs of nurses,hospitals, and patients, including images of the 1918 influenza epidemic.
  14. 14. Original caption: U.S. Army Camp Hospital No. 45, Aix-Les-Bains, France, Influenza Ward No. 1. AvailableAvailable via Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SAMen in beds with rudimentary privacy provided by sheets. The scale of the outbreak is apparent from thecloseness of the beds and the numbering of the influenza ward: presumably there were others in the samehospital.
  15. 15. U.S. Army Field Hospital No. 29. Interior view of influenza ward. Hollerich, Luxembourg. 7th December1918. Available Available via Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SANote rudimentary nature of emergency accommodation: men have to sleep on folding camp beds. Patientsand orderly (standing right) are all wearing masks.
  16. 16. Original caption: Second Street Home during the epidemic, nearly one hundred and ten nurses slept in oraround this house.‘ Available Available via Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine asCC-BY-NC-SATemporary nursing accommodation during the Spanish Influenza Epidemic at a military hospital in America.From a scrapbook created by Gertrude Smith documenting her service as a nurse from 1918 to 1921 at CampMills, Long Island; Camp Pike, Arkansas; Walter Reed; and Camp Eustis, Virginia. Mostly photographs of nurses,hospitals, and patients, including images of the 1918 influenza epidemic.
  17. 17. Men wearing masks during the Spanish Influenza epidemic. Available via Library and Archives Canada as CC-BY-NC-SASimple cloth masks soon became compulsory for infected and uninfected alike, though were of doubtfulutility in preventing the spread of the disease. Man on left possibly wearing Canadian Service Dress trousers,so a military group. Photograph taken in 1918.
  18. 18. Red lung pneumonia. Available Available via Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicineas CC-BY-NC-SAMuch of the medical research on the disease was conducted in military hospitals. Painting for study purposes ofthe partially dissected lungs of Pte. H.D. Cauvel, MDBH 76 [Herman Ore Cauvel, Medical Division Base Hospital76], died October 8, 1918 from influenza and pneumonia: ‘the picture shows the red lung type of pneumonia, atype of pneumonia which was peculiar to the pandemic’.Labelled ‘Base Laboratory | Hospital Centre Vichy | A.E.F. [American Expeditionary Force’. Artwork by Lt.William Schwarz of the Army Medical Museum.
  19. 19. ‘Symptomatology of the Influenza Epidemic’. Available Available via Otis Historical Archives National Museumof Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SATabulation of the various influenza symptoms recorded at American army camps in 1918. The most commonwere sudden onset, prostration, high temperature, headache, conjunctivitis, coryza (cold symptoms) andcough.
  20. 20. ‘Influenza Pandemic. Mortality in America and Europe during 1918 and 1919’. Available Available via OtisHistorical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine as CC-BY-NC-SAChart plotting deaths from influenza, expressed as an annual rate per 1000. Statistics gathered from New York,London, Paris, and Berlin.Created 20th August 1919.
  21. 21. Documentary filmWe Heard the Bells. The Influenza of 1918. A Presentation Of The U.S.Department Of Health And Human Services, Centers For Medicare &Medicaid Services. In the public domain.http://archive.org/details/gov.hhs.cms.006719
  22. 22. Personal accounts, documentary filmThe Last Days of Okak. 1985. Produced by the National Film Board of Canada.Available under a custom license.“Only grass-covered ruins remain of the once-thriving town of Okak, an Inuitsettlement on the northern Labrador coast. Moravian missionariesevangelized the coast and encouraged the growth of Inuit settlements, but itwas also a Moravian ship that brought the deadly Spanish influenza duringthe world epidemic of 1919. The Inuit of the area were decimated, and Okakwas abandoned. Through diaries, old photos and interviews with survivors,this film relates the story of the epidemic, with its accompanying horrors, aswell as examining the relations between the natives and the missionairies.”Full record: http://www.onf-nfb.gc.ca/eng/collection/film/?id=16164Available at: http://apsts.alberta.ca/video/watch/2qPkzCS4J78rSRNWJrEQno
  23. 23. Personal account, oral history“Please, Let Me Put Him in a Macaroni Box” The Spanish Influenza of 1918in Philadelphia. Available via OER Commons. Fair use for Educationalpurposes.In 1918 and 1919 the Spanish influenza killed more humans than any otherdisease in a similar period in the history of the world. In the United States aquarter of the population (25 million people or more) contracted the flu;550,000 died. In the early 1980s, when historian Charles Hardy did interviewsfor the Philadelphia radio program “The Influenza Pandemic of 1918,” he wasstruck by the painful memories as many older Philadelphians recalled theinability of the city to care for the dead and dying. In these excerpts fromHardy’s radio program, Clifford Adams, an African American from the South;Anna Lavin, a Jewish immigrant; Anne Van Dyke and Elizabeth Struchesky; andLouise Abruchezze, an Italian immigrant, discussed their shared experience inPhiladelphia—shocked by the scale of the influenza outbreak, none couldfathom the lack of respect shown for those who had died.http://www.oercommons.org/libraries/please-let-me-put-him-in-a-macaroni-box-the-spanish-influenza-of-1918-in-philadelphia
  24. 24. Personal account, oral history“He’ll Come Home in a Box”: The Spanish Influenza of 1918 Comes toMontana. Available via OER Commons. Fair use for Educational purposes.In a 1982 interview with Laurie Mercier, Loretta Jarussi of Bearcreek,Montana, described how people would pass through that tiny townseemingly healthy, only to be reported dead two days later. Her father wentundiagnosed for many weeks and had plans to go to a nearby hot springs torest. She believed that her father’s death was averted only because the son ofthe local doctor was an army doctor who recognized flu symptoms that othersmissed.http://www.oercommons.org/libraries/hell-come-home-in-a-box-the-spanish-influenza-of-1918-comes-to-montana
  25. 25. Personal account, oral history“There Wasn’t a Mine Runnin’ a Lump O’ Coal”: A Kentucky Coal MinerRemembers the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919. Available via OERCommons. Fair use for Educational purposes.Kentucky coal miner Teamus Bartley was interviewed at ninety-five years ofage and vividly recalled the impact of the flu pandemic on his community.With a dearth of healthy laborers, the mines shut down for six weeks in 1918and miners went from digging coal to digging graves.http://www.oercommons.org/libraries/there-wasnt-a-mine-runnin-a-lump-o-coal-a-kentucky-coal-miner-remembers-the-influenza-pandemic-of-1918-1919
  26. 26. Report, 1920[Ministry of Health], Report on the Pandemic of Influenza, 1918-19. Reportson Public Health and Medical Subjects. No. 4 (London: HMSO, 1920).Available via FluWeb Influenza Database as CC BY-NC-SA.A downloadable book from 1920 from the Ministy of Health, London.Individual chapters catalogued and available to download as PDF files.Part I. Deals with Influenza in Great Britain and Ireland, and will be found tobe a contribution of exceptional interest and suggestivenessPart II. Presents an account by the former of the incidence of Influenza inEurope and the Western Hemisphere, and by the latter of its incidence inAustralasia and parts of Africa and Asia.Part III. contains 12 special papers reporting inquiries into different aspects ofInfluenza as it occurred in the UK.http://influenza.sph.unimelb.edu.au/MOH_TOC.php

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