1. How many are state government?2. How many are local government?3. How many are private enterprise?4. How many have a background in GIS?5. How many have an interactive map out right now?
Should be at the 10min mark now (7?)
1. I’m going to ask a lot of questions, going to give my personal answers2. Not the only answers – some of this stuff is rather controversial3. Technology constantly changes, but the bedrock upon which it’s based still remains4. Why talk about principles? a. foundation of everything else b. moving to the digital doesn’t change the spatial relations between elements
1. We’ve been making maps for centuries2. However, “modern” geospatial technologies aren’t that old (less than 75 years or so) a.Selective availability turned off just over 10 years ago b.Census TIGER around 25 years ago c. Google Earth around 6 years old d. Mobile devices and LBS really only in the last 4-5 years or so3. If this is all new to you, don’t worry! It’s all new to EVERYBODY a. “Experts” in this field have been doing this of under 10 years, tops b. Basic principles still are relevant
1. What makes a map a map?2. How do we define a map?3. There are all sorts of types of maps4. Differing opinions of what is a map a. Norman Thrower 1. Geographer at UCLA (retired) 2. "A representation, usually on a plane surface, of all or part of the earth or some other body showing a group of features in terms of their relative size and position.” b. Pickles 1. Geographer at UNC Chapel Hill 2. (paraphrase) maps are a form of symbolization, governed by a set of conventions, that aim to communicate a sense of place. c.About conventions - Michael Peterson, a cartographer and professor of Geography at the University of Nebraska, Omaha -"Most people are essentially map illiterate.“ d.They don’t understand how to decode the ‘conventions’ of a map
1. Our ‘professional’ understanding of a map is often different than our ‘amateur’ understanding of the map2. Most of our first conceptualizations of a map are formed before we were ever experts
1. Abstraction of real world a. Used to symbolize complex information in a succinct way for users b. Brain is the worlds most amazing visual processors to interpret that information 1. Purposefully omits information, and that’s not necessarily a bad thing2. Captures spatial relationships between elements3. A Slice of time4. A form of Geovisualization a. The oldest geoviz b. Other types of geoviz – 3D Models, digital globes, CAVE5. Are maps objective? a. They aren’t b. Represents power relationships c. Made for a reason
1. We either simplify or exaggerate to communicate information – in essence peeling away the ‘unecessary’ and getting at the essence of what we want to represent2. We use symbols to represent complex information a. it’s a way of handling complexity b. think of shop signs before wide spread literacy – used symbols to convey their meaning c. This sign is a beer tavern in Salzburg Germany3.The abstractions have to mean something to our user4.Abstractions can actually hide information – and that’s not necessarily a bad thing!
1. Everything happens somewhere2. We are mostly interested in spatial relationships a. where is stuff on the map? b. How close is it to? How many cafes within walking distance? Where does the water pipe need to run?3. Look at these two images a. The left is the Coliseum in Rome and so is the right b. the left 1. shows your where it’s at 2. shows you what’s around it 3. shows you how far it is from here to there 4. it’s a dot as much as anything c. the right 1. beautiful picture 2. evokes memories of warm evenings 3. lite in such a way as to excite your emotion 4. You can imagine the history that happened here a. hard to do in the left hand picture d. You would never call the picture on the left ‘romantic’… you would the picture on the right4. Most people think about place a. Place is space with meaning b. Things happen somewhere on a map, but the things happening transform a space into a place c. When was the last time you ever heard someone ask, “Where was that space where we caught that huge fish that time?” d. how do we get people, who think about place, to think about space? 1. do we want to?
1. The simple fact of the matter – the only constant is change a. We have a couple of ways of dealing with this 1. Track changes when the happen (what’s different?) 2. Take a snap-shot of ‘now’ b. Keeping track of every element in a system can be daunting c. Snapshots tend to be what we choose2. A snapshot in time representing the point when the data was collecteda. Rarely represents “right now” even though users tend to think it does b. Famous example of MS leaving Apple out of their photos3. We rarely keep old maps around in accessible forms (tend to end up in a drawer or a waste basket) a. We rarely make them available for comparison b. Doubly true with Interactive Mapping4. Applications aren’t normally designed with time in mindGoogle Maps example – when and how often do they update their business data?
1. Using interactive visualization to do analysis2. it’s a subset of scientific visualization3. It’s grown with the increased collection of 3D information4. Allows for the display of complex spatial relationships within the same system5. Very useful to explain complicated phenomena to those who are “map illiterate” to use Peterson’s term5. Flood of Glen Jean example
1. Projections2. Made for a specific purpose that creates issues3. How we choose to represent and present the information impacts the message being received a. there may be a disjoint between what you’re trying to say and what they’re hearing
1. Maps are made by people to communicate information to other people2. They represent spatial and power relationships between map makers and map consumersa.They are a negotiated product between map makers and domain experts – who is allowed to come to the negotiation table is a form of power3. What we as map makers choose to include or choose not to include matters a. People can only act upon the information presented to them b. Map makers package information for consumption4. Different people think about the same space in different ways a. We like to think of ‘objective’ reality, but we have different conceptions of ‘place’ b. The guys at Marshall probably think differently about Morgantown than the people in Morgantown and vice versa5. Trevor’s South Africa Example - Where the men wanted the water wells and where the women wanted the water wells6. Tornado vs. Upper Falls
1. Mark Monmonier – How to Lie With Maps – every map maker should have a copy on their desk and read it once a year2. Think about who or what is or isn’t included in a map and for what purpose the map is created a. Who made it for what? b. Who makes most maps? The government 1. does it represent the people or the people in charge?3. What are you ACTUALLY saying with your map? Is it what you think?4. We tend to assume the map is ‘right’ without question a. False assumption – we KNOW every map is wrong because it has a degree of error b. We need to report out unsure we are5. Privacy and security issues a. Keep reason in the equation b. Have to balance social good with personal impact – try not to err too much in either direction c. how are people going to use your map? Is it what you planned? Are there other uses?d. there is no ‘right’ answer here and you can’t please all the people all the time e. 1996 Orthos example f. Sex Offender killed in Birmingham UK (not too long after google maps app) – citizen protection or vigilante justice?6. Technology doesn’t mitigate or erase the need for ethical presentation on a map
1. Lots of different opinions a. Ask 10 geographers and you’ll get 12 opinions b. My opinion, nothing more2. 4 Major Elements – highly conceptual. You can’t really point them on a map a. Knows it’s audience 1. Knows what they need 2. Knows why they’re likely to be using the map 3. Knows what they’re reasonably capable of bringing to the map b. Knows the information it wants to communicate 1. What pieces add to the information 2. What pieces detract c. Has a focus 1. Cannot be all maps to every map reader 2. Focus should be tempered by what it wants to say to whom d. Presents its information to its audience in an ethical manner 1. Reports known issues (metadata) 2. Includes relevant information 3. Is not clearly counter to the needs of either it’s creators nor it’s audience6. Everything else on a map serves one of these four purposes
1. Talks more about GIS than Interactive mapping, but a lot of the principles are still true2. Participatory3. Why do it? a.Saves Money b.Improves Relationships c.Saves Money d.Improves access by your customers/clients e.Saves Money f. Improves communication between yourself and your clients – you have a better idea of their needs g.Makes more effective planning h.And Most importantly….. SAVES MONEY!
1. We tend to use terms interchangeably, but they really are different things2. Each of these has a fairly distinct definition, but there is a lot of overlap a. Internet mapping – an map over the internet b. Interactive mapping – maps that respond to people’s input c. Internet GIS – I don’t know – I don’t think it exists…. Yet d. Location based services – services that respond to the persons current physical location
1.What we do with GIS – View, Understand, Question, Interpret, Visualize2. What we find – Relationships, Patterns, Trends3. How we do it – Maps, Globes, Reports, Charts4. Very distinct from a map a. Maps communication devices b. However, 80% of what we do with GIS is make a map5. Internet mapping and GIS are related a. Differing opinions 1. Some think internet mapping is a subset of GIS 2. Others think it’s a byproduct 3. Others think it’s a different creature entirely – works in parallel with GIS b. My opinion – worth every nickel you paid 1. It’s all three – it depends on the shop and how the shop places the Internet maps in relation to it’s work 2. I think you can have an Internet map without having a GIS, but it’s easier to make them flow from an existing GIS 3. The key attribute of an Internet map is it boils down the complexity of a GIS
1. Interactive mapping a. Basically any user interface device combined with a sense of spatial location (ie a map) b. Could be stationary like Microsoft’s Surface or could be mobile as in an iPad or other tablet c. Map responds to user’s inputs 1. We define the range of possible interactions, but we have no idea how the user will use the thing2. Internet GIS a.Translating GIS directly to the Internet b. we keep the important bits 1. data handling 2. Analysis 3. Interpretation 4. User definable visualizations c. Doesn’t really exist yet 1. Is this a resource problem (GIS takes a LOT of horsepower to run) and education problem (GIS is an expert system) or a demand problem (doesn’t exist because people don’t need it – desktop GIS works fine)? I don’t know 2. People often say “Internet GIS” when they mean “Internet Map”3. Location Based Services a. Usually tied to mobile devices like cell phones 1. normally needs a location aware device with GPS or cell triangulation 2. could take user input as ‘here’ – don’t normally call that LBS b. Tied to the immediate location and time of the user 1. a “here and now” type of technology 2. Very different from Internet mapping or Internet GIS – can be any place or time 3. Brings all sorts of privacy concerns and issues4. Other related terms – augmented reality, mobile commerce, hyper-local services, location context applications, micro location5. There is a LOT of overlap between the these terms
1. Public doesn’t want to passively consume – they want to interact with their environment2. Multimedia platform integrating a. Web mapping b. Crowd sourcing information c. Open source data3. Power of the Internet as a platform a.Combine experts across disciplines and fields b. Can respond quickly and efficiently c. Don’t need to fly down, say, language experts to a location d. Let people who know what to do get to doing it
1.It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. (Wikipedia)2. Connections are highly variable in quality and reach a. Map here shows a dead zone in Africa b. We have a LOT of dead zones in WV, either by lack of access or by choice (Tony will say more about that)2. The variability impacts what you can and cannot put on your maps a. Issues of access to broadband and/or wireless3. The global connectedness creates unexpected ‘consumers’ of your products a. You don’t know if someone in across the glob is accessing your work and for what purposes b. This is a good and bad thing
1. Network traffic is growing at a phenomenal rate a. 1996 – 45 million worldwide using the Internet b. 2002 – 544 million worldwide, roughly 58% of the total US population using the Internet c. Today – around 77% use the Internet2. Broadband Penetration a. In the US, our broadband penetration is around 44% of the population 1. Among active Internet users to close to 90% 2. As far as the country goes, people on the Internet tend to chose broadband 3. May not be true in all places – like WV b. The US is behind the ball on this 1. We’re ranked 9th in OECD countries for penetration 2. Korea is #1 at 95% (78.6% of those are MOBILE, Not ‘standard’! – tad over 16% are ‘standard’ broadband) 3. Sweden #2 at 75.6 total, 52% standard, 23% mobile 4. US – 23% standard, 7% mobile3. Mobile usage is growing in the US a. Grew over 100% the last three years b. Surveys show over 70% who have mobile Internet access use it
1. Number of devices we have to support growing2. Number of people demanding these services is growing3. Number of “places” where we use this stuff is increasing4. Expectations of what those services can do is growing a. “Why isn’t it in real time?” b. “Why can’t I see this piece of information?” c. “Why doesn’t GPS work inside?”5. Consumers want solutions, not explanations for why it doesn’t work that way6. MS/Apple example7. Email I got this weekend – Error with the Basemap’s river data in Hampshire co a. “Double back” horse-shoe feature isn’t symbolized correctly on our hydrology data b. expect our data to follow the rivers at every scale c. expect we can edit it easy peasy d. Users have no idea what’s possible, what’s difficult, and what’s your responsibility
Should be at 45min mark
1. Good design can be learned2. Two types of design in Internet Mapping a. Digital Cartography b. Software Engineering
1. I’m not an expert a.Real expert is teaching an intro to ArcGIS 10 class right now2. An Amazon search shows almost 800 titles devoted to the subject a.Lots are domain specific (soil mapping, parcel mapping, etc)3. The way humans perceive and organize information doesn’t change in the digital world. a. Eyes still work the same, brain still works the same b. Does open up possibilities that aren’t available on paper maps 1. ability to query the data behind the map 2. ability to include other data, not just the map 3. ability to respond to the users needs4. Interactive maps create some challenges to the map maker a. Have less control over display and presentation b. Have little control over use c. Less control over message
1. Works because our brain is an amazing image processor2. We can distinguish patterns and symbols that no machine can replicate3. We have to use that power in digital cartography a. Understand it’s limitations b. Understand this power isn’t universally standard – some people have issues processing some types of information 1. Classic example, color blind 2. I have trouble with these
Three processes common to all maps:1.Scale – Reduction a. Reducing the information to consumable bites2. Selection – Abstraction a.Abstracting complex phenomena into understandable symbols b. Not always clear the best symbol c. I think this is the hardest part for me3. Symbolization – Presentation a.Presentations serves a purpose – must be clear on that purpose b. The exact same thing can be presented different ways to reach different goals
1. People have a lot of problems with scale – it’s not the most intuitive concept a. How many people confuse “large scale” and “small scale” all the time? – I do! b. what does it mean to zoom ‘in’ or ‘out’? ‘larger’ scale or ‘smaller’ scale? c. how do we expect normal people to get this stuff?
1. The scales we choose influence what we can see or show2. Inverse relationship between scale and abstraction a. As the scale gets greater, the abstraction gets less3. Scale limits what you can communicate a. Choice of primates (point/line/polygon) related to scale b. Choice of symbol can be related to scale4. Scale limits or expands the range of interpretations available a. example of hospital site selection b. at one scale it looks ‘close’, at another it’s pretty far away5. Choice of scale has a huge impact in paper maps because it’s static
1. What to include?2. What to leave out? a. Map maker’s choose this stuff, whether through a conscious or unconscious process3. Commission – is it complete? Is it accurate?4. Omission – what does it leave out that it shouldn’t?
1. What you want to say and to whom you want to say it a.Impacts all elements of cartography b. Central consideration2. Other considerations a. Size important in paper maps, but also important in Internet maps 1. Screen size needs to be considered, particularly when moving from device to device – desktops have different resolutions than smart phones b. Maps often can’t stand alone – they need to be explained within a greater context. In the case of Internet maps, perhaps a larger website?3. Your concept should be the focal point against which each element is evaluated – does it add or detract from the design concept?
1. Map types a. Thematic 1. Specific relationships of a specific concept 2. Focus upon spatial relationships 3. Display them or data attribute b. General reference 1. General relationships 2. Geographic locations of features 3. Display general information2. Purpose – Why do it? a. Convey Information b. Illustrate Ideas c. Helps dictate map design choice3. Audience a. May dictate design elements 1. Again, the color blind example 2. Does your audience have standard symbols that makes sense to them? b. Informs the inclusion and exclusion of data c. Different readers interpret map differently4. Hierarchy a. Directs map focus b. Established through use of labels, color, and symbology c. Can hold additional attribute information5. Color a. Control intensity b. Display differences in values c. Distinguishes between features6. Symbology a. Represents features b. Distinguishes between features 1. Symbol type 2. Qualitative value c. Displays difference of features 1. Size 2. Quantitative value
1. Unresponsive to user interaction vs. responds to user interaction2. Static Scale vs Variable Scale3. Static background vs. Variable background4. Strong time slice vs. ‘weak’ time slice5. Static symbology vs. variable symbology6. Paper vs. electronic a. Can be used in all weather in all situations vs. temperamental to usage7. All the information is visible vs. ‘embedded’ information
1. Highly variable a. User controls the scale b. Producers controls what the range of possible scales might be2. Impacts design choices a. Symbols that make sense at one scale do not at another b. Abstraction becomes variable3. Impacts data choices a. Data is rarely good for showing both small and large scale b. Might require mixing data types to show the same thing4. Standards a.A de facto ‘standard’ is emerging – the Google Standard b. It makes sense to follow that standard to maximize ability to pull in additional data layers from other sources5. You need to test your maps at ALL viewable scales a. Does it make sense? b. Does it communicate what you want it to communicate? c. Can the user get what they need at this scale?
1. Paper maps have a limited audience – can only get it in the hands of so many people a. Interactive maps can be seen by anyone in the world with Internet access 1. Can be exciting because it helps get your message out 2. Can be intimidating b. You loose control of your audience 1. Without security measures, you have limited say who sees your map 2. You have limited say on why they’re using your map 3.A environmental protection group could use your map just as easily as an industrial polluter, often for competing uses. a. Either way, they’re calling you for help2. Need to design with this in mind a. Different audiences have different education, technical, domain, and motivational levels. b. Need to have a clear understanding of YOUR intended audience and THEIR needs tempered by THEIR limitations 1. If you hear or say in a meeting, “It’s for everyone”, you’re probably doing it wrong! 2. The Mother Test – “Could My Mother Use it?” a. not always the most appropriate test b. if you’re designing a map for experts in carbon sequestration, if your mom isn’t an energy expert, don’t ask the question 3. Remember – domain expertise does NOT mean Internet mapping expertise – just because they smart enough to calculate the change in airspeed velocity of an unladen European swallow if you change their diet, doesn’t mean they know to double-click the map to zoom 3. Without a clear set of goals for the map, you won’t service anyone
1. Color pallets change depending upon medium a. Print is capable of so many more colors b. Web-safe colors are significantly limited c. Monitors are better than they were, but they’re still limited 1. Most modern computers and monitors can do a larger range of colors, but not as large as print 2. Different browsers and different video cards represent colors differently a. How it looks on one machine is not necessarily how it will look on another b. Test your applications for color across a range of browsers and computers c. Accept “perfection” is impossible – there’s nothing wrong with excellent d. Mobile devices create a whole new range of complications2. Worth learning color theory a. sub-discipline in it’s own right – I’m SOOOO not the guy to teach that3. Some basics of color theory are exasperated in digital form a. Yellow on a white background is a bad idea in print – it’s an astoundingly horrid idea in digital 1. Contrasting colors are critical 2. More important as your users age b. The variability of backgrounds means that colors choices become exceptionally difficult 1. Check each color choice against each background 2. You may find that sometimes you have to make a bad color choice because it’s the least bad color choice4. Brief note about resolution a. Paper maps have a static size once they’re printed b. Interactive maps can be see on a variety of devices at a variety of resolutions 1. If you view a map at a lower resolution than developed, it will be difficult to use c. The only effective technique is to segment your presentations 1. Two segments a. Make a set for desktops/laptops b. Make a second set for smaller mobile devicesd. Chose a resolution that covers the majority of users so as to minimize the exclusion of users 1. Normally this means we pick the ‘lowest common denominator’ and program for that a. Currently, the Lowest common denominator for computers is 1024x768 b. We care about width, not height c. If we make our maps too wide, we have horizontal scroll bars, which surveys show people HATE 1. It’ll drive away traffic d. Vertical scroll bars are to be expected 2. The first number in a resolution is width, the second is height (in pixels)a. 1024 is your width – leave 15-20 pixels for a horizontal scroll bar – should shoot for 1000 pixels wideb. If you want to cover tablets, shoot for 950 pixels widee. This de facto standard is evolving – in 3 years, it’s likely to be 1280x1024 – some shops have already moved to that ‘standard’ 1. Older machines tend to use lower resolutions 2. WV tends to have slightly older machines because of our demographics 3. To keep it fun, tablets often have a slightly odd resolution, so it’s kinda turning back
1. Legend a. Can turn it on or off b. Can turn individual layers on or off – never possible with a paper product c. Can have multiple legends (backgrounds vs Map Layers)2. Navigation a.Zoom in or out b. Can return to ‘world’ view c. Can retain the next and previous ‘views’3. Scale is much less dominate – because it’s variable4. Attribution information is in the legend, not at the bottom a. Often because there’s just so many pieces of information to attribute5. Interaction done by click on the map a. how do I know that? - Little text clue on the screen b. done because of user feedback – not my choice and I fought against putting it there. I thought it was a stupid idea and screwed up our design (I was flat out wrong)6. Can embed multiple maps in the interface itself a. Clicking on the buttons up above changes the ‘theme’ of the map – really a whole new application each button press b. Changes everything about the map 1. New legend 2. New interactivity 3. New cartography
1. Interaction2. Note the highlighted unit on which I actually did my query a.Looking at the original map, you might expect the dots to be the point of interaction 1. It isn’t always clear to the user what you wish them to query3. Complex information contained within a small area a. Textual reporting of information b. Graphical reporting c. Multiple tabs indicate multiple points of data or information d. You can embed interactivity within this query box – more complex, but more variety
1. Context2. A paper map presents its entire context to you a. There no additional spatial information to present – it’s all there3. Interactive maps allow you to drill down, move back up, pan north, south, east, or west a. Very easy to get lost, especially for the interactive map illterate4. Interactive maps should provide a sense of context within the greater map a. I know where I am relative to the ‘world’ because a smaller map helps me find my location b. Smaller maps aren’t the only mechanism to use 1. The ability to zoom to a specific location, such as county, city, quad, or even lat/long allows me to know where I’m at 2. The zoom bar features tick marks to let me know if I’m closer to the ‘bottom’ or closer to the ‘top’ of the map5. Interactive maps should always provide a sense of context, even if it’s textual a. Pick the zoom mechanisms that make sense to the scale range in which you’re working and the expected knowledge level of your users b. If they don’t know what a quad is, don’t give them the ability to zoom to a quad6. Need a way to reset the view a. map makers would say something like ‘full extent’ b. Normal people would call it a reset or ‘do over’ button c. Should always provide a way to get back to the rest state – an ‘out’ for your user, otherwise they’ll use the ‘out’ of closing your application and walking away7. Context also means the greater context a. The map is probably a component of something larger – need to communicate the ‘larger’ b. How to do this? 1. splash pages 2. links to other agencies/partners 3. About sections
1. Searching and retrieval a. Connects to your store of information – usually some form of database b. The user can potentially interact with hundreds of features at once 1. In this example, we have over 700 features returned from our search2. Should impact cartographic display a. Note the features inside the search and those outside the search b. Creates more cartographic headaches because symbols don’t have just one color, now they need two! 1. Have to compare all those to backgrounds and other features potentially on the map 2. If you’ve created the convention that red means city/town, can you make ‘selected’ features red? 3. Normally fix this problem with different symbols or vastly different colors3. Types of searches a. Spatial search like this one b. Textual search 1. Type in the name or the value of an attribute in your data and get the information backc. Consider what you’re going to search and how you’re going to search it – competing systems can get confusing4. How are you going to deal with multiple bits of information returned? a. Do we search EVERY layer in the map? 1. In this case there is only one layer, but in the Natcarb case, there is over a dozen b. Do we search only one layer on the map? 1. How does the user know what layer to use? c. We’ve solved these problems in GIS, but most users aren’t GIS users 1. They don’t know the conventions or the vocabulary of the GIS 2. Either have to train them or find another way
1. The ability to embed and search for information is powerful, but needs to be designed, NOT treated as an afterthought! a. Embedded information can be the simple value of an attribute or it can be the results from a search b. Displaying that information can become quit complex – consider what you want to display and how it will be displayed from the beginning of the project.2. Your map is a time slice, even if it’s updated on a “regular” basis a. Updates should be planned, preferably on a predictable basis (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly) 1. The choice of schedule should be taken considering what you can reasonably do AND what your user needs. b. Need to indicate to your user the timescale/factor of your information – their expectation is “right now” unless specified otherwise c. Industry dirty secret – most interactive maps don’t do this correctly, if at all (finger wag)3. Metadata a. Everyone hates it, but everyone needs it b. It should be FGDC compliant metadata in a perfect world 1. However SOMETHING is preferable to NOTHING c. You know your information is inaccurate, metadata helps document that d. Industry dirty secret 2 – the pros don’t do this as much as they should (finger wag 2)
1. Own Sub-discipline2. Purpose – Create systems that are: a. Higher quality b. More affordable c. Maintainable d. Faster to build3. Can use some principles in Internet mapping a. It’s about managing complexity – maps are exceedingly complex 1. Break things down into their component parts and work on each individually 2. It can span multiple technologies and often involves multiple sub-disciplines 3. Let the experts do the parts on which they’re experts b. Deals with the software lifecycle 1. We don’t think about the ‘life’ of maps in the geospatial industry a. We make a map and stick it on a wall or in a drawer and we’re done 2. Products have an inception, development, deployment, maintenance, and sunset phase a. Each phase requires different skills and different approaches c. Document, Document, Document 1. Easy to change things on paper, hard to change them later 2. Critical when going back months later to see what you did or didn’t do d. Iterative process and refactoring process 1. We take what we learn in one process and use it to reexamine all our other processes. 2. You’re all ways learning as you go, even if you’ve done this 1,000 times
1. Planning a. Forms the bedrock for EVERY other stage b. Need to answer certain questions 1. What am I trying to communicate? 2. What am I specifically trying to NOT communicate? 3. To whom am I trying to communicate this information? 4. To whom am I NOT trying to communicate this information?2. Requirements Analysis a. Considered in light of the answers under the planning stage b. Couple of principles 1. There is NO SUCH THING as a “too detailed” requirements analysis 2. Recognize this won’t be completed in this stage – each stage will show things you missed 3. However, that is no excuse for not getting as much as you can now 4. General rule of thumb – every hour spent on this stage will save your 5 later c. Document the pieces needed to communicate your information 1. Detail exactly what pieces are needed to make your message 2. Detail exactly who is your target audience(s) a. Detail exactly the attributes of your target audience b. Do the same for any audiences you expressly don’t want to target d. Single most important stage e. Lots of outside reading available on this stage – do some homework, it pays!3. Design & Development a. Steps to take 1. Assemble your whole team 2. Find an empty room, and empty whiteboard, and an empty afternoon 3. Take all ideas and put them on the table – see what sticks b. Requires multiple sessions to get it done – true of every project 1. Don’t throw away ANY ideas – they have a nasty way of coming back later and being put to good use c. Critical question – does this design idea help communicate what I want to say to the people I want to get my message 1. If it doesn’t, then it shouldn’t be in the design d. Insider tip – steal liberally from stuff you see online you like 1. Everyone does it4. Implementation a. Fairly self explanatory b. Keep in mind the implementation phase will show problems you didn’t adequately address in the requirements analysis and the design phases c. That’s ok, just go back and work on them again5. Testing a. Mandatory – ALWAYS leave room for this phase b. It will probably make you go all the way back to at requirements… and that’s ok! You’re making it better and that’s what testing is for6. Evaluation a. Ideally, find real users and ask them to use the system 1. DO NOT lead them or give them hints! 2. DO NOT answer their questions about, “How do I?” a. Everyone of these questions is something you didn’t do well enough – go back to the whiteboard! b. Industry dirty secret – this step is skipped much more than any other7. Release a. You’re not done yet and don’t sell your whiteboard b. no amount of testing can replicate lots of users, and even people you didn’t think of as a ‘user’ c. Keep good notes – decide whether to change it now or put it in the ‘next release’8. Support a. Systems don’t keep running on their own – just like a car b. Often we fail to plan for support and ongoing life of the application – don’t be that person
1. Guess what? This is ALSO another sub-discipline…. Somewhat I Computer science, but not entirely2. Good interface design is hard, but it isn’t impossible3. The trick is to follow good processes a. Requirements design – already talked about that – stress its easy to change on paper, harder to change later b. User analysis – “analysis of the potential users of the system either through discussion with people who work with the users and/or the potential users themselves.” (Wikipedia) 1. What would the user want the system to do? 2. How does it fit in with their existing workflow? 3. What parts of their workflow would be replaced by this product? 4. What parts would be made harder because of this product? 5. What does the user currently use? Can we make it similar to ease transition? 6. What’s the technical expertise of the user? 7. Arguably the single most important piece in the whole process of interface design 8. Industry dirty secret 3 – we don’t tend to do this 1. we think we know what the user needs/wants already 2. Most of the time, we’re probably wrong9. Luckily, we tend to have users that will adapt to what we tell them 1. How many Arc users have asked, “Why does it ____?” and the answer is “Because that’s how Arc does it” c. Information Architecture 1. Peter Morville and Louis Rosenfield – in it’s third edition around $25 on Amazon – worthwhile read 2. Definition a. Structural design of shard information environments b. In other words, how do all the little pools of information in a system talk back and forth? c. The art and science of organizing elements to support findability and usability 3. Findability – the ability to find information within a system once you’re there 4. Usability – the degree of difficutly in learning to use a system d. Prototyping 1. Creating a ‘mock-up’ of the system 2. Strip away all the polish and glam and focus upon the central elements within the system and how the user interacts with those elements 3. Graphic design issues don’t’ matter in prototyping – that’s critical, but a later stage 4. Shouldn’t really do much at this stage, otherwise you’re wasting development time 5. Who’s to say a feature will make it past the usability testing? 6. Industry dirty secret 4 – we tend to do this later in the process than before, which is bad e. Usability testing 1. Does your design ‘work’ for users? 2. You want your users to give brutal feedback f. Graphic interface design 1. Once we have the elements, now we need to make them attractive and organized4. Critical principle – more isn’t always better a. Infinite capability leads to infinite confusion b. Look at two of the most successful tech companies in the world – simple is better than complex in interface design
1. The materials you can get your hands on for use2. Include a. Hardware, Software, Data, Personnel3. Like natural resources, each of those is finite and exhaustible a. You need to know the capabilities and limitations of each – has a serious impact on what you chose to do and how you chose to do it
1. Lots of options – venders can tell you more than I could hope to tell2. Few criticalprinciples a. Your hardware won’t last as long as the items in this picture 1. If you get 5 years out of a hardware investment, you’re doing pretty good 2. 3 years is a much closer estimate b. You should start planning your next hardware purchase RIGHT after your current one 1. You should have an idea of the cost 2. Prices tend to remain oddly static – you just get more for your money at the price point c. You can make it last longer by paying a little more upfront 1. Don’t buy for what you need today, buy for what you need tomorrow, but don’t worry about the day after 2. Seriously consider paying for maintenance a. Your hardware WILL fail. The question is when? b. Compare the cost of being off line to the cost of the maintenance d. Your ideal situation – three versions of your hardware 1. Production version – you never, ever mess with it until you have to a. When it’s down, your customers can’t get to your systems b. Plan updates to this system and announce downtimes 2. Testing environment a. Should be 100% identical to your production environment b. If it works in testing, it should work in production c. Obviously not a guarantee, but it limits the possibility for error 3. Development environment a. Where you do all your development b. Can spend most of the time broken because you’re developing the thing c. Ideally exactly like your production and testing environments, but often isn’te. I’d like another car in my driveway in case my car breaks down 1. My bank account doesn’t afford me that ability – sometimes you have to make compromises 2. If you have to compromise, compromise in this order a. Make a production/testing/development split, but use “lesser” hardware as you move down b. Drop off the development tier – push it to a desktop machine somewhere
1.It’s the 800lb gorilla in the room2. Two points of concern a. Yours b. Theirs3. Both are essentially unchangeable a. You need the bandwidth to service all your customers 1. You become a victim of success – the more people use your application, the more bandwidth you need 2. Have to be concerned with peak usage, not average 3. If people can’t get to your site, they won’t try again b. Your customers aren’t likely to upgrade their bandwidth anytime soon 1. Internet mapping pretty much requires broadband 2. Definition of broadband is inadequate a. It’s the FCC’s b. It’s a fair definition, but it lags behind worldwide trends c. Broadband nationwide is on the upswing 1. Exceptions 1. Rural areas tend to have much lower adoption rates 2. Economically disadvantaged tend to have lower broadband adoption rates 3. Older people tend to have lower broadband adoption rates 2. Bad news - West Virginia is dominated by economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas 3. Good news – Doesn’t mean the broadband adoption isn’t rising, just at a slower rate d. Network connection is radically different today than it was even 3 years ago 1. Constantly in flux4. Broadband isn’t the only way to access your information – Don’t forget mobile! a. Has its own issues 1. Bandwidth caps 2. Network availability 3. Relatively expensive hardware (cheap phones are everywhere, not so much smart phones) b. Growing in popularity, especially among the younger crowd5. Bandwidth take away – it’s normally a limitation, but shouldn’t’ be considered a crippling one
1. Laws a. Moore’s Law – The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. b. Kryder’s Law - hard disk storage cost per unit of information. c. The Great Moore’s Law Compensator Principle – the bloat of software will offset any gains offered by Moore’s law2. Hardware is becoming faster, bigger, and cheaper – but software is becoming more and more complex a. You can’t buy ‘too much hardware’ – demand will grow to fit the available hardware b. Somebody will find a use for your ‘excess’ hardware and it will become full again
1. You live and die by your backups a. Tech Center backup story2. You can’t have too many backups3. Schedule your backups – daily/weekly/quarterly/yearly – probably all of the above4. Keep versions a. Errors can be propagated down and sometimes aren’t caught right away5. Offsite backups are critical a. To quote my Dad, “Hope for the best, plan for the worst” (my salute for the upcoming father’s day) b. Have to decide if your offsite backup is active or passive 1. Active means you can turn your applications over to the site – they’re fully functioning 2. Passive backup are normally on a bunch of hard drives c. Automated systems, Cloud solutions, Amazon S3, etc
1. It’s rare you’ll find a product that does exactly what you want to do a.At the least, you’ll want to add your own data, logos, pictures, metadata,etc2. Have to develop the final product, including building modules 3. Normally this requires getting a bit knee deep in programming code a. Not for everyone b. However, it is do-able and the skills can be developed 1. Don’t be afraid of it, but know your interests and limitations4. Two approaches to take a. Contract out to do the work 1. Examples a. ESRI has a services division for this type of thing b. The WV GIS Technical Center and RTI have each done this sort of work c.Kimbal, MountainCAD, Baker Engineering 2. Benefits a. Tend to develop applications faster than you because this is what they do all day, everyday b. Problems are on phone call away during maintenance period c. Can be ‘turn key’ to you d. Hand over your data, hand over a funding stream, wait for the product to come back working 3. Drawbacks a. You probably won’t own the code of your own application 1. Developers tend to reuse code, not that it’s a bad thing 2. You can’t reuse the code for subsequent apps b. Your contract ends at some point 4. Contractors often don’t have the domain knowledge you do a. They don’t know your needs as well as you dob. Some suggestions if you go this route 1. Ask for examples and/or samples of the work – you want an idea of the type of product you’re likely to get a. Play around with their samples – see what works and what doesn’t 2. Work with them to develop a firm statement of work a. Need to be very clear what the vendor will and won’t do b. Agree upon reasonable timeframes 1. Most clients (ie you) want the work done yesterday 2. Contractors need due dates and milestones to hit – hold them to it unless there’s a firm reason to do otherwise! 3.Plan for maintenance and support after the application is complete 4. Ask what happens if you call after the contract period with a problem c. Remember – most (if not all) vendors want your product to succeed as much as you do!b. Develop the application yourself 1. Benefits a. You own the code and you know where the problems might lie b. You can re-use the code in other projects c. Not limited to a statement of work – if there is enhancements or alterations that make sense, you can go ahead and do it d. You know what you need better than anyone else 2. Drawbacks 1. You need your own team, who may or may not have the skills needed out of the gate a. You know your domain, but not all the necessary sub-disciplines mentioned earlier 2. You team probably doesn’t ‘scale’ a. if more developers are needed, a contractor can normally engage more resources as needed b. You don’t normally have this liberty 3. There’s no number to call when there’s a problem
A successful development team needs the following Project Manager Application Developer Graphic Designer User Interface Designer System Administrator GIS Analyst Data Administrator Cartographer Domain expertThose are the roles – ideally you’d have two or three of several of these to maximize output Is there anyone here who’s shop has a different person for each of those roles?
We all have to wear different hats A lot of them don’t fit very well and aren’t comfortable In some shops, you have to wear all the hatsEach role need to be filled by somebody If you leave out a role, you run the risk of missing an important component of your applicationNobody can do everything The range of skills are just too great for any one person to do every task well Either you do each task poorly, or a few tasks reasonably well The paradox of application development for most shops you don’t have the adequate personnel to do all the functions you need There is no easy solution for this, only coping mechanisms You need to take an honest look at yourself and your team and figure out what you do well and what you don’t Find other resources to fit the holes – contractors, volunteers, existing systems you can utilize, hire where you can
1. Not going to go into much depth here2. URISA course on this – highly recommend you take it3. Often times it’s about managing disagreements4. People get passionate about their work a. good thing – you want them to care about what they do b. can create conflict5. part of your job is to keep the goals (and other parameters) in mind
1. Roughly speaking, there are two types of data on each Interactive map a. Domain data b. Everything else2. Domain data a. Should be your area expertise! 1. You’ll know the limitations 2. You’ll know how people are currently consuming the data b. That should give you a ‘leg up’ on symbology, color, hierarchy, etc c. It should be the focal point of your application 1. It’s probably what you want to communicate to your user d. How do you publish and consume that data? e. Questions to consider in publishing information 1. For consumption in this one application, or future ones? 2. Can anyone access your data? Read, write, or update? 3. Does your data need to be secure? 4. Can other people use your data for their own applications? f. Answers to these questions impact a lot about your system 1. Can impact choice of platform - Most platforms are versatile, but some are better than others at certain functions 2. Can impact skills needed - Updating of data might need, say, a database administrator 3. Can impact hardware - Bandwidth is less important if few, secure users g. Data publication takes resources - Partners can help
Other data used to support your messageTypically either 1. Background layers 2. Reference layersThere are hundreds of datasets freely available for use online in both categories
Open street maps – powerful source of dataCrowd SourceMashup of various data increasingly importantNobody can publish all the data – need to get it where you canLet the stewards of the data – who know the data best – publish the data
1. Crowed sourcing a. Don’t fear it 1. Local knowledge can be the best knowledge 2. The trick is how to capture it? b. Most governmental agencies know they want to do something with it, but they’re scared of it c. Biggest problems 1. Accuracy 2. Validity
Usually ignored, very important
Should be 120 min mark
Intro to Internet Mapping (epan 2011)
Internet Mapping Overview<br />What you need to know to get started<br />
Course Overview and Objectives<br />Get an overview of Internet Mapping<br />Discuss the basic principles for Internet Mapping<br />Discuss how to make effective Internet Maps<br />Discuss the pitfalls to avoid<br />
Target Audience<br />Anyone new to Internet Mapping<br />Limited experience<br />Non-technical<br />Wanting to move your organization toward Internet Mapping<br />Looking for “Step 1”<br />Almost an “Internet Mapping for Idiots” course<br />No Technical Skills necessary! (at least not for the seminar )<br />
About Me<br />Education: <br />Political Science<br />Computer Science<br />Geography<br />Background<br />Techno-centric upbringing<br />Gadget junkie<br />If it has a blinking light, I want it!<br />Experience<br />15 years in Software Development<br />11 years at the WV GIS Technical Center<br />8 years (ish) doing Internet Mapping<br />6 years covering the geospatial industry<br />VerySpatial – Blog and Podcast (http://veryspatial.com/)<br />Still don’t know what I’m doing at least half the time!<br />
What Do We Think About When We Think of Maps?<br />Lines, shapes, polygons<br />Places<br />Getting from here to there<br />Folding it wrong<br />Where’d it go?<br />Where am I at on the map?<br />Nice for decoration!<br />Pays the rent<br />
Some Aspects of a Map<br />Abstractions<br />Spatial Relationships<br />Time Slice<br />Geovisualization<br />Objective?<br />Bluefield, WV USGS Topographic Map<br />Downloaded 6/2011<br />
The Objectivity of the Map<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8zBC2dvERM<br /> West Wing – Season 2, Episode 16 (3:49)<br />
Maps are Socially Constructed<br />Participatory GIS in action, Trevor Harris and Dan Weiner<br />
Maps and ethics<br />“The map is the perfect symbol of the state.”<br />“Maps can even make nuclear war appear survivable.”<br />“People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority.”<br />“Like guns and crosses, maps can be good or bad, depending on who’s holding them, who they’re aimed at, how they’re used, and why.”<br />“As display systems become more flexible, and more like video games, users must be wary that maps, however realistic, are merely representations, vulnerable to bias in both what they show and what they ignore.”<br />
What Makes a Good Map?<br />Seven Summits of the World<br />http://www.touchthetop.com/education/seven-summits/<br />
A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.(GIS.com)<br />Is Internet Mapping GIS?<br />Andrew Turner’s Thoughts - the claim that a web map is GIS is similar to saying that a light switch is Electrical Engineering. Engineering was used in the design and development of the house electrical system and grid. But in the end, the light switch has become a commodity. It’s a device anyone can grab off of a local hardware store shelf and install in their house.<br />What is GIS?<br />
Related Terms/Concepts<br />Interactive mapping<br />Internet GIS<br />Location Based Services<br />
A Funny Thing About Scale<br />Big Trains Little Trains(2:40)<br />
SCALE<br />Ordnance Survey 25 inches to the mile (1:2534) <br />Ordnance Survey 6 inches to the mile (1:10560) <br />Ordnance Survey 5 feet to the mile (1:1056) <br />Ordnance Survey 1 inch to the mile.(1:63360) <br />Ordnance Survey 1/4 inch to the mile.(1:253440) <br />World 1:1000000 <br />
SELECTION <br />What to include<br />What to leave out<br />Conscious decisions<br />Unconscious decisions<br />Commission<br />Omission<br />
Symbolization: Some Important Map Elements <br />Title & subtitle <br />Legend<br />Example of RULES: For choropleth maps, do not have overlapping values. For classification of interval/ratio data, leave no gaps between boxes, for nominal variables, leave gaps.<br />Sources/Credits <br />Scale <br />Direction<br />Coordinate system<br />including grid reference <br />Graphic Primitives:<br />margins / frame lines, logos <br />Insets <br />Typography<br />Symbology<br />E.g for choropleth maps - increasing darkness (decreasing color value) with increasing numeric value<br />
The Parts of a Map: Map Elements<br />Border<br />Title<br />Neat line<br />The United States ofAmerica<br />Figure<br />Legend<br />Scale<br />Ground<br />Washington,D.C.<br />National Capital<br />Alaska<br />0<br />4<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />Hawaii<br />hundreds of<br />kilometers<br />0<br />4<br />Lambert Conformal Conic Projection<br />0<br />4<br />Source: U.S. Dept. of State<br />Credits<br />Place name<br />Inset<br />North Arrow<br />
Important Map Elements<br /> Do not consider the preceding as a checklist for what must be on a map, but as a checklist for what to consider.<br />A part of the selection decisions process<br /> There may be other items to consider…<br />
Communication Concepts<br />Readers’ "flow" through the map consideration of purpose & audience<br />figure to ground <br />clarity & legibility (e.g. consider size of text and other symbols for size of map output)<br />Other considerations <br />page size<br />explanatory text<br />DESIGN CONCEPT – clearly understood and to the front of the mind<br />
Digital Cartography and Interactive Maps<br />San Diego Fire Map<br />http://www.bradslavin.com/2007/10/23/zoomable-google-map-for-san-diego-fires/<br />San Diego Paper Map<br />http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/north-america/usa/san-diego/<br />
Other Cartographic/Design Considerations<br />Embedded and Searchable information<br />Information timeliness<br />Metadata<br />
Software Design<br />It’s own sub-discipline within Computer Science<br />Can take some principles for Internet Mapping<br />About managing complexity<br />Software lifecycle<br />Document, Document, Document<br />Iterative process and refactoring process<br />