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Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
Wt4603 unit7 week8
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Wt4603 unit7 week8

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Unit 7 Week 8 Lecture Notes

Unit 7 Week 8 Lecture Notes

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  • 1. WT4603 Wood Processing Safety & Practice Lecture Unit 7 (Week 8)  BANDSAW & ROUTERS  Lecturer: Mr. Joseph Lyster  joseph.lyster@ul.ie  Notes prepared by: Mr. Donal Canty, Mr. Des Kelly and Mr. Joseph Lyster  Notes available on www.slideshare.net/WT4603
  • 2. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 3. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 4. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
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  • 8. WT4603 Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
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  • 31. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Hand Router Consists of cutter rotating at between 800 to 30,000 RPM being driven by a vertically mounted motor set on a flat based framework
  • 32. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Hand Router
  • 33. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 • Cutting grooves • Cutting rebates • Cutting slots and recesses • Cutting beads or mouldings • Cutting dovetails • Cutting dovetailed slots and grooves • Edge trimming • Profiling (jigs/formers) Hand Router
  • 34. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 • Large powerful routers are heavy and can be difficult to handle for light work. • Generally in schools the type of work that the router will have to perform will be light to medium work. • As a rough guide to classifying routers:  400 W to 600W are for light duty  750 W to 1200W are for medium duty  1250 W upwards are for heavy duty Hand Router: Power
  • 35. Speed Machine speed can range from about 800 to 30000 rpm. Nearly all modern routers have variable speed motors, the setting is by a simple numbered knob showing up to 5 or 6 positions. The required speed will depend upon the size of cutter being used and the material being cut. The appropriate speed setting for any combination will need to be determined by trial and error/experience. The variable speed control should not be in a position where it could inadvertently be changed while routing. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 36. Hand Router • Router cutter (bit) is fitted to a collet on the lower end of the motor • It is a direct drive system • Motor sizes can vary from ½ horse power to 3½ horse power • The bigger the motor the heavier the router • Cutter profile will often determine the size of the motor required for the job Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 37. Hand Router Collet • Simple but accurate chuck • Attached directly to the bottom of the motor armature • Collet holds the bit so that the motor can make it spin • Two most common size collet are 6mm and 12mm • 12mm collet will hold a bit with a 12mm shank which is stronger than the 6mm Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 38. Hand Router • The base of the router is what holds the motor in position in relation to the work • It usually incorporates two operating handles • Handles used to control the machine • Can be used to lock/release depth plunge • Can contain on off switch • Base plate of the router is a plastic sole on the bottom of the base • Reduces frictional contact with material Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 39. Hand Router Motors rated on their horse power Will also have an amperage rating • Determines the maximum amount of current the motor can draw in continuous use without overheating and burning out • Routers may have the same horsepower rating and different amperage rating e.g. 1 ½ hp drawing 8 amps 1 ½ hp drawing 10 amps Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 40. Hand Router • Router motor is of the universal brush type which is primarily used for intermittent, variable speed operations • Induction motors (brushless) are primarily used for long term fixed speed operations such as the circular saw etc. • This is the reason why a 1 ½ hp router motor is much smaller than a 1 ½ hp circular saw motor Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 41. Cutter Speed The router is a high speed cutting machine • Generally it is taken that the higher the speed the smoother the cut • However if the cutter diameter is increased the peripheral cutter speed increases which can make the machine hard to control and prone to damaging the material • Can also lead to burning of the wood and blunting of the cutting edge Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 42. Collet • Like a drill chuck it is designed to hold a round shank bit • The collet makes almost full contact with the cutter shank unlike the three fingered shank of the drill chuck • Router bit shanks must be sized to match the inside diameter of the collet • Collet must hold cutter while revolving at high speed • Must also be able to resist side loading Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 43. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Collet
  • 44. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Collet A tapered sleeve that is made in a number of segments that is used to hold the shaft of a cutter or bit.
  • 45. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 • Collet needs to be cleaned regularly • Must prevent rust • Must prevent wear • Can clean with solvents but must spray with WD40 afterwards
  • 46. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Cutters (Router bits)• Two types of cutter • High Speed Steel (HSS) • Tungsten Carbide Tipped (TCT) • HSS work well on softwood because of their keen edge but will blunt quickly • TCT cutters perform much better than HSS on hardwoods and MDF • Cutters should be cleaned regularly with white spirit and fine scraper to remove dirt, resin and debris. • Cutters should also be inspected for damage prior to operating.
  • 47. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 A router bit is a tool for woodworking giving a quality finish to the material. It cuts wood providing a way to give a clean and even a decorative edge to woodwork. The following is some basic information about router bits to get you started in your woodworking efforts. Here are the there main parts of a router bit: 1. The shank- the part of the router bit that is inserted into the collet (the sleeve of the router). 2. The cutting edge- this part cuts and removes the wood. They are available in several sizes and shapes. 3. The pilot- the guide for the router in order to make a correct cut. It can be an extension of the shank or a ball bearing attachment. Cutters (Router bits)
  • 48. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Cutters (Router bits) Cutters can have disposable or interchangeable profiles.
  • 49. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Cutters (Router bits) Cutter diameter will have a direct effect on the power required form the router motor.
  • 50. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Cutter selection & feed direction
  • 51. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Feed direction • If you feed a router into a piece of material without using a guide fence or bearing guide you will find that the router will pull to one side. • If you push the router into the material from position (A), the router will pull to your left. • If you pull the router into the material toward you from position (B), the router will pull to your right. • This occurs as the cutter will climb on the material in front of the cutting edge. • This motion must be utilised when using guide fences.
  • 52. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Feed direction & the fence To process a straight housing or trench you can use a straight edge guide (A) or the guide fence that is supplied with the router(B).
  • 53. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Feed direction & the fence • In the photo the fence is securely clamped in position. • The router is being fed in the direction (F). • The router will try to pull to the operators left hand side. • With the fence clamped on the left of the router, the router will push against it as it is fed into the material.(Green arrows) • If the fence were on the right hand side (when viewed from the operators position) of the router, it would pull away from the fence and result in the trench being crocked. F
  • 54. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Feed direction & the fence • The groove is produced as the router is moved forward. • Local extraction will remove the bulk of the dust produced. • Some may be blown back in the direction of the operator.( ) • A suitable lab coat will protect the operators clothing. • Appropriate dust mask should be used. • Feeding the router in the opposite direction will cause any dust to be blown away from the operator. • This will require the guide fence to be set up on the right hand side of the router and operator. F
  • 55. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Guide fence Guide fence fixed to the router. Can be fixed from either side.
  • 56. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Using the guide fence F P When feeding the router forward (F) the router will tend to pull to the operators left hand side. The fence should be set on the right hand side of the router. When the cutter engages in the material it will pull to the left as indicated by the green arrow (P) and keep the fence tight against the materials edge. Material should be securely calmped or placed on a non-slip router mat.
  • 57. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Using the guide fence • Procedure • Select appropriate PPE • Set guide fence. • Set plunge depth. • Set depth turret if multi pass is required. • Safely secure work piece. • Place at starting position. • Start router. • Plunge to depth. • Feed into the work.
  • 58. Using the guide fence F P When feeding the router forward (F) the router will tend to pull to the operators left hand side. The fence should be set on the right hand side of the router. When the cutter engages in the material it will pull to the left as indicated by the green arrow (P) and keep the fence tight against the materials edge. Material should be securely calmped or placed on a non-slip router mat. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 59. Using the guide fence • Procedure • Select appropriate PPE • Set guide fence. • Set plunge depth. • Set depth turret if multi pass is required. • Safely secure workpiece. • Place at starting position. • Start router. • Plunge to depth. • Feed into the work. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 60. Using the guide fence Groove parallel to the material edge Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 61. Feed direction 1. Bearing guided cutters 2. Template guide Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 62. Bearing guided cutters F • The arrow shows the direction of the feed for routing a profile on the edge of a piece of material using a bearing guided cutter. • Material should be securely clamped or placed on a non-slip mat. • The bearing will follow the profile of the edge of the material. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 63. Bearing guided cutters • When viewed from above the feed direction for processing a moulding on the outside of a component will be in an anti-clockwise direction. • Care needs to be taken when rolling around the corners or coming to the end of a straight as the router plate may not have as much support from the material underneath. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 64. Feed direction • Feed direction is critical to the machining process. • The cutter rotation will be in a clockwise direction. • To establish the correct feed direction use the right hand rule shown in the photo. • Place the thumb of the right hand against the edge to be processed. • The back of your hand must be facing upwards. • Extend the index finger as shown. • This finger will point in the direction that you should feed the router. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 65. Bearing guided cutters Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 66. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 • Profiles can be processed on material using templates. • Templates can have the required profile as an internal shape or an external profile. • To process the section marked (A) • In the photo an internal template can be used to guide the router to produce the profile. • Feed direction can be established using the right hand rule.
  • 67. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 68. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Feed direction with template Securely fix work to the template. Establish and mark the feed direction for router.
  • 69. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603 Fit the template guide to the router base plate. Set cutter plunge depth. Place over template at the starting position (A). Switch on the router and then plunge to depth (B). Feed router in a clockwise direction. Using the template guide
  • 70. Calculating the offset Template needs to account for the difference in diameter between the cutting bit and the guide bushing collar. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 71. Template & guide bearing cutter When using a bearing guided trimming bit the template can be made to the exact shape or profile required. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 72. Routing at the corner Cut end grain and let corners tear out Long grain cut will remove torn-out material Eliminating end grain tear out Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 73. Routing at the corner Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 74. Routing at the corner Feed in the proper direction almost to the corner, stop, and climb cut from the corner. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603
  • 75. Surfacing Jig Using the router to finish material flush to a surface Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering WT4603

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