WT4603Wood Processing Safety &PracticeAutumn 2011Lecture Unit 7 (Week 10)  A Technology Education Perspective through the ...
WT4603 Sustainability  • The existence of planet earth is unquestionably    dependent on the health, stability and diversi...
WT4603 Definition  • In 1987 the World Commission on Environment &    Development (WCED) engaged in the interpretation    ...
WT4603 Definition  • Opinion is somewhat divided regarding this    particular definition, as it was coined in the light of...
WT4603 Economic, Social, and Environmental Relationship                  Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
WT4603 Sustainable Development  • In terms of sustainability it is projected that during the 150 years    from 1900 to 205...
WT4603 Sustainable Development  • The International Energy Agency (2007) estimates that by    2030 the world’s energy need...
WT4603 Sustainable Development  • Manufacturing energy consumption grew by 61%    from 1971 to 2004. It alone accounted fo...
WT4603Sustainable Development                 Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
WT4603 Visible Impacts of Unsustainable Development:                  Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
WT4603Sustainable Development and Paradigms of Change  • Sustainable Development has been largely    influenced by paradig...
WT4603Paradigms of Change    A paradigm is understood to be an idea or theory    Paradigms change when the ruling paradigm...
WT4603 Major Paradigm Shifts    There have been four major paradigm shifts throughout the    evolution of the human race, ...
WT4603 Four Main Paradigm Shifts 1.   Agricultural Age 2.   Industrial Age 3.   Information Age 4.   And …… The Conceptual...
WT4603Four Main Paradigm Shifts  • Three major paradigm shifts can be verified by Toffler’s (1980) wave    theory (fig.1),...
WT4603 Agricultural Age     Farming communities     Specialized crafts people – Early Technologists •   The majority of le...
WT4603 Agricultural Age • Informal education through ‘Hedge Schools’ came about from the introduction of   the penal laws ...
WT4603 Industrial Age   Mechanisation – Industrial Revolution   Large scale urbanization – increased population   Public s...
WT4603 Industrial Age    • The industrial age is recorded to have begun around the 1760’s (Ashton,      1997).    • The in...
WT4603 Industrial Age •   As a result of the shift Mokyr (1985) identified the 3R’s (Reading, wRiting, & aRithmetic) as th...
WT4603 Industrial Age • Vocational education was not added to existing boards of education at the time so   it was develop...
Information Age Scientific Revolution Deeper understanding of teaching and learning Importance of curriculum Education for...
WT4603 Information Age  • The information age began in the 1960’s as identified by Kuhn (1962) and Toffler    (1982).  • I...
Information Age• Cheng (2001) indicates that worldwide educational reforms have experienced  three waves of change since t...
WT4603 Information Age    • In Ireland, the establishment of the Bachelor in Education Degree gave      prominence to educ...
WT4603 Information Age     • Pink (2005) emphasizes that the rising conceptual age will be dependent       on the ability ...
WT4603 Information Age  •   The majority of creative students were not sufficiently engaged in traditional lecturing,     ...
WT4603 Conceptual Age   Development of values based approaches to teaching and learning   Emphasis on developing understan...
WT4603 Conceptual Age  • Societal changes for teaching and learning at all levels in the conceptual    age will involve in...
WT4603 Conceptual Age  •   The conceptual age is defined by two distinctions, namely: the information age was forged      ...
WT4603 Conceptual Age • Auberdene (2005) implies that the conceptual age is due to a rise in human   consciousness where t...
WT4603 Changing paradigms of public education: Noted from a public lecture given by Sir Ken Robinson At present, education...
WT4603  Public Education:  • The current system of education was designed, conceived and structured for a    different age...
WT4603Public Education• This has produced two pillars, namely economic and intellectual, that define current  public educa...
WT4603 How has this shaped our current system of education: • Schools, as institutions of learning, are modelled on the in...
WT4603Irish Post-Primary Technology Education:   • The Irish Post-Primary Technology education programme is integrated int...
WT4603Irish Post-Primary Technology Education:  • The vocational education act (VEA) of 1930 was not added to existing boa...
WT4603Irish Post-Primary Technology Education: • The dissolving of dedicated colleges of education to the academy such as ...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development             Year   Organisation                         Developments         ...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • The objectives of the DESD are as follows:          “Give an enhanced pro...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • Middleton (2004) identified four meanings of ESD over the    past number o...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development                 Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • Hill and Elshof (2007) outline a set of sustainability issues which they s...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • It was outlined that learning activities for sustainability in    technolo...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • It is suggested that the processes involved with design activities, for   ...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • Datschefski’s (2010) five key principles for sustainable    products as fo...
WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development  • Pavlova (Pavlova 2006) proposes the types of activities that could    supp...
WT46036R’s – Practical Action Organisation    • Rethink: do we make too many products? Design in a way that considers     ...
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Wt4603 unit7 week10-07-11-2011_t

  1. 1. WT4603Wood Processing Safety &PracticeAutumn 2011Lecture Unit 7 (Week 10) A Technology Education Perspective through the Lens of Paradigm Change and Sustainable Development  Notes Prepared by: Mr. Joseph Lyster 07/11/2011  Available on www.slideshare.net/WT4603
  2. 2. WT4603 Sustainability • The existence of planet earth is unquestionably dependent on the health, stability and diversity of its eco-system and the resources it offers to all forms of life. • Natural resources, trees for example, have been used for many purposes, such as shelter, by humans and animals throughout the ages. • The respectful use and care for natural resources through a balanced relationship between economic, social and environmental conditions has been the ‘sin qua non’ of the earth’s ability to sustain itself for future generations. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  3. 3. WT4603 Definition • In 1987 the World Commission on Environment & Development (WCED) engaged in the interpretation of sustainable development with the resultant Brundtland commission report defining it as: ▫ “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  4. 4. WT4603 Definition • Opinion is somewhat divided regarding this particular definition, as it was coined in the light of western practices. • In developing countries there is a greater need to be efficient with regard to basic resources such as food, clothing and shelter. • In this context sustainability is the ability of humans to survive in the present. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  5. 5. WT4603 Economic, Social, and Environmental Relationship Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  6. 6. WT4603 Sustainable Development • In terms of sustainability it is projected that during the 150 years from 1900 to 2050, a period of barely two lifetimes, humanity’s annual impact on the planet’s natural environment is projected to multiply over forty-fold (Homer-Dixon and Deligiannus 2009). • During the period from 1950 to 1997 the UN produced information regarding human consumption of resources as follows:  “Use of lumber tripled;  Use of paper increased six-fold;  Fish catch increased five-fold;  Grain consumption tripled;  Fossil fuel burning quadrupled; and  Air and water pollution multiplied seven-fold.”  (UNESCO 2005b) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  7. 7. WT4603 Sustainable Development • The International Energy Agency (2007) estimates that by 2030 the world’s energy needs could grow by 55%, with fossil fuels remaining the dominant source of energy. • If this becomes a reality, grave consequences for the Earth’s climate systems are almost certain to ensue (IPCC 2007). • Although energy needs of approximately 2,000–3,000 kcal per day are required to keep a human alive, the average per capita energy consumption in the United States and Canada for example is approximately 230,000 kcal per day (Inter-Academy 2007). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  8. 8. WT4603 Sustainable Development • Manufacturing energy consumption grew by 61% from 1971 to 2004. It alone accounted for 31% of global energy use with a concurrent 36% contribution to all global CO₂ emissions (OECD 2009). • As a consequence, it was found that over the last three decades the Earth’s biological diversity has declined by approximately 30% (Pavlova 2009). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  9. 9. WT4603Sustainable Development Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  10. 10. WT4603 Visible Impacts of Unsustainable Development: Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  11. 11. WT4603Sustainable Development and Paradigms of Change • Sustainable Development has been largely influenced by paradigms of change Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  12. 12. WT4603Paradigms of Change A paradigm is understood to be an idea or theory Paradigms change when the ruling paradigm loses its capacity to solve problems and generate a positive vision of the future Kuhn described it in the context of scientific revolution where an existing paradigm can no longer support a progression in scientific understanding and therefore a shift in the approach of the ruling theory of science is created (Kuhn, 1962). Reigeluth (2006) identified that paradigm shifts are always associated with the dominant ideologies of a given time, for example Kuhn’s scientific paradigm shift reflected technological advancements of that time such as computers. As paradigm shifts occur they can impact society on many levels, including education which is a focus of this lecture. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  13. 13. WT4603 Major Paradigm Shifts There have been four major paradigm shifts throughout the evolution of the human race, namely: 1. Agricultural Age 2. Industrial Age 3. Information Age 4. Conceptual Age The evolution of general public and technology education in Ireland will be outlined in each of these shifts Firstly we must state the nature of current public education Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  14. 14. WT4603 Four Main Paradigm Shifts 1. Agricultural Age 2. Industrial Age 3. Information Age 4. And …… The Conceptual Age Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  15. 15. WT4603Four Main Paradigm Shifts • Three major paradigm shifts can be verified by Toffler’s (1980) wave theory (fig.1), which identified three great waves, namely: the age of agriculture; the industrial age; and the information age (Toffler, 1980). • In addition to the three paradigm shifts outlined by Toffler’s (1980) wave theory, Pink (2005) proposes a new paradigm shift called the conceptual age. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  16. 16. WT4603 Agricultural Age Farming communities Specialized crafts people – Early Technologists • The majority of learning took place within families, communities and places of work where people would learn the basic skills needed for existence, and practised a number of them as needed in the context of family life, sometimes with a measure of specialization (Thomas, 1981). • Crafts people provided an invaluable service to agricultural society by self-sustaining rural communities ensuring that they could cater for all their needs from constructing buildings to the manufacturing and maintenance of farming equipment (Clark, 2002). Master and apprentice system – Guild Formal Education – Primary Directed by religious orders Classical linguistic programme of learning Rote learning and memorizing University teaching standard poor Establishment of dissenting academies of education i.e. Engineering Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  17. 17. WT4603 Agricultural Age • Informal education through ‘Hedge Schools’ came about from the introduction of the penal laws passed between 1702 and 1719. The penal laws, implemented under British rule, outlawed the teaching of Catholicism, Irish culture and language (Walsh, 2009). • The hedge schools were taught by priests, nuns, local storytellers, passing scholars and skilled crafts people providing students with basic reading, writing & arithmetic skills (3R’s) (Dowling, 1968). • Ireland, in the middle ages, was known as the ‘island of saints and scholars’ as a result of monastic learning’s that created the relationship between religion and education (Lennon & White, 1997). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  18. 18. WT4603 Industrial Age Mechanisation – Industrial Revolution Large scale urbanization – increased population Public school systems developed Curriculum design to meet needs of industrial trainers Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic (3R’s) Teacher focus on developing students for a working life within an industrial society Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  19. 19. WT4603 Industrial Age • The industrial age is recorded to have begun around the 1760’s (Ashton, 1997). • The invention of steam power created an age of industrial development, which resulted in the mechanising of many processes that were formerly attributed to skilled crafts people. • Mantoux (2006) described the industrial revolution as a growing division of labour, a widening of markets, and the adoption of new devices by ordinary people. • On a social level, the revolution created larger urban centres that attracted people in from the countryside to work in large factories (Feinstein, 1998). • Larger urban centres and the demands of industrial trainers generated the need for mass education (Williams, 1961). • In Ireland, initial teacher training colleges were created, such as the Church of Ireland College of Education (CICE), as a result of the establishment of the National schools in the 1830’s (Coolahan, 2004). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  20. 20. WT4603 Industrial Age • As a result of the shift Mokyr (1985) identified the 3R’s (Reading, wRiting, & aRithmetic) as the primary focus of formal education in Britain during the industrial age. • Field (1979) stated that education in industrial age Britain was aimed at establishing certain moral attitudes that were regarded as important to the labour force. • Teacher training during the period of industrial revolution was heavily focused on the developing habits of regularity, self-discipline, obedience, and trained effort within students (Williams, 1961: Field, 1979). • However, the evolution of curriculum, as a result of industrial processes and structured mass education, began to identify the need for specialized education in technical and scientific subjects (Gillard, 2007). • Technical instruction and vocational education programmes of learning began to develop as the industrial age intensified. • In the Irish context, Coolahan (1981) identified three significant developments in education during the industrial revolution, namely the establishment of: • the Department for Agriculture and Technical Instruction (DATI) in 1899; • formal teacher education for second level teachers through a part-time one year higher diploma (H-Dip.) in Education in 1912; • and the Vocational Education Act (VEA) of 1930. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  21. 21. WT4603 Industrial Age • Vocational education was not added to existing boards of education at the time so it was developed under its own initiative to provide technical education and continuing education, which was extremely forward thinking at the time (Coolahan, 1981). • Inclusive in this period of significant developments, as outlined, was the establishment of the chairs in education in universities (TCD 1905; UCD 1909; UCC 1910; UCG 1915; & QUB 1914). • They were responsible for the H-Dip programme but also secondary teacher training from 1922-1966 creating an education society. • However, up until the late 1950’s (latter industrial age) teacher training for vocational teachers was conducted in short part-time courses under the aegis of the Department of Education, many of which were located in Colaiste Carman in Wexford (Coolahan, 2004). • Educational developments as a result of the industrial age, particularly the latter stages, played a massive role in the technical and social progress of the 20th century, inparticular the social aspect of teaching and learning (Broadfoot, 2009). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  22. 22. Information Age Scientific Revolution Deeper understanding of teaching and learning Importance of curriculum Education for economic growth Development of logical and analytical skills in an age of information and communication technology (ICT) Wider variety of subjects and careers opportunities However, teaching methods failing to keep pace with change Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  23. 23. WT4603 Information Age • The information age began in the 1960’s as identified by Kuhn (1962) and Toffler (1982). • It was a result of a paradigm shift in scientific theory that revolutionized ICT and the rate at which it developed (Kuhn, 1962). • The scientific shift in the information age and the development of ICT has greatly influenced the processes involved in teaching and learning. • The shift to theoretical understanding, outlined by Kuhn’s scientific paradigm, became evident in Irish ‘teacher education’, formerly ‘teacher training’, in 1963 with elective courses in the history of education, sociology of education and comparative education that aimed to give more theoretical underpinning to the students’ studies. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  24. 24. Information Age• Cheng (2001) indicates that worldwide educational reforms have experienced three waves of change since the 1970’s (table 1), namely: • Internal effectiveness; • interface effectiveness; • and future effectiveness.• Reigeluth and Duffy (2008) also identified three similar shifts to that of Cheng.• Cheng commented that: “The three waves of reforms are mainly based on different paradigms and theories of education effectiveness, and they result in the employment of different strategies and approaches to changing schools and education” (Cheng, 2001) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  25. 25. WT4603 Information Age • In Ireland, the establishment of the Bachelor in Education Degree gave prominence to education as a central subject encouraging deeper study in the area. • The establishment of concurrent teacher education courses for specialist (vocational) subject areas, such as woodwork and Construction, in Thomond College of Education (TCE) now the University of Limerick (UL) in the 1970’s created a new system of teacher education. • Gleeson (2004) laments the dissolving of dedicated colleges of education to the academy such as TCE with their strong ‘craft’ orientation (Practicum), as valued throughout the previous ages, was done so on grounds of academic respectability (Gleeson, 2004). • Goodson and Hargreaves (1996) refer to this as the ‘devils bargain’ suggesting that a very high price was paid for academic respectability. • Nonetheless, the resulting developments in initial teacher education accompanied with the theoretical underpinnings outlined in Cheng’s (2001) first wave of change generated the need for in-service education, now referred to as continued professional development (CPD) (Egan, 2004). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  26. 26. WT4603 Information Age • Pink (2005) emphasizes that the rising conceptual age will be dependent on the ability to use technology effectively, as outlined in the knowledge based economy. • Donnelly and O’Rourke (2006) identified the need and importance of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. • Zemsky and Massy (2004) summarize that despite development of technology in education the teaching practices remain largely unchanged. • In the context of teaching and learning Hameed et al (2006) identified that considering the diversity in learning styles there is a need for a better system of delivering education and training. • In third level engineering education Bernold (2001) highlighted that teaching and learning needed to reform. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  27. 27. WT4603 Information Age • The majority of creative students were not sufficiently engaged in traditional lecturing, which he identified to be the dominant pedagogical strategy used by eighty-seven percent of university engineering professors (Bernold, 2001). • Broadfoot (2009) presented a similar context on educational practice to that of Zemsky and Massy (2004) and Hameed et al (2006) by commenting that: “Although a number of the contributions recognise that schools themselves will need to become learning organisations, in which teachers, as much as students, are prepared to be reflective, self-critical and collaborative in responding to change, there is almost nothing about pedagogy per se. Yet it seems certain that much of the current pedagogic repertoire will become increasingly ineffective in an age of ‘digital natives’; that teachers, more or less willingly, will have to engage with the new ways of encouraging, supporting and guiding learning that new technologies provide.” (Broadfoot, 2009) • The development teaching and learning pedagogy, and the rate at which technology is developing in contrast to it, (Donnelly & O’Rourke, 2006: Broadfoot, 2009) is seemingly shaping the context of teaching and learning for a conceptual age. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  28. 28. WT4603 Conceptual Age Development of values based approaches to teaching and learning Emphasis on developing understanding through active learning, problem solving and group work Emphasis on levels of reading, mathematic and scientific literacy Growing influence of the need for Sustainable Development – Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Encouraging lifelong learning through creativity based on divergent thinking The development of moral values within pedagogy The age of the learner centred paradigm within the conceptual age is emerging. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  29. 29. WT4603 Conceptual Age • Societal changes for teaching and learning at all levels in the conceptual age will involve interdisciplinary collaboration, shared leadership, accountability, diversity and holism, which are becoming more identifiable (Reigeluth, 2006: Broadfoot, 2009: Pink, 2005: Goodson, 2004: Huitt, 2007). • Pink (2005) proposes that a new paradigm shift is occurring where the information age is being replaced by the conceptual age having strong implications for desired knowledge, attitudes, and skills (Huitt, 2007). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  30. 30. WT4603 Conceptual Age • The conceptual age is defined by two distinctions, namely: the information age was forged using the left hemisphere of the human brain and the conceptual age which will be forged using the right hemisphere of the human brain. • The left hemisphere defined the information age with linear, logical and analytical talents that are evident in current technology and society. • However, the shift to the conceptual age using the right hemisphere of the human brain will focus on abilities such as artistry, empathy and emotion (Pink, 2005). • In consideration of the paradigm shifts over the last century Pink (2005) commented that: “If the Industrial Age was built on peoples backs, and the Information Age on peoples left hemispheres, the Conceptual Age is being built on peoples right hemispheres” (Pink, 2005) • The proposal of such change is no surprise. Kurzweil (1999) stated that there will be as much change in the first quarter of this century as there was in the entirety of the last century. • Education in the conceptual age emphasises the search for meaning through artistry, empathy and emotion (Pink, 2005). • Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs also identified the search for meaning to be important regarding human motivation, though research hotly debates Maslow’s theory. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  31. 31. WT4603 Conceptual Age • Auberdene (2005) implies that the conceptual age is due to a rise in human consciousness where there is an increased interest in spiritual development. • Increased conscious levels will impact on society in three ways, namely: the values-driven consumer; spirituality in business; and socially responsible investing. • The rise in consciousness is already evident within primary factors of society such as sustainable development, which is recognised as a sensitive issue and one of global importance (Vlek & Steg, 2007). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  32. 32. WT4603 Changing paradigms of public education: Noted from a public lecture given by Sir Ken Robinson At present, education is primarily designed to address economic and cultural aspects within a model of globalization. 1. Economic • Designed to prepare students for the 21st century economy • What will economy look like in one week??? 2. Cultural • Cultural Identity • Identify with their own genes in a model of globalization • However, the education system has not changed…it is doing what it did in the past! – So many talented students are lost as a result. • Traditional approach was that if you worked hard, excelled in school then you would get a job. • Today, a degree cannot guarantee you a job…most students are aware of this Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  33. 33. WT4603 Public Education: • The current system of education was designed, conceived and structured for a different age and the economic circumstances of that time – This was the period of Enlightenment i.e. the Industrial Revolution. • The Forster Act of 1874 was the initiation of public education • It was a revolutionary concept for three reasons: • Paid for by taxation • Compulsory to everyone • Free at the point of delivery • However, the social structure of education was based on an intellectual model of the mind for example – deductive reasoning and a knowledge of the classics. • This created the concept of academic ability, which categorizes people into two groups, namely: • Academic • Non Academic Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  34. 34. WT4603Public Education• This has produced two pillars, namely economic and intellectual, that define current public education systems.• This system has failed to benefit many students because their intellectual ability does not conform with standardized education based on intellectual ability/academic achievement.• This is the most intensely stimulating period in the history of the earth and yet we inadvertently restrict students in so many ways for example: • We penalize students for being distracted by the vast amount of information and technology available to them. We are not accommodating their interests. • We confine and control their actions within the learning environment• A primary victim of this model of education is the Arts.• The Arts requires students to address their aesthetic experience• This enables students to reach the peak of their senses and thus achieving fulfilment of interest with the task at hand. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  35. 35. WT4603 How has this shaped our current system of education: • Schools, as institutions of learning, are modelled on the interests and image of industrialism, for example: • Bells • Uniforms • Production Line Mentality….1st to 6th year….do x y and z • Separate subjects • Batch students by age rather than interests. • Subject to standardization • An essential capacity of learning is divergent thinking, which is the ability to develop multiple answers to a problem rather than just one answer. • Divergent thinking is an essential capacity for creativity. • Schools educate pupils out of their creative ability. • A Longitudinal paper clip study proves (4-6; 8-10; & 13-15) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  36. 36. WT4603Irish Post-Primary Technology Education: • The Irish Post-Primary Technology education programme is integrated into both junior and senior cycle programmes of learning • Both junior and senior cycle technology education subjects are available in two levels for assessment purposes; higher level (HL) and ordinary level (OL), and some at foundation level (FL). • Technology Education Subjects: The subjects emerged from traditional vocational education programmes, particularly in the 1980’s. Junior cycle Senior cycle Materials technology (Construction studies formally Building construction) wood (MTW) Metalwork Engineering technology (formally Engineering) Technology Technology Technical graphics Design and communication graphics (Technical drawing). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  37. 37. WT4603Irish Post-Primary Technology Education: • The vocational education act (VEA) of 1930 was not added to existing boards of education at the time so it was developed under its own initiative to provide technical education and continuing education, which was extremely forward thinking at the time (Coolahan, 1981). • However, up until the late 1950’s (latter industrial age) teacher training for vocational teachers was conducted in short part-time courses under the aegis of the Department of Education, many of which were located in Colaiste Carman in Wexford (Coolahan, 2004). • The establishment of concurrent teacher education courses for specialist (vocational) subject areas, such as the outlined technology subjects, in Thomond College of Education (TCE) now the University of Limerick (UL) in the 1970’s created a new system of teacher education. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  38. 38. WT4603Irish Post-Primary Technology Education: • The dissolving of dedicated colleges of education to the academy such as TCE with their strong ‘craft’ orientation (Practicum), as valued throughout the previous ages, was done so on grounds of academic respectability. • Goodson and Hargreaves (1996) refer to this as the ‘devils bargain’ suggesting that a very high price was paid for academic respectability. • It is argued that the dominance of practical activity in Irish technology education is due to many reasons; one being that teachers believe students were not cognitively exposed to sufficient “theoretical reflection about the nature and the influences of technological activity” (Black, 2005) and also the difficulty in expressing and communicating inner thoughts in a non-verbal subject area (Vygotsky and Cole, 1978). • These subjects have a low level of uptake (figure 1.6.1a) because they are traditionally viewed as ‘craft’ subjects that do not engage with ‘cutting edge’ technological developments (ICSTI, 1999). Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  39. 39. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development Year Organisation Developments World Education Forum Future Education – Sustainable 1 1990 (WEF) Development Education for Sustainable 2 1992 UN General Assembly Development (ESD) – Necessary Re-Orientate Teacher Education 3 1998 UNESCO for ESD - Necessary Millennium Development Goals 4 2000 WEF (MDG’s) - ESD is a goal Resolution – Agenda 21 - put the Decade of Education for 5 2002 UN General Assembly Sustainable Development (DESD) in place 6 2003 UNESCO DESD vision is shared 7 2004 UNESCO DESD framework is presented 8 2005 UNESCO DESD is Implemented Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  40. 40. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • The objectives of the DESD are as follows:  “Give an enhanced profile of the central role of education and learning in the common pursuit of sustainable development;  Facilitate links and networking, exchange and interaction among stakeholders in ESD;  Provide a space and opportunity for refining and promoting the vision of, and transition to sustainable development – through all forms of learning and public awareness;  Foster an increased quality of teaching and learning in ESD; and  Develop strategies at every level to strengthen capacity in ESD.” (UNESCO 2007) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  41. 41. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • Middleton (2004) identified four meanings of ESD over the past number of years, namely: sustainability as environmental education (Ryan, 2000); as sustainable development education (Ryan, 2000); as sustainable growth education (Fien, 1988); and as encompassing the concept of social, economic and environmental sustainability (Collins, 1992: Pavlova, 2004). • Former United Nations (UN) secretary general, Mr. Kofi Annan, commented that: “Our biggest challenge in this century is to take an idea that seems abstract such as sustainable development and turn it into a reality for all the worlds’ people” (UNESCO 2007) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  42. 42. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  43. 43. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • Hill and Elshof (2007) outline a set of sustainability issues which they see as most related to general technology education, namely: ▫ Dematerialization; ▫ Cleaner production; ▫ Design for disassembly; ▫ Design for recycling; ▫ Product stewardship; ▫ Product service systems; ▫ The precautionary principle; ▫ Sustainable consumption; ▫ Eco-efficiency; ▫ Industrial and construction ecology; ▫ Life cycle assessment (LCA); and ▫ Design for the environment. (Hill and Elshof 2007) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  44. 44. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • It was outlined that learning activities for sustainability in technology education should reflect the following: ▫ help students to recognise a situation as being ethically (morally) problematic; ▫ enable students to have a voice and express their feelings and thoughts; and ▫ Lead to a practical solution that serves the best interests of all parties involved. (Pavlova 2009) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  45. 45. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • It is suggested that the processes involved with design activities, for example: cognitive; practical; and aesthetical, should be inclusive of the following (Pavlova 2009) ▫ Know and understand SD problems/issues; ▫ Contribute towards the promotion of and increasing awareness about ideas of sustainable development through projects/activities; ▫ Design and make products in accord with eco-design principles; ▫ Work in accord with SD practices. ▫ Discuss and appreciate the relationships between aesthetics and ethics for sustainability; and ▫ Consider aesthetics as a powerful feature of product design closely related to sustainable consumption. (Pavlova, 2009) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  46. 46. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • Datschefski’s (2010) five key principles for sustainable products as follows: ▫ “Cyclic: made from organic materials, which are recyclable or compostable, or made from minerals that are continuously cycled in a closed loop; ▫ Solar: the product uses solar energy or other forms of renewable energy both during use and manufacture; ▫ Safe: non-toxic in use and disposal and its manufacture does not involve toxic releases or the disruption of ecosystem; ▫ Efficient: less materials, energy, water; and ▫ Social: manufactured under fair and just operating conditions for the workers involved and the local communities.” (Datschefski 2010) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  47. 47. WT4603 Education for Sustainable Development • Pavlova (Pavlova 2006) proposes the types of activities that could support rethinking to generate a well-connected learning experience for design and sustainability as follows: ▫ “Reuse of products/packaging (students developed ideas on how to reuse plastic bottles. ▫ This activity is not detached from the context, in the countryside and in the city students can see examples of bottle reuse); ▫ Use of industrial waste (timber, textile—patchwork, toys for childcare, metal) to design and make new products; ▫ Eco-technologies (alternative energy sources, interior design from natural forest materials); and ▫ Social and cultural aspects of sustainability (re-birth of traditional crafts).” (Pavlova 2006) Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology
  48. 48. WT46036R’s – Practical Action Organisation • Rethink: do we make too many products? Design in a way that considers people and the environment. • Refuse: don’t use a material or buy a product if you don’t need it or if’s bad for people or the environment. • Reduce: cut down the amount of material and energy you use as much as you can. • Reuse: use a product to make something else with all or parts of it. • Recycle: reprocess a material or product and make something else. • Repair: when a product breaks down or doesn’t work properly, fix it. Department of Design & Manufacturing Technology

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