Wt4603 unit4 week5_03-10-2011

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Week 5 - Rip Saws, Routers and Effective Poster Design

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Wt4603 unit4 week5_03-10-2011

  1. 1. WT4603Wood Processing Safety & PracticeAutumn 2011Lecture Unit 4(Week 5) <br /><ul><li>Circular Saws, Routers & Effective Poster Design
  2. 2. Lecturer: Mr. Joseph Lyster
  3. 3. joseph.lyster@ul.ie
  4. 4. Notes prepared by: Mr. Joseph Lyster
  5. 5. Notes available on www.slideshare.net/WT4603</li></li></ul><li>Circular Sawing Machine<br /> NOTE Circular sawing machines are high risk woodworking machinery<br /> Pupils should not be permitted to use this machine.<br /> BS 4163:2000 <br />The machine should be included in a planned maintenance program that should include electrical safety tests.<br />Read Circular Sawing Machines (Week 6 Notes)<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  6. 6. WT4603<br />Hazards<br />Operators should be aware of the following hazards.<br />The work piece can become jammed in the circular sawing machine or can kick back.<br />Hands or fingers can come into contact with the blade.<br />Wood dust can be inhaled.<br />Noise can cause permanent hearing damage.<br />Inadvertent starting of the machine can present a hazard.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  7. 7. Risk control measures<br />It is essential that the machine be provided with:<br />A means of electrical isolation using a fused switch-disconnector on or adjacent to the machine, and that it is controlled by a starter incorporating overload protection and no-volt release<br />A conveniently positioned, mushroom-headed stop button or suitable other control device that can quickly stop the machine in an emergency<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  8. 8. Risk control measures<br />Fixed guards (removable only with the use of a tool), or alternatively interlocked guards that encloses the drive mechanisms.<br />It should be possible to lock the machine to off when not in use, if a locking device is not incorporated in the machine.<br />There should be sufficient space around the saw bench so that the timber can be handled safely. The floor of the work area should be level. The floor surface should be kept free from loose material and should be non-slippery.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  9. 9. WT4603<br />Saw Blade Terminology<br />Hook Angle<br />Edge Clearance<br />Pitch<br />Gullet<br />Plate Tension<br />Riving Knife<br />Table Slot<br />Guards<br />Fence<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  10. 10. WT4603<br />Hook Angle<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  11. 11. WT4603<br />Hook Angle<br />On most saw blades, the tooth faces are tipped either toward or away from the direction of rotation of the blade, rather than being perfectly in line with the centre of the blade. <br />Hook angle is the angle formed between the tooth face and a line drawn from the centre of the blade across the tip of the tooth. <br />On a blade with a positive hook angle, the teeth are tipped toward the direction of the blade's rotation. <br />A negative hook angle means that teeth tip away from the direction of rotation, and a zero degree hook angle means that the teeth are in line with the centre of the blade.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  12. 12. WT4603<br />Hook Angle<br />Positive Hook Angle<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  13. 13. WT4603<br />Hook Angle<br />Zero Hook Angle<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  14. 14. Hook Angle<br />WT4603<br /> In both Rip and Cross-cutting saws the Hook angle determines<br />The feel of the cut<br />The quality of the finish<br />The power consumed<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  15. 15. Hook Angle<br />WT4603<br />The approach angle of the saw varies according to the relative position of the tooth in the downward cutting arc.<br />This angle alters from the top plane of the timber where the tooth top makes first contact to compress the timber before the tooth point engages, to a plane where the tooth angle and the timber face are parallel.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  16. 16. WT4603<br />Hook Angle<br />The amount of Hook determines the degree to which the tooth will drive into the timber during the cut.<br />The effect is of the timber being drawn forward.<br />The greater the hook angle the greater this tendency.<br /> Too great of a hook angle will result in<br />Harsh cut<br />Tearing<br />Poor finish<br />Less rigid tooth<br />Vibration.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  17. 17. Hook Angle<br />A blade with high positive hook angle (+20°) will have a very aggressive cut and a fast feed rate.  <br />A low or negative hook angle will slow the feed rate and will also inhibit the blade's tendency to "climb" the material being cut.  <br />A blade for ripping wood on a table saw will generally have a high hook angle, where an aggressive, fast cut is usually what you want.  <br />Radial arms saws and sliding compound mitre saws, on the other hand, require a blade with a very low or negative hook angle, to inhibit overly fast feed rate, binding, and the blade's tendency to try to "climb" the material<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  18. 18. Tooth Configuration<br />The shape of the saw blade tooth and the way the teeth are grouped also affect the way the blade cuts.  The configuration of the teeth on a saw blade has a lot to do with whether the blade will work best for ripping, crosscutting, or laminates. <br />Of course, no matter which tooth design you're looking at, more teeth will give you a smoother cut than fewer teeth.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  19. 19. WT4603<br />Tooth Configuration<br /> A ripping blade will have a Flat Top Grind (FTG) for fast cutting with the grain.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  20. 20. WT4603<br />Tooth Configuration<br /> A cross cut blade will do the best job with an Alternating Top Bevel (ATB), cutting across the grain like a knife and producing a very smooth cut.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  21. 21. WT4603<br />Tooth Configuration<br /> A blade with Triple Chip Grind (TCG) is good for all-purpose cutting and also gives you a very clean cut. <br /> TCG blades are also good for cutting non-ferrous metals and plastics.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  22. 22. WT4603<br />Tooth Configuration<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  23. 23. Tooth Configuration<br />In general, blades with more teeth yield a smoother cut, and blades with fewer teeth move material faster.<br />A 250mm blade designed for ripping wood can have as few as 24 teeth, and is designed to quickly move material along the length of the grain. <br />A rip blade isn't designed to yield a mirror-smooth cut, but a good rip blade will move through wood with little effort and leave a clean cut with a minimum of scoring.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  24. 24. Tooth Configuration<br />WT4603<br />A crosscut blade is designed to give a smooth cut across the grain of the wood, without any splintering or tearing of the material.<br />A crosscut blade will usually have from 60 to 80 teeth. More teeth mean that each tooth has to cut less material. <br />The result is a cleaner cut on edges and a smoother cut surface.  With a top-quality crosscut blade, the cut surface will appear polished.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  25. 25. WT4603<br />Gullet<br />The gullet is the space cut away from the blade plate in front of each tooth to allow for chip removal.  <br />In a ripping operation, the feed rate is faster than in crosscutting and the chip size is bigger, so the gullet needs to be deep enough to make room for the large amount of material it has to handle. <br />In a crosscutting blade the chips are smaller and fewer per tooth, so the gullet is much smaller.  The gullets on some crosscutting blades are purposely sized small to inhibit a too-fast feed rate, which can be a problem, especially on radial arm and sliding mitre saws. <br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  26. 26. Gullet<br />WT4603<br />The gullets of a combination blade are designed to handle both ripping and crosscutting. The large gullets between the groups of teeth help clear out the larger amounts of material generated in ripping. The  smaller gullets between the grouped teeth inhibit a too-fast feed rate in crosscutting<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  27. 27. Riving Knife<br />WT4603<br /> The riving knife must be tapered at its leading edge<br /> Note :<br /> The thickness of the riving knife is to be approx. 10% thicker than the plate of the saw blade but must be less than the saw kerf “B”.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  28. 28. WT4603<br />Riving Knife<br /> Riving knife should not be set higher than the highest point of the saw blade<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  29. 29. WT4603<br />Riving Knife<br /> Max and min distances between saw blade and riving knife.<br /> Distances are measured in a radial direction<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  30. 30. WT4603<br />Riving Knife<br /> Max and min distances between saw blade and riving knife.<br /> Distances are measured in a radial direction<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  31. 31. WT4603<br />Riving Knife<br /> Shaded area can be included in the riving knife profile<br /> Example 2 reduces the Ø of blade that can be fitted to the machine and has a weak point<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  32. 32. WT4603<br />Riving Knife<br /> When viewed in the direction of the blade edge the riving knife should not be visible to the operator.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  33. 33. WT4603<br />Table Slot<br /> Table slot width max. and min. measurements for saw blade ranges.<br /> Min. and max. measurements for distance from blade face to edge of table slot. <br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  34. 34. WT4603<br />Table Slot<br /> Max. distance between saw blade and front edge of table slot.<br /> (Blade raised to highest level)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  35. 35. WT4603<br />Table Slot<br /> Max. distance between saw blade and front edge of table slot on machine with a scoring blade.<br /> (Blade raised to highest level)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  36. 36. Clearance<br />WT4603<br /> The supporting body of the cutting tip is ‘relieved’ or ground back (X) so that only the cutting edge itself makes work contact.<br /> For any machine cutting tool to work efficiently, only the cutting edge of the tool should be making contact with the work.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  37. 37. Clearance<br />Work clearance must be provided.<br />The saw tooth provides this clearance.<br />The ‘Kerf’ produced by the teeth must be wider than the supporting saw plate.<br />Steel saws had the kerf formed by bending or ‘setting’ alternate teeth laterally.<br />With tipped saws the tips are wider than the saw plate and thus create the clearance.<br />Clearance or relief bevels are ground on the sides and the top of each tooth.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  38. 38. Plate Tension<br />A flat disc will remain flat and true if turned at a slow speed.<br />When variable stresses are created on this disc due to:<br />Braking effect of sawing<br />Heating effect of friction<br />Outward pull of centrifugal force<br />the outer rim area of the disc will expand.<br />If the whole area of the disc can expand at the same rate the disc will remain flat and true.<br />This does not happen with a saw blade.<br />The central region of the blade is clamped between the collars and does not expand.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  39. 39. Plate Tension<br />Only the teeth of the saw blade should make contact with the work and a portion of the energy expended in cutting will unavoidably be converted to heat.<br />The periphery of the blade will therefore tend to warm up more quickly than the main plate body.<br />This will cause the periphery of the blade to expand.<br />If this is not taken into account the blade will distort.<br />To prevent this saw blades are ‘tensioned’ during the manufacturing stage.<br />Rim speed will determine the amount of tension required in a particular saw blade.<br />Thinner saw blades require greater tension.<br />Faster saws require more tension.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  40. 40. Plate Tension<br />Traditionally this was done by highly skilled labour but modern saw manufacturers use machine operated rollers to achieve a faster more uniform result.<br />This within limits allows the plate to expand uniformly in uneven temperature gradients.<br />A blade which has lost its tension will be seen to be throwing from side to side.<br />This is most noticeable as the blade slows down after the machine is switched off.<br />If this is the case the blade should be removed and sent for servicing.<br />This can be reduced by cooling the blade tip while in operation by packing.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  41. 41. Plate Tension<br />TC tipped blades have an extremely long life and to assist the tension factor, slots are incorporated around the edge of the blade.<br />These allow a degree of individual expansion between segments on the plate edge.<br />They also break up harmonic frequencies, which build up during the sawing process.<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  42. 42. Top Guard<br />Covers the top edge of the saw blade.<br />Deflects waste.<br />Prevents accidental contact with the uppermost teeth of the blade.<br />It can also limit the effects of material rejection. <br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  43. 43. WT4603<br />Top Guard<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  44. 44. WT4603<br />Blade Guard<br />Blade guard that completely encloses the blade <br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  45. 45. WT4603<br />Blade Guard<br />Guard not connected to riving knife<br />Guard has lead in at the front<br />Dust extraction integrated in the guard<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  46. 46. Fence<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  47. 47. Fence<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  48. 48. WT4603<br />Fence<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  49. 49. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br />Scoring blade rotates in the opposite direction to the saw blade<br />Scoring blade cuts on the up stroke of the cut to ensure a clean cut is produced on the underside of the panel<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  50. 50. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br /> Work being fed into the blade<br /> Blade rotates clockwise<br /> (Guarding not shown)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  51. 51. Circular Sawing Machines<br />WT4603<br />Top surface – fibres being compressed<br />Bottom surface – fibres being ripped out<br />Will damage the under side of the material<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  52. 52. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br />Top cutting “into the wood”<br />Bottom “cutting out of the wood”<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  53. 53. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br /> Scoring blade introduced<br /> Will make an initial shallow cut before the larger saw blade will cut the material<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  54. 54. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br /> In this diagram the scoring blade rotates in the same direction as the saw blade<br /> Is this blade still cutting “out of the wood” on the underside ?<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  55. 55. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br /> Here the scoring blade revolves in an anti clockwise direction. As the material passes this blade the cut produced is “into the wood”<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  56. 56. WT4603<br />Circular Sawing Machines<br /><ul><li>This can create a hazard as the blade is unguarded and tends to pull the material towards the saw blade
  57. 57. Should only be used when crosscutting or ripping sheet material where a clean finished cut is required on both surfaces of the panel</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  58. 58. Calculations<br />WT4603<br />Saw Calculations<br />Rim Speed (P) =  x  x Spindle Speed (R) <br />Where P = Rim Speed<br />R = Spindle Speed<br />= Diameter in metres<br />Units = m x 1/min = m/min<br />This speed is expressed in metres per minute m/min<br />It is left in this format because spindle speed is expressed in Rev/min<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  59. 59. Calculations<br />Problem 1<br /> A saw blade of  750mm is required to run at a rim speed of 3048m/min<br /> Calculate the number of revs per min that will achieve this speed.<br />P =  x  x R<br /> P 3048<br />R = ---------- = ----------------- = 1294.3 RPM  x  3.142 x .750 <br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  60. 60. Calculations<br />WT4603<br />Problem 2<br />A circular saw has a motor that revolves at 1500 Rev/min<br />The  of the blade is 720mm.<br />Calculate the rim speed for the blade.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  61. 61. WT4603<br />Saw Parts<br />Guard<br />Fence<br />Blade<br />Riving Knife<br />In feed table<br />Out feed table<br />Start / Stop<br />Foot stop<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  62. 62. WT4603<br />Blade Guard<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  63. 63. WT4603<br />Blade Guard<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  64. 64. WT4603<br />Blade Guard<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  65. 65. WT4603<br />Blade Guard<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  66. 66. WT4603<br />Fence<br />Must be parallel to the saw blade<br />Clamping mechanism<br />cam <br />screw lock<br />Sliding fence<br />Horizontal position<br />Vertical position<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  67. 67. WT4603<br />Fence (Horizontal Position)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  68. 68. WT4603<br />Fence Position for cross-cutting<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  69. 69. WT4603<br />Fence (Vertical Position)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  70. 70. WT4603<br />Fence position for cross-cutting<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  71. 71. WT4603<br />Fence position for cross-cutting<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  72. 72. WT4603<br />Incorrect setting<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  73. 73. WT4603<br />Incorrect setting<br /><ul><li>Material once cut is positioned between the rotating blade and the fixed fence
  74. 74. When the piece is moved by operator or vibration it will contact the moving blade and get ejected
  75. 75. This will result in possible injury to the operator, damage to the blade and damage to the material</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  76. 76. WT4603<br />Riving Knife<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  77. 77. WT4603<br />In feed table<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  78. 78. WT4603<br />In feed table<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  79. 79. WT4603<br />Out feed table<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  80. 80. WT4603<br />Start / Stop<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  81. 81. WT4603<br />Foot Stop<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  82. 82. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  83. 83. WT4603<br />RECAP<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  84. 84. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  85. 85. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  86. 86. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  87. 87. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  88. 88. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  89. 89. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  90. 90. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  91. 91. WT4603<br />Cutter selection & feed direction<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  92. 92. WT4603<br />Hand Router<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  93. 93. WT4603<br />Hand Router<br />Cutting grooves<br />Cutting rebates<br />Cutting slots and recesses<br />Cutting beads or mouldings<br />Cutting dovetails<br />Cutting dovetailed slots and grooves<br />Edge trimming<br />Profiling (jigs/formers)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  94. 94. WT4603<br />Hand Router: Power<br />Large powerful routers are heavy and can be difficult to handle for light work.<br />Generally in schools the type of work that the router will have to perform will be light to medium work.<br />As a rough guide to classifying routers:<br />400 W to 600W are for light duty <br />750 W to 1200W are for medium duty <br />1250 W upwards are for heavy duty<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  95. 95. WT4603<br />Speed<br /> Machine speed can range from about 800 to 30000 rpm.<br /> Nearly all modern routers have variable speed motors, the setting is by a simple numbered knob showing up to 5 or 6 positions. <br /> The required speed will depend upon the size of cutter being used and the material being cut.<br /> The appropriate speed setting for any combination will need to be determined by trial and error/experience. <br /> The variable speed control should not be in a position where it could inadvertently be changed while routing.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  96. 96. Hand Router<br />WT4603<br />Router cutter (bit) is fitted to a collet on the lower end of the motor<br />It is a direct drive system<br />Motor sizes can vary from ½ horse power to 3½ horse power<br />The bigger the motor the heavier the router<br />Cutter profile will often determine the size of the motor required for the job<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  97. 97. WT4603<br />Hand Router <br />Collet<br />Simple but accurate chuck<br />Attached directly to the bottom of the motor armature<br />Collet holds the bit so that the motor can make it spin<br />Two most common size collet are 6mm and 12mm<br />12mm collet will hold a bit with a 12mm shank which is stronger than the 6mm<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  98. 98. Hand Router<br />WT4603<br />The base of the router is what holds the motor in position in relation to the work<br />It usually incorporates two operating handles<br />Handles used to control the machine<br />Can be used to lock/release depth plunge<br />Can contain on off switch<br />Base plate of the router is a plastic sole on the bottom of the base<br />Reduces frictional contact with material<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  99. 99. WT4603<br />Hand Router<br />Motors rated on their horse power<br />Will also have an amperage rating<br />Determines the maximum amount of current the motor can draw in continuous use without overheating and burning out<br />Routers may have the same horsepower rating and different amperage rating<br />e.g. 1 ½ hp drawing 8 amps<br /> 1 ½ hp drawing 10 amps<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  100. 100. Hand Router<br />WT4603<br />Router motor is of the universal brush type which is primarily used for intermittent, variable speed operations<br />Induction motors (brushless) are primarily used for long term fixed speed operations such as the circular saw etc.<br />This is the reason why a 1 ½ hp router motor is much smaller than a 1 ½ hp circular saw motor<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  101. 101. Cutter Speed<br />The router is a high speed cutting machine<br />Generally it is taken that the higher the speed the smoother the cut<br />However if the cutter diameter is increased the peripheral cutter speed increases which can make the machine hard to control and prone to damaging the material<br />Can also lead to burning of the wood and blunting of the cutting edge <br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  102. 102. Collet<br />Like a drill chuck it is designed to hold a round shank bit<br />The collet makes almost full contact with the cutter shank unlike the three fingered shank of the drill chuck<br />Router bit shanks must be sized to match the inside diameter of the collet<br />Collet must hold cutter while revolving at high speed<br />Must also be able to resist side loading<br />WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  103. 103. WT4603<br />Feed direction<br /><ul><li>If you feed a router into a piece of material without using a guide fence or bearing guide you will find that the router will pull to one side.
  104. 104. If you push the router into the material from position (A), the router will pull to your left.
  105. 105. If you pull the router into the material toward you from position (B), the router will pull to your right.
  106. 106. This occurs as the cutter will climb on the material in front of the cutting edge.
  107. 107. This motion must be utilised when using guide fences.</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  108. 108. WT4603<br />Feed direction & the fence<br />To process a straight housing or trench you can use a straight edge guide (A) or the guide fence that is supplied with the router(B).<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  109. 109. WT4603<br />F<br />Feed direction & the fence<br /><ul><li>In the photo the fence is securely clamped in position.
  110. 110. The router is being fed in the direction (F).
  111. 111. The router will try to pull to the operators left hand side.
  112. 112. With the fence clamped on the left of the router, the router will push against it as it is fed into the material.(Green arrows)
  113. 113. If the fence were on the right hand side (when viewed from the operators position) of the router, it would pull away from the fence and result in the trench being crocked.</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  114. 114. WT4603<br /><ul><li>The groove is produced as the router is moved forward.
  115. 115. Local extraction will remove the bulk of the dust produced.
  116. 116. Some may be blown back in the direction of the operator.( )
  117. 117. A suitable lab coat will protect the operators clothing.
  118. 118. Appropriate dust mask should be used.
  119. 119. Feeding the router in the opposite direction will cause any dust to be blown away from the operator.
  120. 120. This will require the guide fence to be set up on the right hand side of the router and operator. </li></ul>F<br />Feed direction & the fence<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  121. 121. WT4603<br />Guide fence<br />Guide fence fixed to the router.<br />Can be fixed from either side.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  122. 122. WT4603<br />F<br />P<br />Using the guide fence<br />When feeding the router forward (F) the router will tend to pull to the operators left hand side.<br />The fence should be set on the right hand side of the router.<br />When the cutter engages in the material it will pull to the left as indicated by the green arrow (P) and keep the fence tight against the materials edge.<br />Material should be securely calmped or placed on a non-slip router mat.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  123. 123. WT4603<br />Profiles can be processed on material using templates.<br />Templates can have the required profile as an internal shape or an external profile.<br />To process the section marked (A)<br />In the photo an internal template can be used to guide the router to produce the profile.<br />Feed direction can be established using the right hand rule.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  124. 124. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  125. 125. WT4603<br />Using the template guide <br />Fit the template guide to the router base plate.<br />Set cutter plunge depth.<br />Place over template at the starting position (A).<br />Switch on the router and then plunge to depth (B).<br />Feed router in a clockwise direction.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  126. 126. WT4603<br />ROUTER PULLS TO THE LEFT<br />FENCE PULLED TOWARDS WORKPIECE<br />FEED<br />DIRECTION<br />Router Station 1<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router. <br />Select V- groove cutting bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Set the depth of the cut to 3mm.<br />Machine the profile shown on the drawing using the guide fence. (Note: Guide fence is set. Do not adjust.)<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the cutter from the router.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  127. 127. WT4603<br />Router Station 3<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router.<br />Select Ø 6mm cutting bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Set the depth of the cut to 5mm.<br />Set the depth turret to machine to a depth of 10mm on the second pass.<br />Fit the guide fence to the router.<br />Set the guide fence to the dimension shown on the drawing.<br />Machine the profile shown on the drawing using the guide fence.<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the guide fence and Ø 6mm cutting bit from the router.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  128. 128. WT4603<br />Router Station 4<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router.<br />Select Ø 12mm cutting bit cutting bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Fix the template guide to the base of the router.<br />Set material in the template.<br />Set the depth of the cut to 5mm.<br />Set the depth turret to machine to a depth of 10mm on the second pass.<br />Machine the profiles of the template using the template guide.<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the template guide and Ø 12mm cutting bit from the router.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  129. 129. WT4603<br />Designing An Effective Poster<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  130. 130. WT4603<br />Function & Sizing<br /><ul><li>Posters must present information in a clear and coherent manner for user interpretation
  131. 131. Posters vary in size depending on the purpose and space where it must be displayed
  132. 132. Posters ranging from sizes A1-A3 are ideal for classroom settings
  133. 133. In the case of this assignment you are required to produce an A2 poster
  134. 134. It can be configured in either landscape or portrait orientation
  135. 135. Student name and ID. must be visible on poster.</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  136. 136. WT4603<br />Graphics<br /><ul><li>In this case graphics are to be hand-sketched
  137. 137. Graphics must be sketched in proportion to the A2 page with enough room left to present supporting text
  138. 138. It is suggested that the largest graphic be placed at the centre of the page
  139. 139. Graphics must be sketched neatly using no less than a HB-2B pencil or a pro-marker if so desired.
  140. 140. Render appropriately i.e. shading or/and use of colour
  141. 141. The use of safety signs, as visible in lab, is also encouraged but must be hand drawn and rendered.</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  142. 142. WT4603<br />Text<br /><ul><li>A poster must be readable from a distance of at least 3-5 metres, therefore the font size of text and size of graphics is very important.
  143. 143. Poster text should be produced electronically, unless it can be presented clearly through other means.
  144. 144. Hand written text is often ineffective unless technical print text is performed with care, which is also acceptable.
  145. 145. The positioning of text is crucial in this poster assignment as you want to make it relevant to machine parts, operational use and health and safety.
  146. 146. You may also apply the use of a key legend as a means to linking poster features with user information/activity sheets. </li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  147. 147. WT4603<br />Colour<br /><ul><li>Different colours have been proven to encourage certain types of behaviour, for example:
  148. 148. Blue = Mandatory/Information
  149. 149. Green = Safe/Perform Action
  150. 150. Red = Prohibition/Do Not Perform Action
  151. 151. Yellow/Orange = Danger/Warning/Caution
  152. 152. The specific use of colours should be evident in the design of your safety posters</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  153. 153. WT4603<br />Background <br /><ul><li>Safety posters are primarily information posters so the use of colours such as blue should draw the user’s attention to the information given.
  154. 154. In the case of this poster assignment it is suggested that blue is used appropriately, but not for the entire background…as this will waste ink and prove costly in terms of printing.
  155. 155. It is suggested that a clear-white background be used with text information being presented in different colours, in particular instructional information (blue)</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  156. 156. WT4603<br />Layout<br /><ul><li>Similar to graphics, it is important that all items are arranged effectively on the poster.
  157. 157. People tend naturally to view poster items in a clockwise manner unless there is a clear distinction of items on a given poster i.e. number sequence, separation of text and images/graphics, headings, sub-headings etc…
  158. 158. This poster is pre-dominantly for classroom use for ages ranging from 13-18yrs of age, therefore a safety posters for any machine should be arrange in a simple and easy to follow manner</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  159. 159. WT4603<br />Methods of Producing a Poster<br />Produced by Hand<br /><ul><li>All features/items produced by hand using pencils, pro-markers, etc…
  160. 160. Cut out/Stick on items are also a viable option, including printed text if so desired. </li></ul>Produced Electronically<br /><ul><li>Use of electronic pro-sketch/ 3-D parametric modelling packages to produced items
  161. 161. Text applied electronically through use of word/powerpoint/adobe photoshop of A2 configuration </li></ul>Produced Using a Combination of Hand/Electronic<br /><ul><li>Sketched images are scanned into word/powerpoint/adobe of A2 configuration
  162. 162. Text applied electronically
  163. 163. Items arranged electronically</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  164. 164. WT4603<br />Example of Simple and Effective Poster <br />Produced by Mr. Brendan Scally 08/09<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />

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