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Wt4603 unit3 week4-26-09-2011

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Surface Planer, Router and Component B

Surface Planer, Router and Component B

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  • 1. WT4603Wood Processing Safety & PracticeAutumn Semester 2011Lecture Unit 3 (Week 4)
    • PLANING MACHINES, HAND ROUTERS & COMPONENT B
    • 2. Lecturer: Mr. Joseph Lyster
    • 3. joseph.lyster@ul.ie
    • 4. Notes prepared by: Mr. Joseph Lyster
    • 5. Notes available on www.slideshare.net/WT4603
  • WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Planer Knives
     
    Important factors when selecting a planer knife
     
    Suitability for cutter block
    Material being processed
    Finish required
    Volume being machined
    Clamping and setting mechanisms
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 6. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    Planers can have 2,3,4,6……. Cutter knives.
    Most smaller machines such as those found in schools will have 2,3 or 4 knives.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 7. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    Knives can be made from Chrome Vanadium steel alloy.
    This is suitable for machining softwoods and non abrasive hardwoods.
    However with advances in machining technology better materials have been developed to machine wood and wood composites.
    Chrome Vanadium knives dull quickly on harder more dense material.
    This requires more sharpening, setting up and leads to a lot of time wastage.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 8. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    High Speed Steel (HSS) is a cobalt steel alloy with a small percentage of Tungsten added.
    It is more suitable for machining all types of wood than the chrome steel compounds.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 9. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    Abrasive stock should be machined using solid or tipped cutters.
    Tungsten Carbide (TC) is the best tool compound for machining manufactured boards.
    For general work HSS cutters are preferred to TC
    Cutters can be re-sharpened easily.
    A keener edge can be achieved on HSS giving a better finish
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 10. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    The reason for this is that steel compounds are smelted and shaped by rolling and forging while the metal is close to melting point.
    The molecules of the compound flow and align themselves in response to this pressure giving the material maximum strength and edge holding capabilities
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 11. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Tungsten carbide is a sintered compound. The fine grain powder from which the cutter will eventually will be made is compressed into a mould ( the ‘blank’ un-edged cutter required) under extremely high temperature (1500C) and pressure to form a solid block.
    Tungsten does not flow – it retains a granular structure and will chip rather than deform if abused.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 12. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    Because if its brittle nature TC cutters require a more obtuse sharpness angle than the HSS cutters (more support for the cutting edge).
    This makes it less satisfactory for cutting softwoods than HSS knives which can be ground to a more acute cutting angle.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 13. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 14. WT4603
    Knife Cutter geometry
    Rake or Cutting angle
    Angle created between the face of the cutting knife and the centre of the cutter block
    Can have a wide range
    Softwoods 27° to 35 °
    Hardwoods 15° to 25 °
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 15. WT4603
    Knife Cutter Geometry
    Bevel or Lip Angle
    Angle formed to give the cutting edge
    Minimum of usually 35°
    Greater for tipped cutters
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 16. WT4603
    Knife Cutter Geometry
    Clearance Angle
    Angle formed between a line tangential to cutting circle and the bevel angle of the knife
    Must be present
    Has a bearing on the life of the cutting edge
    Usually 10° to 15°
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 17. WT4603
    Knife Cutter Geometry
    Peripheral Cutting Speed
    A constant speed in the range of 35-45 m/s will give best results
    Increase in speed may cause loss of dynamic balance due to vibrations
    Poor finish
    Increased noise levels
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 18. WT4603
    Pitch distance
    Combination of a rotary cut and a linear feed will leave the surface of the material with a series of arcs on it called Curtate Trochoids
    The pitch and depth of these arcs will determine how smooth the surface finish will be
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 19. Department of Materials Science & Technology
    University of Limerick
    WT4603
    Pitch Distance
    2mm to 3mm for non obvious joinery and painted external work.
      
    1mm to 1.5 mm for internal painted work.
    0.5mm to 1mm for hardwood joinery and furniture.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 20. WT4603
    Pitch Distance
    The SI unit of time is the second , but the minute is acceptable.
     
    Feed rate on wood working machines is expressed in metres per minute. (m/min)
     
    The formula for the pitch of the cutter marks is given by:
     
    f
    p = -------
    nR
     
    where p = pitch of cutter mark
    f = feed rate
     
    n = number of effective cutters
     
    R = revolutions per minute of block
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 21. Pitch Distance
    WT4603
    The unit for “p” will be metres (m)
     
     
    f m/min m min
    p = ---- = --------- = ----- x ------ = m
    nR 1/min min 1
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 22. WT4603
    Pitch Distance
    Problem 1
    Calculate the cutter pitch of a 4 cutter block revolving at 4200 rev/min with a feed speed of 24m/min.
     
     
    F 24 24
    p = ------- = ------------ = --------- = 0.0014m = 1.4mm
    nR 4 x 4200 16800
    (Internal painted work)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 23. Pitch Distance
    WT4603
    If a graded surface is specified and the machine has a multi-speed feed gearbox, the same formula is used but “f” is expressed in terms of n ,p, and R.
     
     
    f
    p = -------  f = nRp
    nR
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 24. Pitch Distance
    Problem 2
     
    From a cutter block which rotates at 4200 rev/min and has two cutting knives, a surface finish of a 4mm pitch is required. At what speed should the feed gearbox be set.
     
    f = nRp = 2 x 0.004 x 4200 = 33.6 m/min
     
    WT4603
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 25. WT4603
    Chip formation
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 26. WT4603
    Riving
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 27. Riving
    WT4603
    Cracking occurs below the cut depth
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 28. WT4603
    A
    On the surface planer the in-feed table (A) acts as chip breaker and the downward pressure exerted by the operator also makes it act as the pressure bar.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 29. WT4603
    Chip formation
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 30. WT4603
    Chip formation
    Chip breaking aid and pressure bar prevent riving and splintering
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 31. WT4603
    Circular cutter block
    • Reduced noise levels
    • 32. Better balance
    • 33. Safer clamping mechanism
    • 34. Can run head at higher speeds (RPM)
    • 35. Can produce better finish
    • 36. Easier and quicker maintenance
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 37. WT4603
    Circular cutter block
    Clamping bolts are in tension
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 38. WT4603
    Knife clamping mechanism
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 39. WT4603
    Knife clamping mechanism
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 40. Cutter projection
    WT4603
    Use of a limiter to achieve limited cutter projection
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 41. Cutter design
    WT4603
    Cutters should preferably be designed to be used in dimensionally similar pairs, formed to the same profile.
    Pairs should be mounted directly opposite one another. The manufacturer should ensure that instructions on balancing the pairs of cutters after grinding are given to the user.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 42. Cutter projection
    WT4603
    The design of cutter blocks should, as far as is practicable, be such as to prevent excessive cutter projection.
    Where the mounting arrangement permits projection which could subject the cutter to unsafe stresses, the maximum permissible projection for given cutter types should be specified in the user’s instructions.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 43. Hand-fed machines
    WT4603
    For machines designed for hand-fed operations, where cutters are necessarily exposed, the use of chip limiting cutters should be recommended
    For other hand and semi-mechanical feed operations, cutter blocks should have as little cutter projection as is practicable.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 44. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Cutter and Machine Maintenance
     
    Involves:
     
    Grinding and setting of knives
     
    Roller and pressure bar setting
     
    Prevention of resin build up on table and rollers.
     
    Attention to:
    • bearing wear
    • 45. feed complex adjustments
    • 46. rise and fall table
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 47. Surface Planer
    WT4603
    The grinding angle of a cutter can vary between 30 to 35
    This is increased to 40 for hardwoods (cutting edge lasts longer)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 48. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Overheating
     
    May produce micro cracks in the cutting edge which can run into gaps when the cutter is used.
    May cause the cutter to bow due to expansion.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 49. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Overheating can be avoided
    By taking light cuts.
    By ensuring that the grind wheel is ‘dressed’ when required to ensure that the face is open and not glazed when grinding the knives.
    By using a ‘soft’ grinding wheel on HSS cutters – the soft structure of the wheel allows its grains to break away as soon as they are blunt revealing sharper ones.
    By wet grinding – this is the grinding of cutters while partially submerged in a mixture of water and soluble oil. The water is a coolant to prevent frictional heat developing and to disperse it should it occur. The oil prevents rust in the cutters and it provides a degree of cutting lubrication.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 50. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Setting Cutters in Block 
    Before setting the following points should be checked.
     
    The out feed table and cutter block must be clean and free from dust resin.
     
    Method of adjusting cutters.
    Area where setting device is used from should be free from resin and damage.
    Straightness of cutters.
    Cutters correctly balanced both in weight and end for end.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 51. WT4603
    Surface Planer
    Setting devices
    There are a number of cutter setting devices.
    This device and procedure will often be supplied with the machine.
    They can be loosely placed into the following four categories:
     
    Bridge device
     
    Precision cutter setter device
     
    Pin locater device
     
    Wooden straight edge device
     
    Cutters require accurate setting in the block because if the knives are not revolving in the same cutting circle a poor finish will be produced.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 52. WT4603
    Setting Cutter Knives
    Setting of knives will greatly depend on the type of cutter block
    Knife cutter projection
    Chip breaker
    Knife parallel to table
    All knives in the same peripheral cutting circle
    (Refer to machine manual for setting)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 53. WT4603
    Setting Planer Knives
    When planing wooden material a number of factors combine to generate the flat surface.
    Number of cutting knives in the block
    Speed of the revolving block
    Feed speed of the material
    Knife cutter design
    Chip breaking aids
    Nature and species of the material
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 54. Knife cutter design & Chip breaking aids
    These factors combine to produce an acceptable surface finish
    Tip of the cutter splits away the chip
    The chip is forced away from the stock and up along the face of the cutter which is exerting a tearing effect on the grain fibre
    As the knife exits the stock the chip is either cut or will “rive” or tear deeply along the grain line and lift as a long heavy splinter
    WT4603
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 55. Knife cutter design & Chip breaking aids
    The cutter projection and the shape of the block face cause the severed chip to bend back causing a crack across its width
    This makes long grain riving less likely
    (Chip breaker not shown)
    WT4603
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 56. WT4603
    Knife cutter design & Chip breaking aids
    Sharp tooling (a) will aid in the chip bending back and cracking across its width
    Blunt tooling (b) will aid riving
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 57. WT4603
    Chip Formation
    Before knife makes its cut
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 58. WT4603
    Chip Formation
    Chip to be formed
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 59. WT4603
    Chip Formation
    a
    Chip breaker will help prevent riving (a)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 60. WT4603
    Knife cutter design & Chip breaking aids
    Large cutting angle which gives the knife a lifting action which will cause riving
    Grinding a face bevel reduces the risk of riving as it changes the cutting angle
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 61. WT4603
    Face bevel on cutter knife (B)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 62. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 63. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 64. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 65. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 66. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 67. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 68. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 69. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 70. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 71. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 72. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 73. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 74. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 75. WT4603
    Surface Planing
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 76. WT4603
    Hand Router
    Consists of cutter rotating at between 800 to 30,000 RPM being driven by a vertically mounted motor set on a flat based framework
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 77. WT4603
    Hand Router
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 78. WT4603
    Hand Router
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 79. WT4603
    Hand Router
    Cutting grooves
    Cutting rebates
    Cutting slots and recesses
    Cutting beads or mouldings
    Cutting dovetails
    Cutting dovetailed slots and grooves
    Edge trimming
    Profiling (jigs/formers)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 80. WT4603
    Hand Router: Power
    Large powerful routers are heavy and can be difficult to handle for light work.
    Generally in schools the type of work that the router will have to perform will be light to medium work.
    As a rough guide to classifying routers:
    400 W to 600W are for light duty
    750 W to 1200W are for medium duty
    1250 W upwards are for heavy duty
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 81. WT4603
    Collet
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 82. WT4603
    Collet
    A tapered sleeve that is made in a number of segments that is used to hold the shaft of a cutter or bit.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 83. WT4603
    Collet needs to be cleaned regularly
    Must prevent rust
    Must prevent wear
    Can clean with solvents but must spray with WD40 afterwards
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 84. WT4603
    Cutters (Router bits)
    • Two types of cutter
    • 85. High Speed Steel (HSS)
    • 86. Tungsten Carbide Tipped (TCT)
    • 87. HSS work well on softwood because of their keen edge but will blunt quickly
    • 88. TCT cutters perform much better than HSS on hardwoods and MDF
    • 89. Cutters should be cleaned regularly with white spirit and fine scraper to remove dirt, resin and debris.
    • 90. Cutters should also be inspected for damage prior to operating.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 91. WT4603
    Cutters (Router bits)
    A router bit is a tool for woodworking giving a quality finish to the material. It cuts wood providing a way to give a clean and even a decorative edge to woodwork.
    The following is some basic information about router bits to get you started in your woodworking efforts.
    Here are the there main parts of a router bit:
    The shank- the part of the router bit that is inserted into the collet (the sleeve of the router).
    The cutting edge- this part cuts and removes the wood. They are available in several sizes and shapes.
    The pilot- the guide for the router in order to make a correct cut. It can be an extension of the shank or a ball bearing attachment.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 92. WT4603
    Cutters (Router bits)
    Cutters can have disposable or interchangeable profiles.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 93. WT4603
    Cutters (Router bits)
    Cutter diameter will have a direct effect on the power required form the router motor.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 94. WT4603
    Cutter selection & feed direction
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 95. WT4603
    Feed direction
    • If you feed a router into a piece of material without using a guide fence or bearing guide you will find that the router will pull to one side.
    • 96. If you push the router into the material from position (A), the router will pull to your left.
    • 97. If you pull the router into the material toward you from position (B), the router will pull to your right.
    • 98. This occurs as the cutter will climb on the material in front of the cutting edge.
    • 99. This motion must be utilised when using guide fences.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 100. WT4603
    Feed direction & the fence
    To process a straight housing or trench you can use a straight edge guide (A) or the guide fence that is supplied with the router(B).
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 101. WT4603
    F
    Feed direction & the fence
    • In the photo the fence is securely clamped in position.
    • 102. The router is being fed in the direction (F).
    • 103. The router will try to pull to the operators left hand side.
    • 104. With the fence clamped on the left of the router, the router will push against it as it is fed into the material.(Green arrows)
    • 105. If the fence were on the right hand side (when viewed from the operators position) of the router, it would pull away from the fence and result in the trench being crocked.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 106. WT4603
    • The groove is produced as the router is moved forward.
    • 107. Local extraction will remove the bulk of the dust produced.
    • 108. Some may be blown back in the direction of the operator.( )
    • 109. A suitable lab coat will protect the operators clothing.
    • 110. Appropriate dust mask should be used.
    • 111. Feeding the router in the opposite direction will cause any dust to be blown away from the operator.
    • 112. This will require the guide fence to be set up on the right hand side of the router and operator.
    F
    Feed direction & the fence
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 113. WT4603
    Guide fence
    Guide fence fixed to the router.
    Can be fixed from either side.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 114. WT4603
    F
    P
    Using the guide fence
    When feeding the router forward (F) the router will tend to pull to the operators left hand side.
    The fence should be set on the right hand side of the router.
    When the cutter engages in the material it will pull to the left as indicated by the green arrow (P) and keep the fence tight against the materials edge.
    Material should be securely calmped or placed on a non-slip router mat.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 115. WT4603
    Profiles can be processed on material using templates.
    Templates can have the required profile as an internal shape or an external profile.
    To process the section marked (A)
    In the photo an internal template can be used to guide the router to produce the profile.
    Feed direction can be established using the right hand rule.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 116. WT4603
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 117. WT4603
    Using the template guide
    Fit the template guide to the router base plate.
    Set cutter plunge depth.
    Place over template at the starting position (A).
    Switch on the router and then plunge to depth (B).
    Feed router in a clockwise direction.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 118. WT4603
    ROUTER PULLS TO THE LEFT
    FENCE PULLED TOWARDS WORKPIECE
    FEED
    DIRECTION
    Router Station 1
    Carry out the following operations:
    Isolate the router.
    Select V- groove cutting bit.
    Fit the bit in the router securely.
    Set the depth of the cut to 3mm.
    Machine the profile shown on the drawing using the guide fence. (Note: Guide fence is set. Do not adjust.)
    Isolate the router.
    Remove the cutter from the router.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 119. WT4603
    Router Station 3
    Carry out the following operations:
    Isolate the router.
    Select Ø 6mm cutting bit.
    Fit the bit in the router securely.
    Set the depth of the cut to 5mm.
    Set the depth turret to machine to a depth of 10mm on the second pass.
    Fit the guide fence to the router.
    Set the guide fence to the dimension shown on the drawing.
    Machine the profile shown on the drawing using the guide fence.
    Isolate the router.
    Remove the guide fence and Ø 6mm cutting bit from the router.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 120. WT4603
    Router Station 4
    Carry out the following operations:
    Isolate the router.
    Select Ø 12mm cutting bit cutting bit.
    Fit the bit in the router securely.
    Fix the template guide to the base of the router.
    Set material in the template.
    Set the depth of the cut to 5mm.
    Set the depth turret to machine to a depth of 10mm on the second pass.
    Machine the profiles of the template using the template guide.
    Isolate the router.
    Remove the template guide and Ø 12mm cutting bit from the router.
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 121. WT4603
    WEEK 4: LABS
    Component B
    • You will be provided with two pieces of un-sawn material, both measuring 1020 x 145 x 25.
    • 122. You will label both pieces B1 and B2, respectively.
    B1
    Table Top
    145
    1020
    Back/Side Rails & Drawer Front
    B2
    145
    1020
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 123. WT4603
    WEEK 4: LABS
    Component B Cutting List
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 124. WT4603
    B1 = Table Top
    • B1 must be planed all round (P.A.R) to 1020 x 140 x 22
    • 125. The process for B1 will involve the following:
    • 126. Surface plane/thickness to 140 x 22
    • 127. Rip B1 @ 67mm (x2)
    • 128. Thickness to 65mm (x2)
    • 129. Cross cut to 500mm (x4)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 130. WT4603
    B2 = Back and Side Rails
    • B2 must be planed all round (P.A.R) to 1020 x 140 x 20
    • 131. The process for B2 will involve the following:
    • 132. Surface plane/thickness to 140 x 20
    • 133. Rip B2 @ 132mm (x1)
    • 134. Thickness to 130mm (x1)
    • 135. Cross cut 1 = Side Rails @ 158mm (x2)
    • 136. Cross cut 2 = Drawer Front @ 272mm (x1)
    • 137. Cross cut 3 = Back Rail @ 312mm (x1)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 138. WT4603
    Processing Sequence:
    Surface plane face side/face edge for B1 & B2
    Thickness 1 = B1 Table Top to 140 x 22
    Thickness 2 = B2 Side/Back rails/Drawer Front to 140 x 20
    Rip 1 = B1 Table Top @ 67mm (x2)
    Thickness 3 = B1 Table Top to 65mm (x2)
    Rip 2 = B2 Side/Back rails/Drawer Front @ 132mm (x1)
    Thickness 4 = B2 Side/Back rails/Drawer Front to 130mm (x1)
    Cross cut 1 = B1 Table Top @ 500mm (x4)
    Cross cut 2 = B2 Side Rails @ 158mm (x2)
    Cross cut 3 = B2 Drawer Front @ 272mm (x1)
    Cross cut 4 = B2 Back Rail @ 312mm (x1)
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 139. WT4603
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  • 140. WT4603
    Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering