Virtuosity pt. 1     Concertos
What’s virtuosity?
• Relative to the instrument / voice• Display over expression• Extremes (tempo, register)
What’s a concerto?
Concerto• Concertare = skirmish, contend, dispute• Conserto = to bind, join together• Contrast
Soloist(s) & Orchestra
Early 18th C. (Baroque)           vs.Later 18th C. (Classical
Antonio Vivaldi           (1678-1741)•   Venice, “The Red Priest”•   Pio Ospedale della Pietà•   over 500 Concertos
The Concerto  contrast between
The Concerto                contrast betweensmall group
The Concerto                contrast betweensmall group                        large group
...orcontrast between
...or          contrast betweensoloist
...or          contrast betweensoloist                      orchestra
volume          virtuosity         Contrasttimbre              themes
A baroque concerto contrasts asoloist or solo group with a ______. 1. larger ensemble 2. basso continuo 3. chorus of singe...
Ritornello Form          alternation betweenSmall group/              Large group/  soloist                  orchestra
R1        R2        R3        R4        R5     S1        S2        S3        S4Ritornello = something that returns
The ritornello in aconcerto is a kind of ____.1. accompaniment2. orchestra refrain3. solo section4. fugue subject
Vivaldi, Four Seasons         (1723)• 4 Violin concertos (3 mvts each)    • Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter• Written to go ...
“Winter”mvt 1   To tremble from cold in the icy snow,        In the harsh breath of a horrid wind;        To run, stamping...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
R1        S1        R2        S2   R3      S3         R4     “to     “in the “to run,             “our teeth,  tremble    ...
Program music is music       which:• 1) has a text (lyrics)• 2) is performed in concerts• 3) refers to a story, event, or ...
In Vivaldi’s Winter, the repetitive figure in both the orchestra and solo parts                suggests:• 1) stamping of th...
“Autumn”   mvt 1Celebrates the peasant, with songs and dances,The pleasure of a bountiful harvest.And fired up by Bacchus l...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
R1            R2          R3         R4         R5         S1           S2         S3         S4                          ...
Later 18th C. (Classical)
Mozart concertos•   30 for piano•   5 for violin•   2 flute, 1 oboe, 1    clarinet, 4 horn,    1 bassoon•   various multipl...
Piano concertos
Piano concertos• Fortepiano
Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791
Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791• Vienna subscription series
Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791• Vienna subscription series• for himself and others
Classical concertos are      a hybrid of• 1) Ritornello and Sonata forms• 2) Ritornello and Fugue• 3) Dance movements and ...
Classical concerto form “hybrid” of sonata and ritornello forms
Ritornello form
Ritornello formR1        R2           R3        R4     S1         S2          S3
Ritornello formR1        R2           R3        R4     S1         S2          S3            Sonata form
Ritornello form     R1           R2           R3         R4             S1         S2          S3                    Sonat...
Ritornello form       R1         R2           R3         R4             S1         S2          S3                    Sonat...
Ritornello form       R1         R2           R3             R4             S1         S2          S3                    S...
Classical Concerto FormExposition Development    RecapitulationR1   S1   (R2) S2        (R3) S3 R4.1 Cadenza R4.2
Piano Concerto in A,        K488       (1786)
Mozart, Piano Concerto in A, K. 488, mvt. 1Orchestral Expo   1. lyrical                    strings                  2. ene...
Mozart, Piano Concerto in A, K. 488, mvt. 1Orchestral Expo   1. lyrical                    strings                  2. ene...
Development      4., fragmented          winds, soloist, orch. dialogueRecapitulation   1.                              so...
Development      4., fragmented          winds, soloist, orch. dialogueRecapitulation   1.                              so...
1010f11 10-3
1010f11 10-3
1010f11 10-3
1010f11 10-3
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  • 1010f11 10-3

    1. 1. Virtuosity pt. 1 Concertos
    2. 2. What’s virtuosity?
    3. 3. • Relative to the instrument / voice• Display over expression• Extremes (tempo, register)
    4. 4. What’s a concerto?
    5. 5. Concerto• Concertare = skirmish, contend, dispute• Conserto = to bind, join together• Contrast
    6. 6. Soloist(s) & Orchestra
    7. 7. Early 18th C. (Baroque) vs.Later 18th C. (Classical
    8. 8. Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)• Venice, “The Red Priest”• Pio Ospedale della Pietà• over 500 Concertos
    9. 9. The Concerto contrast between
    10. 10. The Concerto contrast betweensmall group
    11. 11. The Concerto contrast betweensmall group large group
    12. 12. ...orcontrast between
    13. 13. ...or contrast betweensoloist
    14. 14. ...or contrast betweensoloist orchestra
    15. 15. volume virtuosity Contrasttimbre themes
    16. 16. A baroque concerto contrasts asoloist or solo group with a ______. 1. larger ensemble 2. basso continuo 3. chorus of singers 4. second soloist
    17. 17. Ritornello Form alternation betweenSmall group/ Large group/ soloist orchestra
    18. 18. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4Ritornello = something that returns
    19. 19. The ritornello in aconcerto is a kind of ____.1. accompaniment2. orchestra refrain3. solo section4. fugue subject
    20. 20. Vivaldi, Four Seasons (1723)• 4 Violin concertos (3 mvts each) • Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter• Written to go with sonnets• Often depicts characteristics of the season• program music
    21. 21. “Winter”mvt 1 To tremble from cold in the icy snow, In the harsh breath of a horrid wind; To run, stamping ones feet every moment, Our teeth chattering in the extreme coldmvt 2 Before the fire to pass peaceful, Contented days while the rain outside pours down.mvt 3 We tread the icy path slowly and cautiously, for fear of tripping and falling. Then turn abruptly, slip, crash on the ground and, rising, hasten on across the ice lest it cracks up. We feel the chill north winds course through the home despite the locked and bolted doors... this is winter, which nonetheless brings its own delights.
    22. 22. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    23. 23. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    24. 24. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    25. 25. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    26. 26. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    27. 27. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    28. 28. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    29. 29. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    30. 30. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    31. 31. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    32. 32. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
    33. 33. Program music is music which:• 1) has a text (lyrics)• 2) is performed in concerts• 3) refers to a story, event, or idea• 4) is heard in the background
    34. 34. In Vivaldi’s Winter, the repetitive figure in both the orchestra and solo parts suggests:• 1) stamping of the feet• 2) ducks attacking• 3) trembling in the cold wind• 4) sitting under a shade tree
    35. 35. “Autumn” mvt 1Celebrates the peasant, with songs and dances,The pleasure of a bountiful harvest.And fired up by Bacchus liquor, many end their revelry in sleep mvt 2Everyone is made to forget their cares and to sing and danceBy the air which is tempered with pleasureAnd (by) the season that invites so many, manyOut of their sweetest slumber to fine enjoyment mvt 3The hunters emerge at the new dawn,And with horns and dogs and guns depart upon their huntingThe beast flees and they follow its trail;Terrified and tired of the great noiseOf guns and dogs, the beast, wounded, threatensLanguidly to flee, but harried, dies.
    36. 36. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    37. 37. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    38. 38. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    39. 39. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    40. 40. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    41. 41. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    42. 42. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    43. 43. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    44. 44. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    45. 45. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    46. 46. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    47. 47. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    48. 48. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
    49. 49. Later 18th C. (Classical)
    50. 50. Mozart concertos• 30 for piano• 5 for violin• 2 flute, 1 oboe, 1 clarinet, 4 horn, 1 bassoon• various multiple- instrument concertos
    51. 51. Piano concertos
    52. 52. Piano concertos• Fortepiano
    53. 53. Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791
    54. 54. Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791• Vienna subscription series
    55. 55. Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791• Vienna subscription series• for himself and others
    56. 56. Classical concertos are a hybrid of• 1) Ritornello and Sonata forms• 2) Ritornello and Fugue• 3) Dance movements and opera
    57. 57. Classical concerto form “hybrid” of sonata and ritornello forms
    58. 58. Ritornello form
    59. 59. Ritornello formR1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3
    60. 60. Ritornello formR1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata form
    61. 61. Ritornello form R1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata formExposition Development Recapitulation
    62. 62. Ritornello form R1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata formExposition Development RecapitulationTh1, Br, Th2, Closing
    63. 63. Ritornello form R1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata formExposition Development RecapitulationTh1, Br, Th2, Th1, Br, Th2, Closing Closing
    64. 64. Classical Concerto FormExposition Development RecapitulationR1 S1 (R2) S2 (R3) S3 R4.1 Cadenza R4.2
    65. 65. Piano Concerto in A, K488 (1786)
    66. 66. Mozart, Piano Concerto in A, K. 488, mvt. 1Orchestral Expo 1. lyrical strings 2. energetic full orchestra 3. lyrical, conjunct strings then windsSolo Expo 1., elaborated soloist 2., modulating orchestra plus soloist 3., new key soloist 4., new theme orchestra
    67. 67. Mozart, Piano Concerto in A, K. 488, mvt. 1Orchestral Expo 1. lyrical strings 2. energetic full orchestra 3. lyrical, conjunct strings then windsSolo Expo 1., elaborated soloist 2., modulating orchestra plus soloist 3., new key soloist 4., new theme orchestra
    68. 68. Development 4., fragmented winds, soloist, orch. dialogueRecapitulation 1. solo + orch 2., stays in home key solo + orch 3., in home key solo + orch 4., in home key solo + orch 2. orchestra 4. orchestra Cadenza improvisation soloist Coda 3. orchestra
    69. 69. Development 4., fragmented winds, soloist, orch. dialogueRecapitulation 1. solo + orch 2., stays in home key solo + orch 3., in home key solo + orch 4., in home key solo + orch 2. orchestra 4. orchestra Cadenza improvisation soloist Coda 3. orchestra

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