“Persistently Low Achieving” in WashingtonGreg LobdellCo-founder and Director of ResearchCenter for Educational Effectivenessgreg@effectiveness.org
Today’s Outcomes Understand the definition of “Persistently Low Achieving” in Washington Understand the application of this definition in the context of WA Understand the Profile of these 47 buildings What’s Next… Dialogue and Discussion
Project Background- The Why?
Persistently lowest-achieving: Schools with three consecutive years of data in the lowest 5% in both reading and mathematics and secondary schools with a weighted average of graduation rates less than 60% over a three-year period.
Weighting is equal between reading and mathematics
Weighting is equal between elementary and secondary schools
Graduation rate weighted-average is based on the number of students for each year
Graduation rate is calculated as required in Guidance on School Improvement Grants, January 21, 2010 consistent with C.F.R. § 200.19(b)
Definitions Title I eligible: Based on SY 2009-10 student data, a school is considered Title I eligible if: Poverty percentage is 35% or more; or The school’s poverty percentage is greater than or equal to the district’s poverty average Lack of Progress: The school’s percent increase or decrease (slope of linear regression) over the most recent three-year period compared to the state slope 7
Slope == Progress 3% Improvement Per Year
Tier Definitions Tier I School Any Title I school in improvement, corrective action, or restructuring that-
Is among the lowest-achieving five percent of Title I schools in improvement, corrective action, or restructuring in the State or the five lowest-achieving such schools (whichever number of schools is greater); or
Is a high school that has had a graduation rate as defined in 34 C.F.R. § 200.19(b) that is below 60 percent over a number of years.
Tier II School Any secondary school that is eligible for, but does not receive, Title I, Part A funds that-
Is among the lowest achieving five percent of secondary schools or the five lowest-achieving secondary schools in the State that are eligible for, but do not receive, Title I funds; or
Is a high school that has had a graduation rate as defined in 34 C.F.R. § 200.19(b) that is below 60 percent over a number of years;
Tier III School Any Title I school in improvement, corrective action, or restructuring that is not a Tier I school. 10
Tier I: Title I eligible elementary schools that are no higher achieving than the highest-achieving school that is defined as a “persistently lowest-achieving school” in Tier I and that:
Have not made AYP for two consecutive years.
Tier II: Title I eligible secondary schools that are (1) no higher achieving than the highest-achieving school that is defined as a “persistently lowest-achieving school” in Tier II or (2) high schools that have had a graduation rate below 60 percent over a number of years and that:
Have not made AYP for two consecutive years.
Is in Step 5 of Improvement with a declining improvement trend
Key References “SIG-G”: Guidance on School Improvement Grants under section 1003(g) of the ESEA of 1965. US Dept. of Education December 18, 2009 and updated January 20, 2010 http://www2.ed.gov/programs/sif/guidance20100120.doc Interim final requirements for School Improvement Grants http://www2.ed.gov/legislation/FedRegister/finrule/2010-1/012110a.pdf 12
Data Sources 21 Independent data sources Demographic information by district: 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Demographic information by school: 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 AYP & Title I information by school: 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Graduation rates by school 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 2009-10 Title I eligibility and status (Oct ‘09 data) 13
The “Alternative” Methodology…
Key Concepts ‘Persistently’ requires 3 years of data in Reading and Math Secondary: grades 7 – 12 (WAC 392-348-235) As SIG-G requires, proficiency calculated for all-students, continuously enrolled, following AYP Accountability Workbook Minimum of N of 30 applied for all students tested in a building by content area per year 16
Key Concepts Tier Size: The number of schools in the consideration-set (for Tiers I and II) is calculated based on Title and AYP status before “minimum N” rule is applied (as per SIG-G). Schools that had 2009 data but are closed in 2009-10 are removed from overall consideration-set before creating the sizes for each tier. 17
Defining Tiers: Tier I 18
Defining Tiers: Tier II 19
Key Concepts Following SIG-G: Added Ranks Method for 6 ranks If there are N schools in consideration-set: this results in a value for each school between 6 and6 x N If ranking 450 schools If your school was top ranked in each year in both reading and math your added-rank = 6 If your school was the bottom ranked in each year in both reading and math your added-rank = 2700 (6 x 450) 20
Key Concepts FINAL rank-ordering (3-level sort): Schools in lowest-5% in BOTH reading and math (at least once in each over 3 years) Total “added ranks” Progress 21
Added Ranks Method 22 Schools in lowest 5% only in 1 content area Schools in lowest 5% in Both Reading and Math
Applying Sort-Order 23 Note two schools with “Added Rank” = 961. Progress defines who ranks above and below.
Summary Example Tier 1: 450 schools in consideration set (ranks 1 to 450) School 4: in bottom 5% in both reading and math School 3: Larger ‘added rank’ than 1 & 2 Schools 1 & 2: Tie in added ranks so next step is “progress” 24
Validation US Department of Education approval of methodology wasthe critical step! OSPI Student Information and Assessment division Integrated data-set validated back to individual components All “missing data” confirmed (or fixed) Bottom-up and top-down creation of tiers and the final lists 25
Who/Where/Why?Profile of Tiers I and II
Added Ranks Method 40 Consequence of this Methodology:
In very small schools, volatility (year to year) is typically larger
One year has a significant impact on “added rank”
What About The WA Accountability Index? Reading, Writing, Math, & Science Those outcomes are each measured using four indicators: achievement of students who are not from low-income families; achievement of students from low-income families; achievement of all students when compared to “peers” (those with similar student characteristics, such as the percentage of students who have a disability, are learning English, are designated as gifted, come from low-income families, and are mobile); and improvement in the achievement of all students from the previous year. The average of the resulting 20 measures comprises the overall index SB6696 and Required Action…
Innovative Leadership Getting Ahead of the Curve
Innovative Leadership Proactively working on internal “turnaround” projects Segmentation of schools in a performance management framework Comprehensive School Review- the “Deep Dive” Aggressive research-based interventions
Consider- If this was your district…
What would you do as a leader? Policy to solution or is policy the problem? Beliefs drive behavior…or does behavior drive beliefs? Institutions: “collective values” or “collective interests”? More about this after dinner with Gene…
Comprehensive Planning Organizational Management Financial Management Monitoring of Intervention Professional Development Leadership Teaching and Learning Student Achievement Increased Student Achievement CEE Data Foundation/Comprehensive School Profile
References You Can Use Primary Beat The Odds (2006). Morrison Institute for Public Policy (2006). Why Some Schools With Latino Children Beat the Odds…and Others Don’t. Tempe, AZ.: Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, jointly with Center for the Future of Arizona. (aka: “Beat The Odds (2006) ). Elmore, R. (2004).Knowing the Right Things to Do: School Improvement and Performance-Based Accountability. Washington, D.C.: National Governors Association- Center for Best Practices. Marzano, R. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research Into Action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Fixen, D.L. et al. (2005).Implementation Research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231) School Turnarounds (2007). Public Impact (2007). School Turnarounds: A review of the cross-sector evidence on dramatic organizational improvement. Public Impact, Academic Development Institute- prepared for the Center on Innovation and Improvement. Retrieved from: http://www.centerii.org/ (aka: School Turnarounds (2007)). Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2004).Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research. Olympia, WA. Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2003).Nine Characteristics of High Performing Schools. A research-based resource for school leadership teams to assist with the School Improvement Process. Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Olympia, WA. Sharratt, G. C., Mills, S., & Lobdell, G. (2008).Schools of distinction: What makes them distinct?Washington State Kappan, 2(1), 20-22. Secondary Center for Educational Effectiveness (CEE) (2005). Longitudinal Change in Staff Perceptions of the 9 Characteristics of High Performing Schools in OSPI SIA Cohort-II and III Schools. Redmond, WA: Center for Educational Effectiveness. Elmore, R. (2000). Building a New Structure For School Leadership. Washington, D.C.: The Albert Shanker Institute. Elmore, R. (2002). Bridging the Gap Between Standards and Achievement. Washington, D.C.: The Albert Shanker Institute. Tschannen-Moran, (2004). Trust Matters, Leadership for Successful Schools. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass.