History of the School Superintendent WSU Superintendent Program 2011-13 Cohort

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  • 1. History of the School Superintendent WSU Superintendent Program 2011-13 Cohort WSU Field-Based Superintendent's Certification Program
  • 2. Questions???
    • Define the word “superintendent”.
    • How does one become a school superintendent?
    • What does a school superintendent do?
  • 3. Paul Houston, former Executive Director of AASA says . .
    • “ The history of the school superintendency has been a fitful journey from manager to leader. The role has evolved from an ad hoc response to local needs for school management to leading a complex community learning enterprise. It is a position that is widely influential but narrowly understood.” (2006)
  • 4. Types of Superintendents
    • Three levels of superintendents
      • state, regional, and local
    • “ Directly or indirectly, the position of superintendent evolved at all three of these levels for essentially the same reason--those charged with operating state government ( legislatures ) recognized the need to develop and coordinate state systems of public elementary and secondary education.”
    • (Kowalski, 1999)
  • 5. 1830-1850 Era of the Common School Movement (State Level)
    • Goal was to build a state system of elementary and secondary schools
      • Emphasis on educating all children in a common facility
      • Use schools as an instrument of government policy
      • Create state agencies to control local schools
  • 6.
    • First state superintendent position established in 1812 in New York
      • Duties
        • Developing a plan for a common school system
        • Reporting the management of public funds
        • Providing school related information to the legislature
  • 7. (Intermediate Level )
    • Confederations of local school districts
    • Term “County Superintendent” often associated with intermediate districts
    • Liaison between small rural districts and the state department of education
    • Services differ greatly from state to state
    • Chief administrator not always called superintendent--some executive director or director
  • 8. (Local Level)
    • Local school districts unique to U.S.
    • Rooted in principles of liberty and equity
    • Even in earliest years, inequities in the quantity and quality of education among communities was apparent
  • 9.
    • “ Faced with this dilemma, state officials sought a compromise that would reasonably balance the principles of adequacy and equity in education with liberty . Their solution was to simultaneously establish state control and reaffirm local control . This seemingly contradictory approach was accomplished by creating state agencies to oversee public education, while delegating select policy powers to local school boards. The strategy effectively made local school boards legal extensions of state government. It was within this context that state officials achieved the compromise between seeking adequacy and efficiency through a state system of public education and the provision of liberty through local boards of education.” (Butts & Cremin, 1953 )
  • 10. School Boards
    • School boards have these primary responsibilities:
      • Ensure that state laws, rules, and regulations are followed
      • Establish policy in areas not covered by state law, rules, and regulations
      • Employ a superintendent to serve as chief executive officer
      • Raise money through taxes
      • Expend public funds
      • Enter into legal contracts and otherwise function as a legal entity
  • 11. Superintendents
    • First superintendents appointed in late 1830 ’s
    • Primarily in large urban systems
    • First full-time, paid superintendent
      • Nathan Bishop; Providence, Rhode Island; Salary: $1250/yr.; Later was first superintendent of New York
    • Duties primarily instructional; board managed fiscal
      • “ The primary reason for creating the position was to have a person work full-time at supervising classroom instruction and assuring a uniformity in the curriculum.” (Spring, 1994)
  • 12.
    • Most men who became the first superintendents had been teachers
      • “ Some were elevated to administration because they were perceived by school trustees, or others legally in control of the school, as possessing the qualities of a leader; some were selected because they were effective teachers; others were advanced because of political connections; and still others were promoted simply because they were men.” (Kowlaski and Reitzug, 1993)
  • 13.
    • Around 1910 the superintendency became preoccupied with management due to changes occurring:
      • Scientific Management --practices in industry were applied to schools
      • Schools Agencies of Control --supervision necessary to ensure goals were being attained
      • Separating Teaching from Administration --management a male responsibility and teaching, a subordinate role, primarily a female role
  • 14.
      • Establishing Bureaucratic-like Structures --efficiency achieved if administrators managed the resources; teachers and others needed supervision to be sure doing work in accordance with policies
      • Quest for Identity and Prestige --administration recognized as responsibility separate from, and superior to, teaching, since it was management
      • Demarcation between Policy Development and Policy Administration --schools boards responsible for determining what should be done and administrators responsible for determining how things would get done
  • 15. The First “School Reform” Era (1880’s and 1890’s)
    • Led by Horace Mann, Catharine Beecher, others
    • Goals: Standardization and Quality
    • Strategies: Longer school year; improved attendance, professionalization of teaching, standardized curriculum
    • Driven, largely, by changes in the nature of work
    • In 1890, a survey of 20 leading universities uncovered only two courses in educational administration
  • 16. Emerging Professionalism (1900 ’s and 1910’s)
    • Led by Ellwood Cubberley (Stanford), George Strayer (Columbia), Frank Spaulding (Minneapolis) and Ella Flagg Young (Chicago)
    • Movement away from the “political spoils” of the 1800’s towards a system build around qualifications and merit
    • Between 1905 and 1910, 28 states appointed commissions to investigate educational problems
    • “ Surveys” (management reviews) became powerful tool
    • Increased professionalization of educational leadership
    • % of superintendents with doctorates:
      • 1923 = 3% 1951 = 14% 1971 = 23% 1992 = 36% 2000 = 48%
  • 17. The Scientific Management Era (1920 ’s and 1930’s)
    • Moved away from political model towards a bureaucratic model based on business administration concepts
    • Based on Fredrick Taylor’s theory of “scientific management” which promised increased efficiency and higher levels of “production”
    • Division of labor, time management, and increased supervision were key techniques
    • Moved significant degree of decision making control from the boards to superintendents
    • Advanced the professional training of administrators
    • Concept still influences much of how we organize and operate school districts
  • 18. The Democratic Administration Era (1940 ’s and 1950’s)
    • Based on teacher demand for participatory role in decision making
    • Also, sense that scientific management concepts were detrimental to teacher/administrator relations
    • Every teacher should be provided “ ...some regular organic way in which he can, directly or through representatives chosen, participate in the formulation of the controlling aims, methods, and materials of the school of which he is a part. ” John Dewey (1937)
    • AASA (1938): “exemplify in the relations between teachers and pupils and between administrators and teachers, the essential spirit of democracy.”
    • Moved focus towards issues of human relations, motivation, etc...
  • 19. The Civil Rights Era (1960 ’s and 1970’s)
    • Greater involvement of boards and the community in the work of the superintendent
    • De-centralization of decision making
    • Focus on human relations (Win-Win bargaining)
    • Greater attention to issues of diversity; but, racial and gender equality remain an unachieved goal
  • 20. The Educational Reform Era (1980 ’s and 1990’s)
    • Heightened concern over quality of schools and education -- focused by A Nation at Risk report in 1983
    • Inspired by concerns over equity issues and the inability of industry to compete in a worldwide marketplace
    • Politicians, corporate leaders, media and others rushed to “fix” public schools
    • Policy making pendulum swung back and forth between superintendents and school boards; disagreement about what constitutes policy making and what constitutes management
    • A mix of top-down mandates and move towards site-based decisions
    • Role of the superintendent shifted from manager to leadership for change with focus on improvement of teaching and learning
  • 21. Effective Schools Research (late 1960 ’s through 1990’s)
    • Effective school correlates (late 1960 ’s to mid 1980’s)
      • Safe and orderly environment
      • Strong instructional leadership
      • High expectations for student achievement
      • Clear and focused mission
      • Time on task
    • 1970 ’, 80’s, and 90’s continued to examine the relationship between classroom practices, school practices, and student achievement—resulted in body of knowledge and data
    • 2000 to now—research translates well-defined, effective classroom, school, and leadership practices into specific actions and behaviors (i.e. School Leadership that Works, McREL, 2005)
  • 22. Superintendents at the Start of the 21st Century
    • Average superintendent is in his/her second superintendency, and has been a superintendent for 9 years
    • Most are married, and grew up in a rural areas or a small towns
    • Teacher > Principal > Central Office > Superintendent (48%)
    • Teacher > Principal > Superintendent (32%)
    • 87% are male; 95% are white; 45% have a doctorate
    • 11% identify themselves as liberals; 33% conservatives; 56% moderates; 34% Democrats; 31% Republicans; 35% independents
    • 7.8% report “very great” stress; 42.3% report “considerable” stress
    • When asked if they ’d chose the superintendency, again, for a career, 67% indicate that they would
    • “ The opportunity to make a significant difference in the lives of children” is the strongest motivating factor for most career choices
  • 23. Superintendent ’s Today (AASA 2006 Study The State of the American School Superintendency: A Mid-Decade Study—Glass/Franceschini)
    • Mean age of superintendents 54.6 years (76.7% over age 50)
    • Superintendents are entering the superintendency later in life and selecting to stay in schools or in central office positions longer before entering
    • Women superintendents 21.7% of respondents
    • 2005-06 school year, 2,244 new superintendents hired in the 13,251 school districts, turnover rate 16.9%
    • 39% of respondents plan to retire within next 5 years (meaning 10,000+ positions turn over in next 5 years)
    • More than 1/3 reported they had no mentoring prior to becoming a superintendent
    • 59% indicated they work either under considerable stress or very great stress
  • 24. Key Findings from AASA Study
    • Superintendents are drawn to the profession by a desire to help students achieve.
    • More women are entering the profession.
    • A majority of superintendents believe the No Child Left behind law has had a negative effect on the nation ’s schools.
    • Superintendents have positive relationships with their school boards.
    • Superintendents have longevity in their jobs (mean 5.5 years, median nearly 6 years)
    • Superintendents experience high levels of stress, and stress levels are rising over time.
    • Superintendents are satisfied with their jobs, despite the stress (90% say satisfied or very satisfied with their current position)
  • 25. Superintendent ’s Today (McREL 2006 Meta-Analysis School District Leadership That Works: The Effect of Superintendent Leadership on Student Achievement—Waters/Marzano)
    • Examined findings from 27 studies conducted since 1970 that used rigorous, quantitative methods to study the influence of school district leaders on student achievement
    • Studies involved 2,817 school districts and achievement scores of 3.4 million students
  • 26. Findings from McREL Study
    • District-level leadership matters
    • Effective superintendents focus their efforts on creating goal-oriented districts
      • Collaborative goal setting
      • Non-negotiable goals for achievement and instruction
      • Board alignment and support of district goals
      • Monitoring goals for achievement and instruction
      • Use of resources to support achievement and instruction goals
    • Superintendent tenure is positively correlated with student achievement
    • “ Defined autonomy”—provide principals with non-negotiable goals for learning and instruction while giving principals responsibility and
    • authority for determining how to meet the goals
  • 27. Washington State
        • Article IX, Section 1: “It is the paramount duty of
        • the State to make ample provision for the education
        • of all children residing within its borders without
        • distinction or preference on account of race, color,
        • caste, or sex ”
        • (ample: liberal, fully sufficient, without parsimony)
        • Article IX Section 2: “The legislature shall provide
        • for a general and uniform system of public schools . . .
        • (general: applying to a whole kind, class, common, widespread)
        • (uniform: always the same; identical; conforming to standard)
  • 28. Early Schools
    • First School in the Oregon Country @ Fort Vancouver, 1832 by John Ball, mostly Indian students
    • Spokane Garry @ Spokane Falls started school 20X50 feet, for his people
    • Missionaries started schools but none lasted more than ten years or after 1847 except Fort Vancouver and Willamette
    • First school for white children in Olympia, 1852, by A. W. Moore, the postmaster, in his home
    • 1853 three such schools north of Columbia River
  • 29. Establishment of Early School System
    • Territorial Governor Issac Stevens
    • 1854 Basic Common School Law of Washington Territory
    • Formation of school districts by county superintendents
    • Created the offices of school director and
    • county superintendent and prescribed the duties
    • Authorized the levying of school tax by vote of electors
    • Created Permanent School Fund
    • Failed to provide for chief school administrative officer
    • for the territory
  • 30.
    • County superintendents
    • No qualifications required
    • One year term
    • Salary $25.00 (increase possible)
    • Duties--visit schools, examine persons wanting to teach and divide inhabited areas into districts
  • 31.
    • 1861 first Territorial Superintendent of the Common Schools
    • B.C. Lippincott--Olympia
    • Three year term
    • Duties--collect information, report to legislature, make recommendations for improvements
    • 1862 were 53 schools and 2000+ students
    • ages 4 to 21
    • • In 1862 Lippincott removed and the office abolished because he recommended against establishing a territorial university
  • 32.
    • 1871 legislature created the Territorial Superintendent of Public Instruction
      • Elected every two years by legislature in joint session
      • Nelson Rounds, former president of Willamette University was appointed superintendent
      • Office in his home in Olympia
      • Later offices of territorial superintendents were in Goldendale, Waitsburg, Port Townsend, Garfield, and Ellensburg
  • 33.
    • 1877 Territorial Board of Education
      • Territorial board consisted of Territorial Superintendent and one person from the three judicial districts appointed for two years by Governor with approval of the legislature
      • Composition and duties of board unchanged until statehood in 1889
  • 34.
    • 1854 Legislature established three month minimum school year
    • By 1889 length of school year ranged from three to eight months with an average of four and one-half months
    • During territorial period
        • Grade schools mandatory in towns having 500 or more students
        • Uniting of school districts to improve services
        • Extension of duties of school boards, including authorization to hire a superintendent and to levy a local tax if approved by voters was established prior to statehood
  • 35. Washington Superintendents
    • Superintendent of Public Instruction
      • One of eight elected state officials
      • Elected on a non-partisan basis every four years
      • Duties
        • Gather and report information
        • Secure needed laws and appropriations from the state and federal governments and implement those statutes
        • Apportion and distribute moneys to local school districts and ESDs
        • Administer the state school construction assistance program and other grant programs
        • Provide technical help in finance and curriculum matters to ESDs and school districts
        • Issue certificates for school employees
        • Ex-officio member of State Board of Education and serve on various other boards
  • 36.
    • Educational Service District Superintendents
      • Nine ESDs defined as “regional agencies”
      • Hired by boards of seven to nine members representing subdivisions of the ESD
      • Non taxing districts--depend on state, federal government and local school districts for funding
      • Duties
        • Provide cooperative and informational services to local school districts
        • Assist the superintendent of public instruction and the state board of education in the performance of their duties
        • Provide services to districts . . . to assure equal educational opportunities (local districts reimburse)
  • 37.
    • Local School District Superintendent
      • 295 school districts
      • Enrolled 1,035,887 students October 2009
      • Hired by non-partisan members of the board of directors who are elected to four year terms
      • Superintendent responsible to the board of directors for carrying out district policy, administering the operation of the district, supervising district personnel, and advising the board of directors on all educational matters for the welfare and interest of the students
  • 38.
    • RCW 28A.330.050 Duties of superintendent as secretary of the board. In addition to the duties as prescribed in RCW28A.400.030, the school district superintendent, as secretary of the board, may be authorized by the board to act as business manager, purchasing agent, and/or superintendent of buildings and janitors, and charged with the special care of school buildings and other property of the district, and he or she shall perform other duties as the board may direct.
  • 39.
    • RCW28A.400.010 Employment of superintendent--Superintendent ’s qualifications, general powers, term, contract renewal. In all districts the board of directors shall elect a superintendent who shall have such qualification as the local school board alone shall determine. The superintendent shall have supervision over the several departments of the schools thereof and carry out such other powers and duties as prescribed by law. Notwithstanding the provisions of RCW28A.400.010(1), the board may contract
  • 40.
    • with such superintendent for a term not to exceed three years when deemed in the best interest of the district. The right to renew a contract of employment with any school superintendent shall rest solely with the discretion of the school board employing such school superintendent.
    • • RCW28A.400.02o Directors ’ and superintendents’ signatures filed with auditor. Every school district director and school district superintendent, on assuming the duties of his or her office,shall place his or her signature, certified to by some school district office, on file in the office of the country auditor.
  • 41.
    • RCW28A.400.30 Superintendent duties. In addition to such other duties as a district school board shall prescribe the school district superintendent shall:
      • (1) Attend all meetings of the board of directors and cause to have made a record as to the proceedings thereof.
      • (2) Keep such records and reports and in such form as the district board of directors require or in such form as required by law or rule or regulation of higher administrative agencies and turn the same over to his or her successor.
  • 42.
    • (3) Keep accurate and detailed accounts of all receipts and expenditures of school money. At each annual school meeting the superintendent must present his or her record book of board proceedings for public inspection, and shall make a statement of the financial condition of the district and such record book must always be open for pubic inspection.
    • (4) Give such notice of all annual or special elections as otherwise required by law; also give notice of the regular and special meetings of the board of directors.
    • (5) Sign all warrants ordered to be issued by the board of directors.
    • (6) Carry out all orders of the board of directors made at any regular or special board meeting.
  • 43. District Classifications
    • First Class Districts --usually any district having a student enrollment of 2000 students or more. For 2009-10 were 103 first class districts serving approximately 88.11% of public school children.
    • Largest—Seattle; Smallest—Eatonville
    • Second Class Districts --usually any district having fewer than 2000 students. For 2009-10 were 192 second class districts serving 11.89% of public school children.
    • Largest—Quillayute Valley; Smallest—Benge
  • 44.
    • High School Districts
      • 244 high school districts in 2009-10 serving
      • 1,026,469 students (99.09% of total public school enrollment)
      • Non-high School Districts
      • -- 51 non-high school districts in 2009-10 serving 9,418 students (0.91% of total public school enrollment)
  • 45. Washington Superintendents 2011-12
    • 295 School Districts (275-285 Superintendents)
      • 225 male superintendents (77%)
      • 70 female superintendents (23%)
        • National Average (24.1%)
  • 46. 2010-11 Changes for 2011-12
    • 41 New Superintendents, 1 ESD Superintendent (16% turnover)
    • 50% of openings in districts less than 1000 students; 25% in districts between 1000-5000, and 25% in districts over 5000 students
      • 25 males
      • 17 females (net gain 2 superintendents—15 retired or changed positions)
        • 27 (64%) of openings due to retirement
        • 9 successful inside candidates; 11 successful candidates were former superintendents
        • 3 interims promoted (Seattle, Sumner, Highline)
        • 3 out-of-state
        • 14 of 42 connected to WSU
  • 47. Number and Percent of Superintendent Openings for Washington, 2005-2011
    • 2005 (50 openings, 18%)
    • 2006 (37 openings, 13%)
    • 2007 (57 openings, 20%)
    • 2008 (48 openings, 17%)
    • 2009 (50 openings, 18%)
    • 2010 (42 openings, 16%)
    • 2011 (42 openings, 16%)
  • 48. Number of Openings and Average Number of Applicants by District Size, 2010
    • Less than 500 Students (12 openings/average number of applicants 12)
    • 500 – 1000 Students (10 openings/average number of applicants 16)
    • 1001 – 3000 Students (10 openings/average number of applicants 14)
    • 3001 – 5000 Students (3 openings/average number of applicants 17)
    • 5001 – 10,000 Students (4 openings/average number of applicants 16)
    • 10,000 – 20,000 Students (1 opening/average number of applicants 15)
    • Over 20,001 Students (1 opening/average number of applicants 16)
  • 49. Number and Percent of Female Superintendents in Washington by District Size, 2010
    • Less than 500 (24/37%)
    • 500 – 1000 (7/10%)
    • 1001 – 3000 (12/18%)
    • 3001 – 5000 (7/10%)
    • 5001 – 10,000 (8/12%)
    • 10,001 – 20,000 (7/10%)
    • Over 20,001 (1/3%)