TURN TO YOUR NEIGHBOR Teacher poses a problem. Students turn to someone to discuss an answer. Set a time limit for the discussion. Use this when you want a quick response. This method gives every student a chance to respond and to get used to responding. You should walk around and prompt participation so no one dominates.
THINK-PAIR-SHARE Teacher poses a problem or question Students think alone for about 30 seconds Students turn to someone to discuss the problem Time varies as needed Individuals share their thoughts with the class In the beginning, you may start with those willing to share; as they do this technique more, you will want to call on others as well, to share with class, to increase their confidence and competence with oral communication. Pairs can then get back together to discuss /compare what they learned from other pairs (optional)
ROUND ROBIN Create random or purposive groups of 3-5 students; or do this with entire class if not too large (15,perhaps) Pose a problem or question Every student within each group expresses his/her thoughts/ideas (Use Quick pacing here) Someone may record, if maintaining the information is important for later. Allow discussion to go around several times until you say “Stop.” Share and clarify with whole class Use this when you want as many ideas as possible in a short amount of time. It essentailly is brainstorming The teacher walks around to see if students are participating and that they are not being critical of each other in a negative manner The teacher can ask for whole class critique upon completion of the Round Robin
Line-Ups Create 2 student line-ups (by any criterion of choice, height, age, birthday, other) The teacher poses a question or problem. Students discuss with the person in front of them. Allow discussion to continue as long as it is productive. Share with whole class This technique allows students to move out of their seats and forces them to talk with a variety of students. You will need to make sure you have enough room to have your students form lines. Teacher should walk around to ensure equal participation.
Value Lines Use this when you want students to take a stance on an issue. The instructor reads a statement and then each student stands on one side or the other of an imaginary line. One side of the line is for those agreeing with the statement and the other side is for those disagreeing with it. Students first discuss their own beliefs with a neighbor on their own line. That pair then will discuss with a pair across the line (who believe differently). Students then share with whole class what they learned from each other. This method can be lengthy, heated and involved. It gets student out of their seats. It exposes them to others’ opinions. Teacher may need to step in if discussions appear to be disruptive. Students should be advised to discuss rather than argue. The teacher should find interesting topics that lead to good discussion and opposing opinions.
Jigsaw This technique divides work or materials so that each group member does a part. No one has everything that is needed to complete the task. Each student has a portion of the needed information. In research assignments, students might work in a research group. Each student in the group will be responsible for a single piece of the work. That student however can consult with the student from another research group who is assigned the same subtopic. After consultation, the student goes back to the “home group.” This technique builds interdependency. Group members need each other to obtain the full experience.
Sharing Limited Resources Teacher provides the group with a book, an article, an easel sheet, one or two markers or pens; never one apiece for each member of the group. Sharing engenders cooperation; it creates positive interdependence among people. This technique also demonstrates respect for budget constraints.
Question and Answer Pairs Students are given a quiz or practice quiz, review sheet, or a set of questions that serve as an anticipatory set for the lesson (prior knowledge questions, maybe). Students count off (1, 2, 1, 2…..). The ONES sit in a circle or in a line. The TWOS move around (in order) in the circle or along the line to get the answers from the ONES. The teacher calls “move” when it is time to go to the next person for an answer. Continue until all questions on the sheet have been addressed. Students should mark questions about which they still have questions/doubt. This technique allows them to get one on one help before an assessment. It allows them to meet new class members. Teacher should encourage student to re-study; especially those items where doubt still exists.
Advanced Preparation Pairs Students write a short analysis paper or opinion paper based on class reading. Students share copies with class or group (paper or electronically). Class members listen to the team member read the paper, edit and evaluate the paper. Teacher and or student will have already decided upon criteria for review. Each group can select the "outstanding" and say why it stands out in their opinion.
Face-Off Students will have already done class reading. Teacher divides class down the middle; if possible turn seats facing the other half of class. For 15 minutes, one side poses questions from the reading; the other side answers. The next 15 minutes, they switch roles. Teacher sits in the back and notes/assesses quantity and quality of participation Teacher provides feedback
References Boyer, E. (1987). College: The Undergraduate Experience in America. New York: Harper & Rowe.Green, T. (2000). The Clearing Hourse v.73 no.6 p.331-4Jensen, E. (1995). Super Teaching ISBN# 1-890460-02-8Johnson, D., Johnson, R. (1991). Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom ISBN# 0-939603-14-4Johnson, D.W. (1990). Reaching Out: Interpersonal Effectiveness and self-actualization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ; Prentice-Hall.