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- 1. Lesson Design and Planning:A Pedagogy Circle for Department of Human Performance and Sports Sciences, WSSUFebruary 6, 2009facilitated by Joanne Chesley, Ed. D., Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning<br />
- 2. The typical components of an effective lesson include: objectives, standards, anticipatory set, teaching input, modeling, checking for understanding, guided practice/monitoring, lesson closure, and independent practice.<br />Let’s talk about each of these.<br />
- 3. Objectives<br /> finite, specific intentions; the roadmaps for reaching the goals. When you write your instructional objectives, you should be sure to write them to address various domains or centers of the brain (Bloom, 1956).<br />The domains are:<br />Physical or Psychomotor Domain <br />Cognitive Domain, lower level objectives are seen in information recall,primarily<br />Cognitive Domain, higher level objectives are generally observed through problem solving <br />Affective Domain objectives<br />
- 4. Objectives should also follow the ‘S.A.M. rule’:<br /><ul><li>Specific
- 5. Attainable
- 6. Measurable</li></ul>Specific means only one objective is discussed at a time.<br />Attainable describes the parameters for achieving the objective.<br />Measurable refers to the precise evaluation method that will be applied.<br />Objectives for each lesson should be noted in the syllabus.<br />
- 7. Standards<br />These may be established by the US Department of Education, a state’s department of education, an accrediting body for your discipline or higher education in general.<br />Your lesson should state which standards are addressed by the concepts taught. <br /> Standards should be noted in the syllabus.<br />
- 8. Anticipatory Set<br />This is something you place on the board or on the desk, or it could be a text message you send to their phones, about the lesson to be presented.<br />It is to get the students thinking; to encourage their interest in the topic before the class gets started.<br />
- 9. Teaching Input<br />This is what you bring! Will it be a short lecture followed by a learning activity?...a participatory lecture which allows students a chance to demonstrate their understanding of the work or to ask their questions? <br />This is the most critical component, for it establishes what is most important in the lesson, how the learner is to work through the learning tasks, and in what ways.<br />
- 10. While this may be called Teacher Input, it is part of the students’ learning time.<br />Plan for their active involvement<br />Prepare your questions ahead of time<br />Share these w/students before class to ensure a more lively and informed discussion<br />Connect the learning with their individual prior experiences or career goals. This creates a sense of buy-in and personal interest.<br />Ask thought-provoking questions <br />What kind of activity would spark interest?<br />Perhaps you could start with a You Tube video on the subject.<br />
- 11. Modeling <br />The teacher helps the students to better see and do each new concept by demonstrating exactly what s/he expects of the students.<br />So if it is a math problem, you do one, step by step while the students watch first--- then you do one with them--- you modeling, they giving the directions. The same would apply in a computer class, chemistry class, nursing class. <br />
- 12. Checking for Understanding<br />We don’t really know when a person truly comprehends a concept or to what level-- at least not at first. We can however use a taxonomy of questions and learning activities to address the different levels of readiness. <br />Here is Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956)<br />Knowledge<br />Understanding<br />Application<br />Synthesis<br />Analysis<br />Evaluation<br />
- 13. Guided practice, monitoring, and feedback<br />This is a continuation of the modeling, only you are not demonstrating any longer. The students are working independently or collaboratively to do what you just demonstrated. <br />Perhaps it is using the concrete rules and examples you provided to write an exemplary theme sentence.<br />Your job is to walk around and observe very carefully who needs additional modeling or other help. <br />
- 14. If you are not inclined to walk around the room to monitor learners’ practice, you can:<br />Call each student up to your desk to check progress or….<br />Have each one to send you a sample assignment in email or BB assignments so that you can get an early assessment of each student’s current learning status or…..<br />Allow them to do peer support, where each team is given a set of criteria /rubric to apply to their reviews. Work can be done by blind review if this seems necessary.<br />
- 15. Not finding learners’ errors early enough only allows them to practice the errors over and over. It is then difficult and time consuming to undo this damage.<br />We want them practicing accuracy, which means we must check for accuracy early in the lesson and regularly throughout the lesson and the course.<br />
- 16. Lesson Closure<br />Though a lesson may be continued when the class returns later in the week, there still needs to be a closure for each lesson.<br />Good closure includes:<br />Recalling the objective for the lesson<br />Reminding them of what was important<br />Previewing the next lesson<br />Directing students to syllabus for assignments and deadlines<br />Not getting ‘caught by the bell’; closure is important!<br />
- 17. Independent Practice ; another term for homework.<br />Have you carefully selected homework that reinforces the lessons taught?<br />Are students getting regular and quick feedback on homework? (If not, it is really not ‘practice’ work. )<br />What is your purpose for each assignment? Is it developmental or summative in nature?<br />Do students have the opportunity to redo? Why not? Is it because you don’t want to review/grade again and again? How might these competing interests be addressed? <br />
- 18. There are 6 questions that should be answered in your written lesson plan.<br />What needs to be taught, and what do students need to know in that regard?<br />Why am I going to teach this lesson?<br />What resources do I need in order to accomplish the objective(s)?<br />How am I going to teach this lesson?<br />How will I know when the students have ‘gotten it’…. and then what?<br />What will I do with the information I gathered from assessing my students’ learning?<br />
- 19. Assessment<br />Fulfillment of each objective should be assessed according to the measures stated in the objectives. <br />What form of assessment can best deliver the information that is needed?<br />Is the assessment for the sake of continuous improvement or to demonstrate mastery?<br />How will you change your teaching to address low performance on an assessment?<br />
- 20. Summary<br />Effective lessons include objectives, standards, anticipatory set, teaching input, modeling, checking for understanding, guided practice/monitoring, lesson closure, and independent practice, informative assessment.<br />

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