A view toward more effective (student centered)

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  • 1. Traditional assessments are typically standardized assessments or teacher -made tests. Alternative assessments are generally forms that give the learner the opportunity to regulate the assessment in some way. A good example is the multiple choice test which gives a grade and an explanation why a certain answer is correct or not, vs. a rubric (alternative) which apprises the learner as s/he goes through the process, of the criterion for each grade. The latter is real world preparation for career growth, where professionals self- assess using specific criteria, which should be considered an added value in using this approach.
  • 2. Consider this: “Backward Design” is a curricular development model proposed by Wiggins and McTighe (1999) that is an alternative to coverage and activity-oriented curricular models. The model suggests working backwards in three stages, beginning with identifying deep learning goals and then identifying assessment strategies prior to creating the course curriculum. Source: Transformation Theme: Assessment Summary of Significant Findings by Elizabeth F. Barkley, http://gallery.carnegiefoundation.org/collections/castl_he/ebarkley/themes/themesmenu.h tml
  • 3. Authentic assessment is a component of performance assessment that calls for application of concepts to real life expectations. Work by Wiggins (1989) provides these basic characteristics of authentic assessment: Designed to represent performance in the field The criteria for meeting the course objectives are given greater attention during the teaching and learning process than the criteria applied to the traditional assessment approach.
  • 4. Students’ self assessment is a critical difference in the two approaches. Students are expected to present and defend their work to demonstrate mastery. Formats for project based and authentic learning opportunities include CDs and DVDs, audio tapes, debates, constructed models (for design classes, science classes, other), articles contributed to the school or local paper, oral, visual or virtual presentation to a group, investigations and science projects, and artistic renderings.
  • 5. What disciplines are very likely to use this kind of assessment? Let’s make some associations of selected methods with selected disciplines or courses, as a means for comprehending these concepts. Do you believe that students will feel comfortable being evaluated in this way? Why /Why not?
  • 6. Portfolio Assessment The early roots of today’s portfolios can be traced to the mid-1980s, with the work of Peter Elbow and Pat Belanoff (1986). They served as administrators in a writing program and were dissatisfied with the scoring. They shifted emphasis to the process, rather than simply the product. Purdue University, Miami University of Ohio, and the University of Michigan were some of the first universities to apply this model of assessment, using process and or product type portfolios.
  • 7. To demonstrate the growth of the learner, over a period of time, you are best using a process oriented portfolio. This could be the many iterations of a paper or a project, that show development and growth. Product oriented portfolios focus on the best work of the student in a particular unit or discipline or concept.
  • 8. Types of Portfolios 1) Product Portfolio Used to document or provide evidence of completion Used to demonstrate competence or mastery (showcase portfolios) 2) Process Portfolio Used to illustrate steps in a process Used to share experiences
  • 9. Product Portfolios • Documentation • Showcase
  • 10. Since about 1992, students have been able to do portfolios using the internet. These are referred to as electronic portfolios, webfolios or digital portfolios. The work may be posted to a website, a course management system such as Blackboard, or The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) 2000 requires universities to utilize assessment systems that are aligned with program, institutional, state, and national standards. Portfolios provide clear evidences of student growth as it relates to a given standard or set of indicators. These are learner-centered products.
  • 11. Another kind of assessment is that which must be conducted on the university as a whole, or a department or program. For this we use Assessment Management Systems such as Task Stream, Weave, and Folio Live, which are designed around the standards for each state. These tools allow the organization to collect and aggregate data in an effort to see where they are in their address of leadership or teaching goals. These are teacher- centered products.
  • 12. E-portfolios can be highly provocative and can further knowledge by rallying people around a set of personal experiences that are shared for others’ interests. (Greenberg 2004). Universities including Penn State, Minnesota State and Elon University (right here in our area), who are affiliated with the Carnegie Foundation have developed great portfolio practices. Students are given passwords and can give permission to selected persons for viewing their work.
  • 13. Planning for effective use of portfolios as assessment tools Source: Paul S. George, (1995). What Is Portfolio Assessment Really and How Can I Use It in My Classroom? Gainesville, FL: Teacher Education Resources. What observable behaviors or learning experiences might provide evidence of learning and meeting identified goals? How will I ensure that students understand the portfolio expectation, the process, and the expected content and quality? Will I use rubrics, rules, scoring keys, and/or checklists to guide the process? How might I integrate oral communication skills and virtual learning into the portfolio assessment process?
  • 14. Portfolio assessment is a multi-faceted process characterized by the following recurrent qualities: It is continuous and ongoing, providing both formative (i.e., ongoing) and summative (i.e., culminating) opportunities for monitoring students' progress toward achieving essential outcomes. It is multidimensional, i.e., reflecting a wide variety of artifacts and processes reflecting various aspects of students' learning process(es).
  • 15. It provides for collaborative reflection, including ways for students to reflect about their own thinking processes and metacognitions as they monitor their own comprehension, reflect upon their approaches to problem-solving and decision-making, and observe their emerging understanding of subjects and skills. They clearly reflect stated learner outcomes identified in the core or essential curriculum that students are expected to study.
  • 16. They focus upon students' performance-based learning experiences as well as their acquisition of key knowledge, skills, and attitudes. They contain samples of work that stretch over an entire marking period, rather than single points in time. They contain works that represent a variety of different assessment tools. They contain a variety of work samples and evaluations of that work by the student, peers, and teachers, possible even parents' reactions.
  • 17. Do you like the portfolio method for student assessment? Discuss. Which type would work well for you? Discuss. Which would be best for students? Discuss. What do you believe to be the advantages of these alternative methods of assessment? What are the disadvantages? Source: Paul S. George, (1995). What Is Portfolio Assessment Really and How Can I Use It in My Classroom? Gainesville, FL: Teacher Education Resources.
  • 18. Do you like the portfolio method for student assessment? Discuss. Which type would work well for you? Discuss. Which would be best for students? Discuss. What do you believe to be the advantages of these alternative methods of assessment? What are the disadvantages?
  • 19. References Elbow, P., and P. Belanoff. 1986. Portfolios as a substitute for proficiency examination. College Composition and Communication 37: 336–39. Greenberg, G. 2004. The digital convergence: Extending the portfolio model. Educause Review 39 (4): 28. George, P. (1995). What Is Portfolio Assessment Really and How Can I Use It in My Classroom? Gainesville, FL: Teacher Education Resources. Stewart, S., Choate, J., & Poteet, J. (1995) The revolution in assessment within and across educational settings. Preventing School Failure, 39,3(20-24. http://www.pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/portfolio2.html, Prince George’s County Schools, Department of Staff Development, in collaboration with the Division of Instruction.