Search engine results 2010


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Search engine results 2010

  1. 1. Search Engine Results: 2010What search engines may look like in the future, including personalization,universal search, eye tracking and interviews with leading industry experts By: Gord Hotchkiss Tracy Sherman Rick Tobin Cory Bates Krista Brown 2007 08 16
  2. 2. What do the next three years hold for the About Enquiro Researchworld of search? Will the search results enquiroresearch.compage in 2010 looks similar to what we use One of North America’s leading search marketing firms, Enquiro provides online mar-today? keting and research solutions to a client base which includes several Fortune 500 com- panies. Its strategies are based on its own industry research and expertise in usability,We interviewed some of the industrys top and natural and sponsored search. Enquiro has also authored eye tracking studiesanalysts and thought leaders to find out. which have given marketers a greater understanding of user interaction with the majorAnd Enquiro conducted eye tracking on search engines and defined “Google’s Golden Triangle.”some of these possible future scenarios tosee how users would interact. About Gord Hotchkiss Gord has been active in the marketing and advertising industry for over 20 years and has led Enquiro to be one of North America’s fastest growing tech companies. Also the board chairperson for the Search Engine Marketing Professionals Organization (SEMPO), he is recognized as an industry thought leader who is frequently called upon as a speaker, writer and analyst. EMAIL For questions or to request a quote: MAIL 1628 Dickson Ave., Suite 300 Kelowna, BC, Canada V1Y 9X1 PHONE Toll Free: 1.800.277.9997 Phone: 1.250.861.5252 Fax: 1.250.861.5235 2 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  3. 3. Contents Introduction………………………………………….....4 Methodology…………………………………………....6 The Interviewees.……………………………..….....…8 The Interviews…………………………………..…….10 The Eye Tracking Study……………………...……..28 Chunking……………………………………...……….30 Fencing…………………………………………...…….34 Google: 2010?...................................................44 Time Spent on Page by Section - Buyers………....50 Time Spent on Page by Section - Buyers………....51 Implications for Marketers….….……………………54 Acknowledgements…………………………………...60 The Team………………………………………………..61 3Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  4. 4. Introduction What does the next three years hold for the world results page have to change in order to be noticed on a richer results page? of search? Will the search results page in 2010Search: 2010 looks similar to the search results page we’re see- ing today? At Enquiro, we have long been saying that the in- troduction of things like personalization and uni-Strategies and tactics used by marketers We seem to be at a important juncture in the his- versal search results will dramatically impact the entire world of search marketing. The rules willwill have to evolve quickly and dramati- tory of search engines. To this point, most of the innovation that’s been happening with the search change significantly and the strategies and tacticscally in order to keep pace with its rate of used by marketers will have to evolve quickly and engine has been happening in the back end, im-change being seen from the engines proving and tweaking the algorithms. But in the dramatically in order to keep pace with the rate ofthemselves. past six months we’ve seen the beginning of what change being seen from the engines themselves. It promises to be significant changes in the actual seemed logical to us that now would be an oppor- search interface. Google’s unveiling of personal- tune time to take the pulse of the search user ex- ization and universal search together with Ask’s perience and try to see a few years into the future unveiling of 3D Search both seem to indicate that how changes may impact both the user experience the pace of change in interface design is picking and effective strategies to intercept those users. up. Why is this important? The search results So we launched an initiative to interview a select pages have remained a fairly static landscape for group of experts. First we talked to the usability the entire history of search. There has been little people at each of the major engines, Marissa Mayer “It seemed logical to us at Google, Larry Cornett at Yahoo, Justin Osmer at change in the text oriented linear presentation of that now would be an search results. The paradigm of 10 blue organic Microsoft and Michael Ferguson at Ask. Then we opportune time to take link and a handful of sponsored results has be- reached out to top industry analysts and thought the pulse of the search come fairly established amongst all the major play- leaders and chatted with each of them. This group included Danny Sullivan, Jakob Nielsen, Chris user experience and try ers. And this common presentation of results has Sherman and Greg Sterling. With each, we asked to see a few years into largely dictated what the scanning pattern of those results would be. This scanning pattern has been one simple question: what will the search results the future how changes detailed in two eye tracking results conducted by page look like in 2010? Of course, implied within may impact both the Enquiro. But all that could change in the very near this question is what will our search experience be user experience and ef- future as search engines become bolder in intro- like in 2010? And that’s perhaps the bigger ques- tion. What screen will it be happening on? Withfective strategies to intercept those users.” ducing innovation into the search results page in- what intent will we be using it? terface. For example, how will increased relevancy impact This white paper not only brings together the vari- our interaction with search results? As personaliza- ous opinions from each of these industry influen- tion starts to provide the opportunity to determine cers and attempts to draw out some consistent relevancy not just by comparing it to a keyword but themes, it actually goes two steps further. We also comparing it to the intent of the user, will this took all the input we received from these experts result in a significantly different level of interaction and aggregated them into a picture of what the with the search results page? And with the intro- search results page might look like in 2010. Then duction of more types of results on the default we conducted an internal eye tracking test here at page, will we be engaged with these results in a Enquiro to see what impact things like a dramati- different manner? Will the mixing of text based cally new interface, a richer presentation of adver- website results and image-based video results tising messages, a greater degree of relevancy change how we navigate our way through those based on access to personal information and an results? Will advertising presented on the search aggregation of different types of results on the 4 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  5. 5. same page might have on the average user. We crepancy in the degree of optimism about howconducted a series of eye tracking tests on differ- much the search experience will change in threeent types of search results pages, including a typi- years. Jakob Nielsen was probably our most prag-cal results page with universal results (as they’re matic respondent, indicating he doesn’t expect anycurrently being implemented on Google), personal- significant changes in the three-year framework.ized results as they may look in the next 12 Nevertheless he did speculate on three areas wheremonths, Ask’s 3D Search, and finally, our view of we could see innovation. Contrast this with predic-what the search results page might look like in tions of rich Ajax functionality, mash ups and2010 based on the input we received from all our multi-touch displays.experts. We’ve included the results from these eyetracking tests in this report. What we’ll do within this white paper is take all the input we received from the interviews and group “There is, without a doubt, great passionFinally, we share our thoughts about what useful them into a number of common themes. For any- about the future of search and we stronglystrategies might be for search marketers in the one interested in reading the full transcripts of the believe that the next three years will rep-future. How do you successfully position yourself interviews, these are posted on Gord Hotchkiss’sto take advantage of the innovations being intro- Out of my Gord blog. resent the most exciting era yet in theduced by the search engines? How do you ensure short history of web search.”that your message will be seen on a much richer, The eye tracking studiesmuch more functional search results page? Of course, given our research bent and our pastWe believe you’ll find the insights presented fasci- history with eye tracking, one couldn’t expect us tonating. It was a question that all our respondents speculate on what a search results page might lookwarmed up to and showed great enthusiasm for. like in 2010 without wondering how a user mightThere is, without a doubt, great passion about the navigate that same page. What we wanted to dofuture of search and we strongly believe that the was create some comparisons of what interactionsnext three years will represent the most exciting may look like given some of the innovation that’sera yet in the short history of web search. creeping onto the page. We set up an internal test- ing framework that created four different versionsSearch Engine Results: 2010 of similar sets of search results. First of all, we recorded interactions with the results pages to rep-The choice of 2010 as the target date for our resent the current user experience on Google. Wespeculation was more a matter of looking for a nice gave our participants scenarios that would result inround number than any deliberate thought, but as the presentation of universal search turned out, the setting of the three-year horizonproved to be an interesting one. It was just far Then, we presented scenarios and (based on pastenough ahead that it was difficult to extrapolate history and comments from participants) createdbased on current work being done at the engines, personalized results in a slightly more aggressiveyet it wasn’t far enough out to allow for total blue presentation than that currently seen on brainstorming. Almost without exception allour interviewees made comment about how chal- Finally, we took all the input from all our interviewslenging they found the three-year framework to and asked our designer, Cory Bates, to put to-predict within. It forced us to balance practicality gether a sample of what a search results pagewith bold predictions. might look like in 2010. We presented the results to our participants and recorded interactions usingDespite this, there was an amazing amount of dis- our eye tracking system. 5Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  6. 6. Methodology Methodology • Preferred search engine is Google, and, Objectives • Informed consent given by each individual to track their web history over a period of a three The overall objective of the study is to compare individual eye tracking sessions. universal search against personalized search using Google’s Search Engine. Specifically the questions Universal Search we want to answer are the following: Each person was given three tasks to research an • Does personalization have an effect on the iPhone, Harry Potter and the Spice Girls. These time spent on a SERP? tasks were chosen because of the presence of uni- versal Google results (video, blogs, news, images, • The hypothesis is that personalized search re- etc.). sults will increase time spent on a SERP due to the increased relevancy in the results. Task Scenarios • What is the search behavior on a multi-paned You have been hearing a lot about Apples new site, versus Google? iPhone recently and would like to know if its some- thing you should invest in. Use the following set of • Does the scan pattern vary depending on the results to learn more about it. user’s commercial or non-commercial intent for 2010 SERP? What is the user interaction? The new Harry Potter movie, "The Order of the Phoenix" is due to come out in the next few weeks and you have a 10 year old nephew that would like Rationale for Study Design nothing more than to watch it with you. Use the following set of results to decide if he is old In order to investigate the above objectives we enough to watch it. chose to focus on Google Search Engine Result Pages (SERP). This engine was chosen so that com- This just in! The Spice Girls have decided to re- parisons can be made to previous baseline eye unite for a worldwide tour later this year. This tracking results. This involved a series of related news has "train wreck" written all over it and you eye tracking tasks to test engagement of users cant wait to get a ticket. Use the following set of with universal, personalized, and a futur- results to learn more about their upcoming tour. istic rendition of what a 2010 SERP may look like. Limitations of the study included users giving con- Personalization sent to track their web history. Each person was logged into a single secured Google Account to track web history on a Google Eye Tracking Methodology Details search for iPhones. The URLs for all the pages they viewed were analyzed and selected based on a few Panel recruitment: factors: time spent on different online media (news, customer reviews, local results, blogs, and • 16 people between the ages of 24 and 55, sponsored sites such as the Apple Store) and the purchase phase of their search.6 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  7. 7. Google SERP pages were then mocked up for eachperson depending on where they finished off theirlast search. The positions that were personalizedwere Top Sponsored #2 (stayed consistent for eachperson – “iPhone in Canada”) and Organic results 3,4 and 5.Each person was presented their personalizedsearch results page and we tracked eye movementand engagement with the personalized and non-personalized content on the page.Task ScenariosAssume you are interested in learning more aboutthe iPhone and so, have performed a search foriPhone on Google. Interact with the following pagelayout and click on the item that you would click-through on.Assume you are interested in purchasing the iPhoneand so, have performed a search for iPhone onGoogle. Interact with the following page layout andclick on the item that you would click-through on.ASKSimilarly, to measure fixations and time spent on amulti-paned search engine, each person was askedto search for Harry Potter on users were asked to review the 2010 SERP andwere presented one of two mock-ups that was de-pendant on whether they were in the research orpurchase phase of the buying process. 7Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  8. 8. The Interviewees Jakob Nielsen Larry Cornett Jakob Nielsen, Ph.D., is Larry Cornett is Vice “If I ever had to build a a User Advocate and President of Search Ex- search engine, or more principal of the Nielsen perience at Yahoo! Before precisely, the interface Norman Group which he that, he led the eBay team co-founded with Dr. focused on Tailored Shop- of a search engine, this Donald A. Norman ping Experiences, Plat- would be the team I (former VP of research form, and International would want to bring at Apple Computer). sites. He Apple’s designer together.” Until 1998 he was a Sun for the Finder in Mac OS Microsystems Distin- 8, 9, and OS X and guished Engineer. worked at IBM working on database and develop- ment software. He was a principal consultant at an Dr. Nielsen founded the "discount usability engi- interaction design agency he founded, working on neering" movement for fast and cheap improve- desktop, web, and mobile solutions. He received ments of user interfaces and has invented several his Ph.D. in HCI Psychology from Rice University usability methods, including heuristic evaluation. and holds multiple patents for his work on web- He holds 79 United States patents, mainly on ways based products and hardware solutions. of making the Internet easier to use. Marissa Mayer Greg Sterling Marissa leads the prod- Greg Sterling is the found- uct management efforts ing principal of Sterling on Googles search prod- Market Intelligence, a con- ucts She joined Google sulting and research firm in 1999 as Googles first focused on the Internets female engineer. Several impact on local consumer patents have been filed and advertisers behavior. on her work in artificial He also is a Senior Analyst intelligence and inter- for Local Mobile Search, an face design. advisory service from Opus Research. Prior to joining Google, Marissa worked at the UBS research lab (Ubilab) in Zurich, Switzerland and at Before Sterling Market Intelligence, Sterling ran The SRI International in Menlo Park, California. Kelsey Groups Interactive Local Media program. Prior to The Kelsey Group, Sterling was at TechTV Graduating with honors, Marissa received her B.S. where he helped produce "Working the Web," a na- in Symbolic Systems and her M.S. in Computer Sci- tional television show dedicated to e-business and ence from Stanford University. For both degrees, the Internet. Before TechTV he was a founding edi- she specialized in artificial intelligence. tor and executive producer at Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  9. 9. Michael Ferguson Chris Sherman Michael Ferguson is Sen- Chris Sherman is Execu- ior User Experience Ana- tive Editor of SearchEn- lyst for Look- and Presi- ing at motivations, be- dent of Searchwise LLC, a havior, and experience Boulder Colorado based through culture, technol- Web consulting firm. He ogy, and psychology, he is the author of a number informs product develop- of books on search en- ment with user context gines and programming,Photo by Scott Beale / Laughing Squid and design strategy. including “Google Power: Before joining Ask, Mi- Unleash the Full Power of Google” and “The Invisi-chael ran an interactive design agency with clients ble Web: Uncovering Information Sources Searchthat included Oracle and Stanfords Graduate Engines Can’t See” (with Gary Price). Chris holds aSchool of Business, as well as independent film masters degree in Interactive Educational Technol-makers and film festivals. Michael holds a B.A. in ogy from Stanford University and a bachelors de-British and American Literature from New College gree in Visual Arts and Communications from theof Florida. University of California, San Diego. Danny Sullivan Justin Osmer Widely considered a Sr. Product Manager, Live leading "search engine Search, Microsoft Corp.. guru," Danny Sullivan Justin’s career started in has helped many under- the early 1990’s as a stand how search en- communications profes- gines work for over a sional and he first worked decade. Danny has been in Search in the late 90’s quoted in The Wall St. on the “client side” manu- Journal, USA Today, The ally submitting URL’s to Los Angeles Times, Yahoo!, AltaVista, and Forbes, The New Yorker Excite. Since that time heand Newsweek and ABCs Nightline. Danny began has been in multiple marketing communicationscovering search engines in late 1995 with "A Web- and product management roles across multiplemasters Guide To Search Engines," later expanding industries and is currently in his fourth year at Mi-the guide into Search Engine Watch, serving as edi- crosoft. As Sr. Product Manager on Search Justintor-in-chief through November 2006. Now he heads works with the Live Search engineering and devel-up Search Engine Land as editor-in-chief, taking it opment team as well as the marketing team to de-into the next generation of search coverage. Danny velop and introduce the Microsoft Web Search ex-is also Third Door Medias chief content officer. perience to millions worldwide. 9Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  10. 10. Search: 2010 If I ever had to build a search engine, or more pre- to the page. We have some sponsored ads on top, ten blue organic links and generally some spon- cisely, the interface of a search engine, this would sored ads on the left side. It’s a very linear formatThe Interviews be the team I would want to bring together. When I came up with the idea of looking forward three that runs from top to bottom and is almost always years and speculating on what the search results composed exclusively of text. And although this page may look like in 2010, these are the names format has refined itself over the past decade, that immediately came to mind: there haven’t been any significant changes to the look. Will that continue to be true in the next three Jakob Nielsen, the Web’s best-known usability years? guru Marissa Mayer: I think it will be, hopefully, a lay- Marissa Mayer, Google’s VP of Search User out that’s a little bit less linear and text based, Experience and interface design even than our search results today and ultimately use what I call the ‘sea of whiteness’ more in the Michael Ferguson, one of the architects of middle of the page, and lays out in a more infor- “It’s a huge dominant user be- Ask’s unique user experience mation dense way all the information from videos havior to scan a linear list and Larry Cornett, the VP of user experience at to audio reels to text, and so on and so forth. So if so this attempt to put other Yahoo you imagine the results page, instead of being long and linear, and having ten results on the page that things on the side, to tamper Justin Osmer, product manager for Microsoft you can scroll through to having ten very heteroge- with the true layout, the true lie search neous results, where we show each of those resultsdesign of the page, to move from it being in a form that really suits their medium, and in a Chris Sherman, executive editor of Searchen- more condensed format. When you started seeingjust a list, it’s going to be difficult” gineland and always thoughtful industry ob- some diagrams, some video, some news, some server charts, you might actually have a page that looks Greg Sterling, another industry analyst who and feels more like an interactive encyclopedia. To always has interesting insights, particularly in keep hounding on the analogy of the front page of to the local and mobile world the New York Times. It’s not like the New York Times…I mean they have basically the same layout Danny Sullivan, the Go to Guy of search each time, but it’s not like they have a column that only has this kind of content, and if it doesn’t fill This would be the dream team for designing the the column, too bad. They have a basic format new search interface. So it was with a great deal of that they change as it suits the information. anticipation that I threw the same question in front of all of them : What will the search results page Jakob Nielsen: There could be small changes, look like in 2010? Here, aggregated and con- there could be big changes. I don’t think big densed, are their answers. Ive broken them into changes. The small changes are, potentially, a themes that consistently came out in these inter- change from the one dimensional linear layout to views. more of a two dimensional layout with different types of information, presented in different parts The look of the search results page of the page so you could have more of a newspaper metaphor in terms of the layout. I’m not sure if The search results page has defined itself into an that’s going to happen. It’s a huge dominant user accepted standard. With the exception of Ask3D, behavior to scan a linear list and so this attempt to all the other major players have a very similar look put other things on the side, to tamper with the 10 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  11. 11. true layout, the true design of the page, to move ies; we recently launched travel and, most recentlyfrom it being just a list, it’s going to be difficult, music, so music artists. And essentially thatsbut I think it’s a possibility. There’s a lot of things, bringing a lot of very useful information from dif-types of information that the search engines are ferent sources together in one place. And so userscrunching on, and one approach is to unify them dont have to click and go one place to see theall into one list based on it’s best guess as to rele- trailer, click and go to another place to see infor-vance or importance or whatever, and that is what mation about the movie and ratings, click to yetI think is most likely to happen. But it could also be another place to get show times for their local city.that they decide to split it up, and say, well, out Its actually all brought to the user in one compacthere to the right we’ll put shopping results, and out module so its all that information that they wouldhere to the left we’ll put news results, and down find useful in one place. I cant speak to whathere at the bottom we’ll put pictures, and so forth, Google is up to but they obviously must realize thatand I think that’s a possibility. a home page with nothing but a search box isnt quite serving everything that people want. AndLarry Cornett:The search experience is becoming a they launched iGoogle, obviously, for that reason.lot more interactive, its a lot more of a dynamic “The search experience is be-experience and we’re all experimenting with bring- So let’s venture one step further. What if this coming a lot more interactive,ing back a lot of richer content. And rich meta search portal, iGoogle, let’s us enter a query and it its a lot more of a dynamic ex-data, structured data, much more than we ever builds a page for us which appears as a new tab,were doing before. Its going beyond the simple complete with a mix of results, based on the en- perience and we’re all experi-text title and abstract and URL, right. gine’s understanding of where we’re at and what menting with bringing back a lot our intent is. I put that to Justin Osmer (without the of richer content. ” iGoogle part):Does search become our own personal portalpage? Justin Osmer: Yes, I can see that very easily. And we’ve just scratched the surface on that withAs search engines get to know us better, do they You can set up a personalized page onbecome our home page for everything? Do search and pull in search results. You can set itengines get smart enough to bring together all the up so that it queries news results for you everyday.information we need about any topic, at our re- You get fresh news results on a query that you al-quest, and organize it into a rich portal like page ways search on, you can bring in all sorts of RSSthat gives us a jumping off point into a number of feeds from literally the whole web, so you’re con-different types of content. It used to be that stantly getting updates of feeds very easily and yousearch was a “get on, get off” task but increasingly, can subscribe to an interest area of search and getsearch is becoming a stickier experience. Google, that populated for yourself. That absolutely is aprobably the clearest example of the “tool based” scenario that makes a lot of sense.approach to search, has recently acknowledged theimportance of personalized homepages with theintroduction of iGoogle, moving them much closer Search as a social experienceto a Yahoo type model. Personalization has somewhat pushed social searchLarry Cornett: I think one place that you’ve seen to the back burner as a promise for the future. Butus doing a bit of that is with what we call our WOW increasingly, the social nature of the web is con-experiences. And so we launched a few of the mov- verging with search in more and more cases. Willies, its like a direct display; its a really rich direct the next three years see a furthering of this conver-display on the search page. Weve launched mov- gence and the blending of Web communities and 11Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  12. 12. search functionality? Larry Cornett: And thats having more of a human Smarter search engines influence and obviously more of a human presence in the search experience. Youll see that quite a bit Another major theme was not so much what search with the way that StumbleUpon has been working, engines would look like but how they would get the things that weve done with image search with smarter in the background. Driving this would be a tighter integration of Flickr images and really factors like personalization and tweaking of algo- showing the attribution that those photographs rithms. coming from real people within the network. Larry’s comment made me think of a future where Personalization we may stay within our favorite online communities more and look for search functionality to be Talk of personalization has pretty much dominated brought into that environment. And in that environ- the search engine space for the last two or three “I dont really see any kind of ment, will search become more of a discovery tool months. Our panel seems somewhat split on the dramatic breakthrough on the then a navigational tool? Will search leverage the promise of personalization to significantly move benefits of the community to help make sugges- the needle on relevance in the next three years. horizon...And its not because tions in less task focused situations? people aren’t trying, its because Chris Sherman: I dont really see any kind of dra- of those inherent ambiguities in Larry Cornett: You talk about Facebook, you talk matic breakthrough on the horizon. I think as longlanguage.” about some of these other examples where people as we’re limited to the current search form factor, may have a fuzzier information need or a different if you will, where we’re encouraged to do the juke- type of desire for information. In many cases, im- box approach, where we punch in a few keywords, age search for example, people use it for entertain- pull the lever and hope to get the jackpot. Lan- ment and so theyre using it to pass the time or guage is so inherently ambiguous that as good as theyre just curious. And in those cases, its not the search engine gets, as good as they are at ob- like they have really specific targeted goals in mind serving our behavior and our habits of reading and or very specific queries in mind even, but theyre so on, being limited to those very, very short que- pretty open to being given information, so youll ries, thats really the governor on the whole thing. see that with Facebook, a lot of that is you coming Until search engines can find a way to let us in and just understanding whats going on within search, for example, by submitting a page of con- your network and that activity. And so youre tent and analyzing the full text of that page and learning about things that you may not have even then tying that in conjunction with our past behav- formed a query about. Your friends telling you ior, thats just one approach, theres a whole vari- about a new website that you wouldnt even know ety of ways we can go about doing it, but I just to ask about on a search engine. You discover it dont see any thing major. And its not because because he tells you about it. StumbleUpon is very people aren’t trying, its because of those inherent similar in that you want to see what people con- ambiguities in language. sider to be quality content and you dont know ex- actly what youre looking for, but you just press the Danny Sullivan: I think personalized search is go- stumble button and see what are people thinking is ing to continue to get strong. I do think that interesting right now. So this is definitely, I think, Google is on to something with their personalized a lot of convergence in some of these areas. search results. I don’t think that they’re going to cause you to be in an Amazon situation where 12 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  13. 13. you’re continuing to be recommended stuff you’re ingful longer interested in. I think that people are mis-understanding how sophisticated it can be. Larry Cornett: I think we’re just barely on the tip of the iceberg with how useful it could be. I thinkJakob Nielsen: All this stuff, all this talk about per- traditional approaches to personalization have re-sonalization, is incredibly hard to do. Partly be- quired a lot of work on the part of the user and Icause it’s not just personalization, based on a user think, just given my experience over the past yearsmodel, which is hard enough already. You have to in various places, at different companies and work-guess that this person prefers this style of content ing for software and the Web, people dont like toand so on. But furthermore, you have to guess as spend a lot of time configuring their what this person’s “in this minute” interest is So anytime you try to take an easier approach andand that is almost impossible to do. I’m not too say I’ll let the user customize experience or person-optimistic on the ability to do that. In many ways I alize it, itll work for a small number of users thatthink the web provides self personalization, you care to invest but the large majority dont want toknow, self service personalization. I show you my have spend a lot of time doing that. So I think thenavigational scheme of things you can do on my key to personalization is actually finding a way to “My point of view is that there issite and you pick the one you want today, and the do that in a way that requires very low investment a PR and political challengejob of the web designer is to, first of all, design from the user and it has a lot of return. And so it’s around privacy and the so calledchoices that adequately meet common user needs, finding that balance of trying to get that just rightand secondly, simply explain these choices so peo- so that the user gets a lot more value than they creep factor that people feelple can make the right ones for them. And that’s have to put energy into it. when they think that the enginewhat most sites do very poorly. Both of those two is studying them and monitoring their be-steps are done very poorly on most corporate web- I then asked Larry if 3 years was too short a time havior and that record somehow makessites. But when it’s done well, that leads to people for personalization to make a significant differ- them vulnerable or makes them uncom-being able to click–click and they have what they ence:want, because they know what they want, and its fortable. ”very difficult for the computer to guess what they Larry Cornett: You know, in the past I mightvewant in this minute. said yes but I think theres an increasing pace of change that’s occurred within this industry. And IGreg Sterling: I think there are some technical is- think that three years is not too long, within thesues like, what does it mean, and what does that next three years I think well definitely have a lotlook like. You and I doing the same queries over a more answers and I think theres so many peopleperiod of time, what would our results look like? Is that are springing up in this space, playing aroundthere a real benefit there for us? We could probably with all these startup experiences for search thatargue in some cases yes, I would point to the local the velocity definitely increase. I think thats wellas an example. I think there is a political challenge, see something soon.right? My point of view is that there is a PR andpolitical challenge around privacy and the so called Justin Osmer brought up a variation on personal-creep factor that people feel when they think that ization with mode based search, where enginesthe engine is studying them and monitoring their become smarter at unraveling the intent of thebehavior and that record somehow makes them user:vulnerable or makes them uncomfortable. But I dothink it is a potentially significant advance in cer- Justin: An area that we’re focusing on over here attain contexts, if it really goes to disambiguation. Live search is thinking more about the mode inYes, I think in certain cases it does make a mean- which people are in when they’re using search. 13Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  14. 14. Are they exploring, just kind of poking around, or truly researching something? Are they looking to purchase something? Are they in there simply for entertainment refreshment sake? So they just need five minutes to goof off and poke around and look Is Google holding a number of personalization up vacations or something. Then being able to cards up their sleeve? present the results in a way that give you that full spectrum of experience, so that the modes of con- So obviously, the opinions on the effectiveness of sumption will dictate how much you get in line, so personalization are mixed. But I can’t help won- the verticals in essence will become obsolete. The dering if Google is holding a significant portion of same rich content that you might get in a vertical the effectiveness of their personalization algorithm experience may be brought inline or brought onto in reserve, pending further testing on the beta the results page in a way that shows you, wow, the dataset they’re currently collecting. I posed this search engine really does have more here, in a possibility to Chris Sherman. unique way. Chris: I suspect that theres probably quite a bit Osmer said this “mode identification” could be ac- more that theyre not showing but I dont know that complished in a few ways, including personaliza- it’s necessarily that theyre being secretive. I think tion: theres caution that changing things too much might alienate the searcher with the search results. Justin: I think we’re getting close to a tipping point I think if they got things that they are able to do, on personalization where people are going to figure we’ll start to see them gradually, in a testing fash- out that, “Wow, I can get a lot more out of my ion, where a few users will be exposed to it and search experience if I tell the search engine more over time, yes, theyll be rolled out. But honestly, I about me.” And so it may require some one-time dont know, thats just speculation on my part. But setup time charge to you, to go in and say you like with the number of people that are working on this this or you don’t like this, or you want this or you stuff, they probably have tons of stuff that theyre don’t want this, or simply just clicking a box that not showing us. says “Yes, I okay the search engine to track my queries, or look at my clickstream and give me Search driven by Query Trends more relevant information or I want to participate in a beta product that allows me to tell the search Danny Sullivan brought up the fact that search en- engine what I’m looking for so it can learn more gines, with their access to query volumes and about me or people like me. trends, should be able to alter the results for ex- traordinary circumstances: The other way would be by using the query itself as a determiner: Danny: I think they’re going to get a lot more intel- ligent at giving you more from a particular data- Justin: We know what the super popular queries base when they know you’re doing a specific a kind are on a day-to-day basis and usually they fall into of search. It’s not necessarily an interface change, a category and so if we know the “Paris Hilton”, but then again it is. This is the thing I talked about that’s an area where you’re probably in an enter- when the London Car Bombing attempt happened, tainment mode and so we would try and offer up a and I’m searching for “London Bombings”. When user experience of search results page that would you see a spike in certain words you ought to know be more tuned that way that there’s a reason behind that spike. It’s going14 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  15. 15. to be news driven probably, so why are you giving through application or operating system integra-me 10 search results, why don’t you give me 10 tion. Not surprisingly, this was brought up bynews results? Justin Osmer from Microsoft, who has long been promising this integration. Chris Sherman alsoWill usefulness become part of a search algo- brought it up as another signal to disambiguaterithm? intent:A tantalizing tidbit of prediction was touched on by Justin: From a Microsoft perspective, also beinga few different people, notably Jakob Nielsen and able (when you’re in Office) to search while you’reMarissa Mayer. As we begin interacting with our writing a Word document; to just do a right-clicksearch results and websites, will the notion of use- and boom, you’re searching on the term you justfulness be factored into future search algorithms? highlighted. And you’re able to set up a searchJakob Nielsen brought up the possibility. default to whatever engine you want. Some of that technology is there today but we’re going to beJakob: I think we can see a change maybe being a doing more and more that I think.more of a usefulness relevance ranking. I thinkthere is a tendency now for a lot of not very useful Chris: Until search engines can find a way let usresults to be dredged up that happen to be very search by submitting a page of content and analyz-popular, like Wikipedia and various blogs. They’re ing the full text of that page and then tying that innot going to be very useful or substantial to people conjunction with our past behavior, thats just onewho are trying to solve problems. So I think that approach.with counting links and all of that, there may be achange and we may go into a more behavioral The semantic search engine?judgment as to which sites actually solve people’sproblems, and they will tend to be more highly When will Web 2.0 come to search? To this point,ranked. search is still a fairly rudimentary experience, com- pared to the innovation seen through the rest ofAnd then, without prompting, Marissa Mayer indi- the web. The text based presentation and the typi-cated this may be in Google’s thinking in the future cal blue hyperlinks look more like the web of 1996as well. She talked about people marking up than the web of 2007. Will that change in the nextsearch results and webpages and interacting with three years? Well, it actually has already started tothem in a way that indicated that they found them change. The experience presented on Ask3Duseful and valuable. Search rolls in much more functionality than we’ve typically seen on a search results page. And thisMarissa: I think the presentation is going to be seems to be acting as a catalyst for all the searchlargely based on our perceived notion of relevance, engines to look at rolling in more functionality.which of course leverages the user, in the ways Ajax and other richer programming environmentsthey interact with the page, and looks at what they will make the user experience more intuitive anddo and that helps inform us as to what we should Marissa: We will be able to have much more richContextual Search interaction with the search results pages, there might be layers of search results pages: take myAnother area of innovation is launching a search results and show them on a map, take my resultsfrom within the context of a task or an application and show them to me on a timeline. It’s basically 15Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  16. 16. the ability to interact in a really fast way, and take topic for that decade”. They just help you visualize the results you have and see them in a new light. the nut of information across all the results in these fundamentally different ways that ‘sort’ kind of gets at. But it’s really allowing that richer pres- entation and that overview of results on the meta But it’s not just search engine results pages that level that helps you see it. Marissa sees a higher level of interaction with. She sees a deeper or more interactive experience with Danny Sullivan also touched on the same theme: all web pages by being able to annotate and markup pages for future reference. Danny: I think the most dramatic change in how we present search results, really has come off of Marissa: I think that people will be annotating local. And people go “wow, these maps are really search results pages and web pages a lot. They’re cool!” Well of course they’re really cool, they’re pre- going to be rating them, they’re going to be review- senting information on a map which makes sense ing them. They’re going to be marking them up, when we’re talking about local information. You saying “I want to come back to this one later”. So want things displayed in that kind of manner. It we have some remedial forms of this in terms of doesn’t make sense to take all web search results Notebook now, but I imagine that we’re going to and put them on a map. You could do it, but it make notes right on the pages later. People are doesn’t communicate additional information for going to be able to say I want to add a note here; I you that’s probably irrelevant and that needs to be want to Google something there, and you’ll be able presented in a visual manner. If you think about to do that. the other kinds of search that you tend to do, Blog search for instance, it may be that there’s going to Marissa Mayer also talks about the ability to sort be a more chronological display, much like what we results based on different dimensions, such as lo- saw them do with news archive where they would cation and time. do a search and they would tell you this happened within these years at this time. Right now when I Marissa: What I’m sort of imagining is that in the do a Google blog search, by default it shows me first basic search, you’re presented with a really ‘most relevant’. But sometimes I want to know rich general overview page, that interweaves all what the most recent thing is, and what’s the most these different mediums, and on that page you recent thing that’s also the most relevant thing have a few basic controls, so you could say, look, right? So perhaps when I do a Google blog search, I what really matters to me is the time dimension, or can see something running down the left hand side what really matters to me is the location dimen- that says “last hour” and within the last hour you sion. So you want to see it on a timeline, do you show me the most relevant things in the last hour, want to see it on a map? It’s a richer experience. the last 4 hours, and then the last day. And you What’s nice about timeline and date (as we’re cur- could present it that way, almost sort of a timeline rently experimenting with them on Google Experi- metaphor, I’m sure there are probably things you mental) is not only do they allow you to sort differ- could do with shading and other stuff to go along ently, they allow you to visualize your results dif- with that. ferently. So if you see your results on a map, you can see the loci, so you can see this location is im- …if you really want to talk about search interfaces, portant to this query, and that location is really what will be really fun to envision is what happens important to that query. And when you look at it when Ajax starts coming along and doing other in time line you can see, “wow, this is a really hot things. Can I start putting the sponsored search16 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  17. 17. results where they are hovering above other re- think well see search results actually changed dy-sults? Is there another issue that comes with that? namically in real time as we apply those variousThere may be some confusion as to why I was get- tools.ting this and I was getting that, can I pop up a mapas I hover over a result? I could deliver you a stan-dard set of search results and I can also deliveryou local results on top of a particular type of pic- Danny Sullivan feels it depends on the task.ture. If I move my mouse along it I could show youa preview of what you get in local and you might Danny: If you’re just doing a general search, Igo “Oh wow, there’s a whole map there” and jump don’t think that putting a whole lot of functionalityoff in that direction. That would be quite useful to is going to help you, you could put a lot of optionssee that stuff come off of there. But right now I there and historically we haven’t seen people usejust don’t see anything coming out of it. What we those things, and I think that’s because they justtypically have had when people have played with want to do their searches. They want you to justthe interface is, these really weird things like, ‘well naturally get the right kind of information that’swe’ll fly you though the results, or we’ll group there and a lot of the time they give you that directthem’. None of which is really something that answer. You don’t need to do a lot of manipula-you’d need added to the choices, do I want to go “I think what they might do is tion. It’s a different thing I think when you get intovertical, do I not want to go vertical? a lot of vertical, very task orientated kinds of start to expose some of those searches, where you’re saying, ‘I don’t just need algorithms and some of thoseMore of a hands-on experience with greater the quick answer, I don’t just need to browse and knobs and dials to let us dial-functionality exposed to users see all the things that are out there, but actually up or dial-out with certain per- I’m trying to drill down on this subject in a particu-The nature of our interaction with the search re- lar way’. Local tends to be a great example. ‘Now sonalization features and fine-tune theirsults page is fairly static. We look and we click. you’ve given me all the results that match the zip search results using controls that areAny attempt to incorporate more functionality on code, but really I would like to narrow it down into more similar to what youd find on Photo-the results page, in the form of filtering options, a neighborhood, so how can I do that?’ Or a shop- shop where weve got sliders and dolls orhas been met, on the most part, with apathy from ping search. ‘I have a lot of results but now I want various graphic displays.”users. Even the advanced search functionality to buy something, so now I need to know who has itthat’s been around for over a decade is used by a in inventory? Now I really need to know who has itvery small percentage of users. Are we ready as cheapest? And I need to know who’s the mostusers to get our hands on the buttons and dials trusted merchant?’ Then I think the searcher isthat could fine-tune our search? Will search be- going to be willing to do more work on the searchcome more of an interactive experience? and make use of more of the options that you give to them.Chris Sherman saw us getting our hands on thebuttons and levers that power personalization: Jakob Nielsen believes it’s a possibility, but one he’s not too optimistic about:Chris: I think what they might do is start to exposesome of those algorithms and some of those knobs Jakob: The third one is to add more tools to theand dials to let us dial-up or dial-out with certain search interface to provide query reformulationpersonalization features and fine-tune their search and query refinement options. I’m also very skepti-results using controls that are more similar to cal about this, because this has been tried a lot ofwhat youd find on Photoshop where weve got slid- times and it has always failed. If you go back anders and dolls or various graphic displays. And I look at old screen shots of all of the different 17Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  18. 18. search engines that have been out there over the stuff and I think that in the light of keyword query last 15 years or so, there have been a lot of at- string lengths, which has stagnated I think, I don’t tempts to do things like this. People are basically know where the high point of the bell curve is…it’s lazy, and this makes sense. The basic information like two or three words. Norvig talks about getting foraging theory, which is, I think, the one theory people to interact more with the search engine so that basically explains why the web is the way it is, the result can be better right and he’s saying…he’s says that people want to expend minimal effort to sort of admitting with his implied conversation gain their benefits. And this is an evolutionary about speech recognition or speech input that you point that has come about because the creatures can’t really get people to formulate these coherent who don’t exert themselves are the ones most likely questions or longer query strings and you have to to survive when there are bad times or a crisis of find alternative strategies so some mix of active some kind. So people are inherently lazy and don’t solicitation or tools that make it fun or interesting want to exert themselves. Picking from a set of and then passive personalization or other strategies choices is one of the least effortful interaction styles to get people a better result. which is why this point and click interaction in gen- “I think this will be true in eral seems to work very well. Whereas, tweaking Stratification of user functionality 2010, the text results are still sliders or operating pull-down menus and all that stuff, is just more work. So, if the search engine is going to ask more of us a very important visual part as users, in return for giving us greater control over of the page. They do not nec- Michael Ferguson: It’s our job to go out of our way defining our search experience, will we run into the essarily look as sexy as some to make something as quickly navigable and easy to same problem we currently have with advanced video or some audio but that use as possible without [users] having to make any search? Will those features only appeal to a smallis the core of the experience and that’s effort or set preferences, etc. We are always fo- percentage of users who are comfortable rolling up cused on what is the fastest flow for people to get to their sleeves and interacting with the engine? Andwhy we still have those in the prominent the core of what they are trying to get to out of the will this mean that well have two versions ofplacing that we do. So my sense is you’re search results, so as far as bringing more steps search, one for power users and one for the rest ofnot going to be able to ask the users to do onto the page …it has to be done with respect to the us?work, their footsteps will walk to the ex- users intent and goals and really cannot competeperience that is most delightful and easy with that. I think this will be true in 2010, the text Chris Sherman: I dont think so. I think most people results are still a very important visual part of the live with the results that they get. Right now, todayfor them to use. page. They do not necessarily look as sexy as some we have advanced search and nobody uses it. video or some audio but that is the core of the ex- There are a lot of tools are really allow power users perience and that’s why we still have those in the to get in and do a lot of fine-tuning of their queries prominent placing that we do. So my sense is and Id say less than 1%, actually take advantage of you’re not going to be able to ask the users to do that functionality. So I think as we evolve and those work, their footsteps will walk to the experience tools do surface, youre still have the vast majority that is most delightful and easy for them to use. of people happy with the result that they get but its still going to be that 1% of people that are currently Greg Sterling: You will get more participation if it’s using advanced search that will take advantage of easy, if it’s fun, if it’s effective and makes the ex- the surfacing of those capabilities. But, that said, if perience better. If I do travel research and I can they make it easy enough so its more like doing quickly capture and copy and save hotels, destina- something like playing around with Photoshop or tions or whatever and manipulate and come back to some of the other graphics editors and its intui- those, that kind of thing is valuable. But you make tively obvious then we might see people gradually a fair point about putting a burden on users to do start gravitating towards that and taking advan- 18 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  19. 19. tage of those tools.Justin Osmer: There will always be the one-size-fits-all option, just based on pure market dynamicsand the size of it, the head and the tail of the Web Will search go mobile in three years?and all those other factors. To tackle the head andto get most of the queries that everybody, Joe aver- Nobody disputes the potential of mobile search.age person, is looking for you’ll need to have a sim- The question seems to be whether search willplified version or potentially, what’s available now, move to the mobile platform in a meaningful wayas a search experience, what people have come to in the next three years. Interestingly, there wereexpect. And I think we all, in the industry, agree more than a few references to the iPhone as thethat 0where we are today is great but it’s been a current standard in mobile computing.little stale for awhile and being able to level that upa bit and make some major inroads in improve- Chris Sherman: I dont think were going to see aments there, is something that we’re definitely on wholesale migration, I think its going to be verythe verge of doing. And it may start as some sort similar to what we have in other types of devices.of opt in option or maybe it’s just the separate We started with radio, with the box, and everyonewebsite or a separate engine that’s doing that. Or sat around in the living room and then when themaybe, at some point, it becomes just a toggle be- car was invented we suddenly had mobile radio.tween two different ones, so it brings up Its really the same thing, its just being used inand you get to pick what engine you want, the tur- different places, depending on where were going. Ibocharged version or do you want a slimmed down think theres ultimately going to be a hard-core ofversion? The challenge has always been when users, much like Blackberry users are today, thatyou’re talking about the early adopters and the will shift their focus from the desktop to the mobilereal technical elite and the heavy searchers, a lot device but just inherently in the size of most mobileof those folks would love to use that but, in the devices theres a lot of restrictions. Even thegrand scheme of things, it’s a pretty small portion iPhone is, as good as webpage rendering is on that,of the population. its still tiny. And I think a lot of people just arent going to be comfortable using that interface as aGreg Sterling: I would point to the iGoogle home primary way that they access the and classic Google as validation of that point.I think that the Yahoo homepage becoming person- Larry Cornett: I think weve already had somealized but I think that Google in particular has bi- pretty decent success that you’ve seen, with ourfurcated its search experience. They claim iGoogle, OneSearch experience on the phone. I think thatwhich is a version of personalization because you whats nice about where that’s going is that itsset up all the feeds and widgets and gadgets and actually thinking about how do I structure this in-so on. It’s the fastest growing product they’ve got formation so that its easy to interact with and con-there. Now the real numbers are going to be minis- sume on a small screen device. I have an iPhonecule compared to classic Google so I think you are and even with the iPhone, with a much largerright that there is some kind of segmentation that screen, its a great experience but you still dontmay emerge where you have a class of power users want a full webpage. Its not that fun to play withthat take full advantage of a bunch of tools and and try to zoom around and scroll. So when youyou have those who use the defaults and don’t do look at these experiences that are tailored for amuch in the way of interacting with the engines mobile service, its a much different kind of experi- ence and you really have to take into consideration 19Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  20. 20. the smaller footprint and the display surface. And within three years, but I would imagine in 10 years what is the most critical information to be given to from now, there will probably be more searches on the user for that time and probably most critical is a mobile or a phone device then there would be to realize and to be very serious about the fact, from a PC or laptop. Because just given how, espe- this person for a phone and theres a reason cially worldwide, mobile is taking shape and more theyre doing on a phone. Theyre not sitting in and more people are becoming reliant on them, I their office in front of a laptop and deciding to con- think it’s absolutely going to transform itself here sume this experience on the phone just for the heck in the next few years. of it. Theyre most likely out and about and what are the needs of someone is using a phone? This Danny Sullivan feels that search just won’t go mo- goes back to the intent, when you know somebodys bile, it will become ubiquitous. It will start appear- accessing your service through a mobile device, ing in several devices, including those that come taking that into consideration when you’re thinking along with us: about intent and what you should be bringing back for those searches…(for example)… using GPS so Danny: I think that the next big trend is that, ironi- that its trying to help you with that, so under- cally from what I just said to you, search is going standing where you are and bringing that context to start jumping into devices. And everything is to a local search is hugely beneficial. going to have a search box. But it will be appropri- ate. My iPod itself will have a search capability Justin Osmer: And mobile is just going to get big- within it. And the iPhone, to some degree, maybe it ger, including voice-enabled search, so you’ll be will that look at how it’s happening already. But I’ll able to just talk into the phone, “Starbucks coffee” be able to search, access, and get information ap- and it will know what corner you’re making that propriate to that device within it. query from and will give you results in a radius around you to get to that information…In my mind Advertising on the SERP: 2010 I think of the comparison to broadband. It seems like just within the last three to five years broad- It took a long time to get advertising on search band is really taken off so that’s enabled a whole results page right. And then, when the engines lot of great web applications and websites and finally did get it right it turned out that a simple companies to really ramp-up their online capabili- text ad was the best. But that was within the con- ties and customers are able to get a very immer- text of a linear, text based presentation of results. sive, exciting experience because of that. I think Does that change significantly when our results you’re going to see a similar ramp-up with mobile suddenly include images and videos in the linear carriers, not only with the networks themselves as format may break up into more of a portal-based they upgrade and update, but also with the de- format? vices. I think there’s still a ways to go with the de- vices and they’re only getting better. The iPhone is Chris Sherman: I think it just creates more oppor- a great example. I was playing with that at the tunities for advertising. Its got to be really inter- Apple store this weekend. I just bumped into a guy esting to watch how that evolves because we here at the cafeteria who had one. I think the de- started with actually a richer form of advertising, vices themselves and being able to navigate arguably, with banner ads and people learned to through the web and being able to pull up informa- become blind to them. It was only once we got real tion in a super intuitive, quick and easy way is ab- simple basic text ads that that form of advertising solutely going to start to take off and I think there really took off. So I think what were going to see will be a point, and this probably won’t happen this experimentation and a lot of creativity around20 Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252
  21. 21. the different formats. you see, and I don’t know if this will be in three years, where you see small little banner ads orMarissa Mayer: I think that there will be different other things that are off to the side that start totypes of advertising on the search results page. As replace the text links, just so they can continue toyou know, my theory is always that the ad should carry some weight on the page. Because I wouldmatch the search results. So if you have text re- imagine if you get to the point where you eversults, you have text ads, and if you have image really great search experience but the ads are hardresults, you have image ads. So as the page be- to see, the advertisers aren’t going to be verycomes richer, the ads also need to become richer, happy with youjust so that they look alive and match the page.That said, trust is a fundamental premise of Danny Sullivan: I guess the concern might be if thesearch. Search is a learning activity. You think of natural results are getting better and better whyGoogle and Ask and these other search engines as would someone want to click on the ads anyway?teachers. As an end user the only reason learning Maybe people will reassess the paid results andand teaching works, the only way it works, is when some people will come through and say that paidyou trust your teacher. You know you’re getting search results are a form of search data base asthe best information because it’s the best informa- well. So we’re going to call them classifieds ortion, not because they have an agenda to mislead we’re going to call them ads, we’re going to moveyou or to make more money or to push you some- them right into the linear display. You knowwhere because of their own agenda. So while I do there’ll be issues, because at least in the US, youthink the ads will look different, they will look dif- have the FCC guidelines that say that you shouldferent in format, or they may look different in really keep them segregated. So if you don’t high-placement, I think our commitment to calling out light them or blend them in some way, you mightvery strongly where we have a monetary incentive run into some regulatory problems. But thenand we may be biased will remain. Our one prom- again, maybe those rules might start to change asise on our search results page, and that will stand, the search innovation starts to change, and go withis that we clearly mark the ads. It’s very important it from us that the users know what the ads are becauseit’s the disclosure of that bias, that ultimately Michael Ferguson: It puts increased relevancebuilds the trust which is paramount to search them pressure on the advertising because, however that advertising is expressed, and it might not just beJustin Osmer: For us, it’s going to be about mak- text ads in the future as far as optimization or buy-ing sure that people understand that the majority ing, it puts relevance pressure on the advertisingof the page, if you look at the page real estate, at because they are increasingly being presented in aleast 75% of that will be the organic, and making more varied experience with competing routes forsure that’s clear to people. For the sponsored links, users to take. I think that is good for end usersI think that those are going to evolve in time as and good for advertisers and I think that searchwell. It’s certainly been proven out of the market- marketers are going to become much more, to myplace that there’s a lot of money to be made there mind, in demand and sophisticated quickly becauseand a lot of companies have become reliant on the this is going to drive the need to coordinate a cam-text linked ads. As the search page becomes more paign across how you might present somethingrobust and, potentially, more populated with with video, how you might present something withgraphics or a more rich experience, I think that the audio and images to fulfill the advertising opportu-ads will maybe need to raise up and match that in nities that are going to come with these more richsome respects. So that there may be a time where pages. Another thing that we are seeing is more 21Enquiro Research phone.250.861.5252