1. STUDENTS’ SUSTAINABILITY SUMMIT – 2008 UNIVERSITY OF REGINA, REGINA - CANADA 11 TH -16 TH MAY 200 The Ecological City Plan; Integrated Concepts For Infrastructure Upgrading In Slum Settlements, The Case For Kibera, Kenya BY: Arch. ALALA N. WILLIS
2. Intro; <ul><li>The growth of slums in the developing world is a huge impediment to developing accessible infrastructure networks for urban populations. </li></ul><ul><li>In this paper, I will attempt to explore the concept of slum networking as a possible sustainable approach to solving the problems of inaccessibility and quality in slum infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>I will also underlie its Replicability in city scale settlements. </li></ul>
3. <ul><li>Slum networking is a concept that links slums and existing natural topographical paths with the flow of infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, topography management, earth regarding and constructive landscaping can be used when laying out water pipes, sewer lines, roads and storm water drains. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural watercourses are transformed into nuclei for positive infrastructural channels. The premise is that natural drainage paths are the most efficient routes for gravity based drainage systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept integrates basic services like water supply, underground sewerage, storm water drainage, roads and solid waste management. </li></ul><ul><li>It thus exploits nature’s own gradient routes to integrate topography with infrastructural systems </li></ul>Slum Networking Defn;
4. Case Study; Indore city - India <ul><li>The Indian government implemented a slum-networking project by building sewer, storm drainage, and fresh water services to follow the natural courses of Indore’s two rivers </li></ul><ul><li>The slum regularization and upgrading exercise was part of a larger upgrading plan for the entire city in places where topographical advantages could be harnessesed. </li></ul><ul><li>Through long-term land leases from the government, slum dwellers were able to pay for and build their own private toilets and washrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>The rivers, once filled with untreated sewage and solid waste are now clean, the streets paved and storm water drains improved. </li></ul><ul><li>The slum regularization and upgrading exercise was part of a larger upgrading plan for the entire city in places where topographical advantages could be harnessed. </li></ul>
9. Kibera slums, Nairobi - Kenya
10. The Environmental Outlook <ul><li>Expansion into areas not suitable for urban development as steep slopes, wetlands, drainage ways, valleys, biodiversity pots. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sustainable infrastructural routes and access paths </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological pollution and indiscriminate resource taps. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for space, urban sprawl and the need to settle the urban poor leads to growth of informal settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of commercial and industrial spaces due to economic growth extending to peri-urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological deficits, </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of topography </li></ul><ul><li>Disease spread </li></ul><ul><li>Floods, </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in biodiversity, </li></ul><ul><li>Water and soil pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of agricultural land </li></ul>
11. An Overview; Kibera is the largest informal settlement in Nairobi and covers approximately 225 hectares and lies along a railway line. It has an estimated population of 500,000 with a density of 2000 per hectare. With 95% of the residents as tenants, the slum lacks a functioning infrastructure network Water supply; Only 11.7% of household have connections to piped water Sanitation, Drainage and Refuse Collection 95% lack adequate infrastructure facilities. Underground sewerage is totally absent. Transport, Access and Energy supply. Kibera lacks designed roads. There are informal footpaths and most earthen roads are too narrow or are blocked by garbage. Land Use Impacts. Land Use governance and design is totally absent. Community facilities for example lack in these slums.
13. This unplanned nature makes it unmanageable, unsustainable and inequitable owing to environmental and solid waste components that include inadequate garbage collection and treatment systems. <ul><li>Lessons from Indore </li></ul><ul><li>There is a strong relationship between natural topography of settlements and infrastructure layouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering basic infrastructure thro8ugh partnerships between people, public and the private sector is the fastest mover of development in dense slums. </li></ul><ul><li>Water and sanitation services should be designed for individual access. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of all stakeholders including residents is crucial in the provision of basic services </li></ul>
14. Kibera Informal Settlement Existing Conditions, proposed railway lines, link and housing units highlighted The Slum Networking Proposal
15. Major infrastructural systems: Railway line, proposed Southern Bypass and link Road, Ngong River and Nairobi Dam
16. Major natural Drainage systems
17. Figure Ground comparison of Kibera housing clusters, immediate environs and Infrastructural systems
18. Identify key infrastructural system and create plots that can be sold and the income used to improve the infrastructural systems within the slum. Drainage channels to be cleared as well.
19. Introduce green corridors, drainage systems and transportation networks
20. Final Build-out consists of 3-4 storey commercial and residential properties creating a boundary around traditional Kibera housing clusters
21. The Sector Study Approach.
22. Figure ground of existing conditions: The Ngong River restricted the growth of the informal settlement to the south. The Settlement turns it back to the River using it as a dumping ground for solid waste and sewer for gray water
23. <ul><li>Phase 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the edge, creating plots for sale fronting the River and other infrastructural systems like road. </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account natural drainage systems as highlighted </li></ul>
24. <ul><li>Redirect the River were necessary preparing spaces for linear parks </li></ul><ul><li>Begin cleansing of Nairobi Dam. </li></ul>
25. Introduce major transportation network, as far as possible following the existing systems.
26. <ul><li>Define the Linear River park, set to include, retention ponds for storm water cleansing, </li></ul><ul><li>Footpath system, community facilities such as playing fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Create green natural drainage networks </li></ul>
27. Final Build-out; Expected 3-4 Storey Commercial and residential properties, creating an edge for the housing clusters within the settlements
28. <ul><li>Merits of Slum Networking. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrianised internal accesses are quiete and environmentally sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Slum networking has minimal maintenance costs and keeps the slums mixed income fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Access tracks provide paths for infrastructural networks while plot infiltration ensures reduced water pools arising from stagnation – malaria, hygiene, waterborne disease , hazards etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Demerits, </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulated greywater in soakpits can lead to soil pollution in the long term. </li></ul><ul><li>Management of shared water connection may prove difficult while open storm drains may invite garbage throwing. </li></ul><ul><li>Without adequate institutional frameworks, ecological issues may go beyond slum governance. </li></ul>Replicability and sustainability; The project concept can be used effectively from community scale to the city level scale in places with shared topographical, geological and demographical features.