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STUDENTS’ SUSTAINABILITY SUMMIT – 2008 UNIVERSITY OF REGINA, REGINA - CANADA 11 TH -16 TH MAY 200 The Ecological City Plan; Integrated Concepts For Infrastructure Upgrading In Slum Settlements, The Case For Kibera, Kenya BY: Arch. ALALA N. WILLIS
The Indian government implemented a slum-networking project by building sewer, storm drainage, and fresh water services to follow the natural courses of Indore’s two rivers
The slum regularization and upgrading exercise was part of a larger upgrading plan for the entire city in places where topographical advantages could be harnessesed.
Through long-term land leases from the government, slum dwellers were able to pay for and build their own private toilets and washrooms.
The rivers, once filled with untreated sewage and solid waste are now clean, the streets paved and storm water drains improved.
The slum regularization and upgrading exercise was part of a larger upgrading plan for the entire city in places where topographical advantages could be harnessed.
Kibera slums, Nairobi - Kenya
The Environmental Outlook
Expansion into areas not suitable for urban development as steep slopes, wetlands, drainage ways, valleys, biodiversity pots.
Loss of sustainable infrastructural routes and access paths
Ecological pollution and indiscriminate resource taps.
Competition for space, urban sprawl and the need to settle the urban poor leads to growth of informal settlements.
Expansion of commercial and industrial spaces due to economic growth extending to peri-urban areas.
Loss of topography
Decrease in biodiversity,
Water and soil pollution
Loss of agricultural land
An Overview; Kibera is the largest informal settlement in Nairobi and covers approximately 225 hectares and lies along a railway line. It has an estimated population of 500,000 with a density of 2000 per hectare. With 95% of the residents as tenants, the slum lacks a functioning infrastructure network Water supply; Only 11.7% of household have connections to piped water Sanitation, Drainage and Refuse Collection 95% lack adequate infrastructure facilities. Underground sewerage is totally absent. Transport, Access and Energy supply. Kibera lacks designed roads. There are informal footpaths and most earthen roads are too narrow or are blocked by garbage. Land Use Impacts. Land Use governance and design is totally absent. Community facilities for example lack in these slums.
This unplanned nature makes it unmanageable, unsustainable and inequitable owing to environmental and solid waste components that include inadequate garbage collection and treatment systems.
Lessons from Indore
There is a strong relationship between natural topography of settlements and infrastructure layouts.
Delivering basic infrastructure thro8ugh partnerships between people, public and the private sector is the fastest mover of development in dense slums.
Water and sanitation services should be designed for individual access.
Participation of all stakeholders including residents is crucial in the provision of basic services
Kibera Informal Settlement Existing Conditions, proposed railway lines, link and housing units highlighted The Slum Networking Proposal
Major infrastructural systems: Railway line, proposed Southern Bypass and link Road, Ngong River and Nairobi Dam
Major natural Drainage systems
Figure Ground comparison of Kibera housing clusters, immediate environs and Infrastructural systems
Identify key infrastructural system and create plots that can be sold and the income used to improve the infrastructural systems within the slum. Drainage channels to be cleared as well.
Introduce green corridors, drainage systems and transportation networks
Final Build-out consists of 3-4 storey commercial and residential properties creating a boundary around traditional Kibera housing clusters
The Sector Study Approach.
Figure ground of existing conditions: The Ngong River restricted the growth of the informal settlement to the south. The Settlement turns it back to the River using it as a dumping ground for solid waste and sewer for gray water
Define the edge, creating plots for sale fronting the River and other infrastructural systems like road.
Take into account natural drainage systems as highlighted
Redirect the River were necessary preparing spaces for linear parks
Begin cleansing of Nairobi Dam.
Introduce major transportation network, as far as possible following the existing systems.
Define the Linear River park, set to include, retention ponds for storm water cleansing,
Footpath system, community facilities such as playing fields.
Create green natural drainage networks
Final Build-out; Expected 3-4 Storey Commercial and residential properties, creating an edge for the housing clusters within the settlements
Merits of Slum Networking.
Pedestrianised internal accesses are quiete and environmentally sustainable.
Slum networking has minimal maintenance costs and keeps the slums mixed income fabric.
Access tracks provide paths for infrastructural networks while plot infiltration ensures reduced water pools arising from stagnation – malaria, hygiene, waterborne disease , hazards etc.
Accumulated greywater in soakpits can lead to soil pollution in the long term.
Management of shared water connection may prove difficult while open storm drains may invite garbage throwing.
Without adequate institutional frameworks, ecological issues may go beyond slum governance.
Replicability and sustainability; The project concept can be used effectively from community scale to the city level scale in places with shared topographical, geological and demographical features.