Trees Mind and Economy

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Presentation given by Dr. Kathleen Wolf, 10.21.09

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Trees Mind and Economy

  1. 1. Trees, Mind, & Economy Enriching Our Citizens Dr. Kathleen Wolf Research Social Scientist University of Washington College of the Environment October 2009 CURRENT RESEARCH HUMAN HEALTH & WELL-BEING SOILS MATERIALS VEGETATION HYDROLOGY © 2009 Sustainable Sites Initiative 1
  2. 2. !  US Forest Service, Univ of Washington Social Science Contributions Human Capital and Economics !  stock of skills and knowledge embodied in a person’s ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value !  direct - education and training !  indirect – professional development, computer training, medical care plan, life skills workshop, day care, & urban greening! 2
  3. 3. city trees as indirect benefit for human capital Basis of U.S. Economy? built capital – 20th century human capital – 21st century 3
  4. 4. Richard Florida the Creative Class City Trees & Nature = human capital investment = economic value for enterprise, business & community 4
  5. 5. City Green & public health mental health healing therapy research evidence! Americans travel 2.3 billion miles per day on urban freeways & highways 5
  6. 6. Parsons, R., Tassinary, L., G., Ulrich, R. S., Hebl, M. R., and M. Grossman-Alexander. 1998. Journal of Environmental Psychology! Roadside Landscape & Traffic Stress Response "  Roadside Features - Driving Simulations "  Forest, golf course, strip mall "  Physiological Response "  E.g. heart beat, blood pressure "  Results "  Nature scenes - return to baseline faster, less response to new stressors "  Immunization effect Kaplan, R. 1993. Landscape 
 and Urban Planning.! Workplace Nature Views "  Well-being! "  desk workers without view of nature reported 23% more ailments in prior 6 months ! "  Job Satisfaction! "  less frustrated and more patient! "  higher overall job satisfaction and enthusiasm! 6
  7. 7. Lohr et al. 1996. J. of Environmental Horticulture! Plants in Workplace "  Productivity! "  12% quicker reaction on computer tasks! "  reports of being more attentive ! "  Less Stress! "  lower systolic blood pressure! directed attention fatigue 7
  8. 8. mental restoration reflection Japan: compact cities 8
  9. 9. Namba Parks, Osaka view from nearby hotel 9
  10. 10. interior retail space ground level small plazas, retail entry 10
  11. 11. passive nature experiences Namba Parks: retail success & nature experience benefits 11
  12. 12. Trees Mean Business! • Research Questions • trees and visual quality? trees and consumer behavior? trees and product pricing? sponsors: US Forest Service, Natl Urban & Community Forestry Council Image Categories (sorted by ratings) Pocket Parks! mean 3.72! (highest) Scale : 1=not at all, 5=like very much, 26 images Full Canopy! mean 3.63 12
  13. 13. Enclosed
 Sidewalk
 3.32 Intermittent! Trees! 2.78 No Trees
 mean 1.65! (lowest)! (high - 3.72) 13
  14. 14. 1. Place Perceptions! • Place Character! • Interaction with Merchants! • Quality of Products 2. Patronage Behavior! • travel time, travel distance! • duration & frequency of visits! • willingness to pay for parking! Place Marketing
 Relationship 3. Product Pricing! Marketing! • higher willingness to pay for all 
 types of goods! • higher in districts with trees – 9-12%! Physical Inactivity & Obesity 14
  15. 15. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1985 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1986 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 15
  16. 16. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1987 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1988 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 16
  17. 17. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1989 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1990 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 17
  18. 18. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1991 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1992 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 18
  19. 19. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1993 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1994 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 19
  20. 20. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1995 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1996 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 20
  21. 21. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1997 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% !20% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1998 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% !20% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 21
  22. 22. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 1999 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% !20% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 2000 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% !20% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 22
  23. 23. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 2001 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% !25% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 2002 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% !25% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 23
  24. 24. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 2003 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% !25% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 2004 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% !25% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 24
  25. 25. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults 2005 (*BMI !30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Doubling of adult obesity rate since 1980. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% !30% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 25
  26. 26. parks, open spaces & trails need access & facilities 26
  27. 27. make room for pedestrians + walk to school, Naderi et al. 2008, ITE Jrnl Nature, Human Health & Walkable Neighborhoods !  Environments: Neighborhood Streets (Tokyo) !  tree – lined streets !  nearby parks !  vs. barren streetscapes !  Outcomes: Elderly People & Walking !  less illness !  lower mortality rate Takano, Nakamura, Watanabe. 2002. 
 Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health# 27
  28. 28. walkable places = health & happiness Beauty & more . . . trees must be a part of our cities! 28
  29. 29. Trees, Mind, Citizens . . . Economic Vitality !  Ecosystem services (e.g. air & water) !  People are the U.S.’s greatest asset !  Also nurture social & human capital !  City trees & natural resources are essential! !  People think, learn, work well & are healthy? = economic vitality! - not distant places Nearby - in our yards - on our streets Nature invest in human habitat source: UrbanPhoto# 29
  30. 30. www.naturewithin.info 30

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